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VOL. IV, No. 4 

JUNE, 1906 





Mi's. H. E. Garrett 
605 Black Street 
Thomson, Georgia 30824 




121 WEST 42D- STREET ^^^ YORK 

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1 am familiar with the merits 
of Ridpath's History of the 
World, and commend it to 
the scholar as well as to the 
plain people generally, 

Wm. ncKinley. 



I esteem Flidpath s History 
of the World ol very great 
value, and hope it will find a 
place generally in the libraries 
if our schools, as well as upon 
the shelves of readers in every 
walk of life. 

Jefferson Davis. 

Places in Our Hands the Remainder of Their Greatest Publication 

Ridpath's History of the World 

9 Massive Royal Octavo Volumes, 4,000 double-column pages, 2,000 superb illustrations 
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At LESS than even DAMAGED SETS, were ever sold 

We will name our pnce only in direct letters to those sending us the Coupon below. Teat off the Coupon' 
write name and address plainly, and mail to us now before you forget it. 

Dr. Ridpath is dead, tiis work is done, but his family derive an income from the History, and to print onr price 
broadcast, for the sake of raoie quickly selling these few sets, would cause great injury to future sales. 







VOL.1. VOL.Ill. VOL. IV 








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THE KINGS. "^^O'-UJ^"" ,„,„„'„ EASTERN EUROPE ,^0 DAWN Of 
NEW WORLD f^fo^^^ffiU "NITEOSTATES „woramericA» ,„£ ,.„.-;.-.^. 

REPo^io« S.OH. "^'*^^""^«™-^."'•^"^^ 

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Ridpath takes you back to the dawn of history, long be- 
fore the Pyramids of Egypt were built; down through the 
romantic, troubled times of Chaldea"s grandeur and As- 
syria's magnificence; of Babylonia's wealth and luxury; of 
Greek and Romeui splendor; of Mohammedan culture and 
refinement; of French elegance and British power; to the 
rise of the Western world, including the complete history 
of the United States and all other nations down to the 
close of the Russia-Japan war. 

He throws the mantle of personality over the old heroes 
of history. Alexander is there, — patriot, warrior, states- 
man, diplomat, — crowning the glory of Grecian history. 
Xerxes from his mountain platform sees Themistocles, with 
three hundred and fifty Greek ships, smash his Persian 
fleet of over a thousand sail and help to mold the 
language in which this paragraph is written. Rome 
perches Ner o upon the greatest throne on earth, and so 
sets up a poor madman's name to stand for 

1 countless centuries as the synonym of savage 
cruelty. Napoleon fights Waterloo again under 
your very eyes, and reels before the iron fact 
that at last the end of his gilded dream has come. 
Bismarck is there, — gruff, overbearing, a giant 
^"""ntM""" pugilist in the diplomatic ring, — laughing with 


grim disdain at France, which says: "You shall not.' 
Washington is there," foursquare to all the winds," grave, 
thoughtful, proof against the wiles of British strategy and 
the poisoned darts of false friends; clear-seeing over the 
heads of his fellow-countrymen, and on into another 
century, the most colossal world-figure of his time, 

He covers every race, every nation, every 
time, and holds you spellbound by his wonder 
ful eloquence. Nothing more interesting, ab- 
sorbing, and inspiring was ever written by man 

Ridpatfi should be in your home. It 
is a Work that you will value as long 
as you live and read over and over 


Americans own 
and love R.idpath.^ 



To-day^^ ^^F^Name. 







304 Dearborn St. 
Please mail, without cost to me, 
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ticulars, T. W., 6-o6. 


0( Vital lmportao(e to Patriotic (itizens 

National Documents 

a collection of notable state papers chronologically arranged to form a 
documentarv history of this country. It opens with the first Virginia 
Charter of 1606 and closes with the Panama Canal Act of 1904, and 
comprises all the important diplomatic treaties, official proclama- 
tions and legislative acts in American history. 

Settle AH Disputes Intelligently 

You can trace from the original sources the development of 
this country as an independent power. Never before have these 
sources been brought together for your benefit. The volume 
contains 504 pages and a complete index enabling the 
reader to turn readily to any subject in which 
he may be interested. Bound in an artistic green 
crash cloth, stamped in gold. Printed in a plain, 
readable type on an opaque featherweight paper. 

As a Special Offer to the readers 

of Watson's Magazine, we will send 

this book postpaid and the Magazine 

for one year for $1.80 Your order 

and remittance should be sent 

direct to TOM WATSON'S 

MAGAZINE, .•■^ 121 






THOM/IS E. WATSON . . . Editor 
JOHN DURHAM WATSON Associate Editor 
RICHARD DUFFY . . Managing Editor 

ARTHUR S. HOFFMAN . Assistant Editor 
C. Q. DE FRANCE . Circulation Manager 
TED FLAACKE . . Advertising Manager 

June, 1906 


Portrait of Andrew Jackson 

Thomas E. Watson 481-502 

The Life and Times of Andrew Jackson^ A Good Bargain — 
Teasing a Single-Taxer — National Banks and the '^^ Educated 
Clientage" — The Tobacco Trust— Ed'torial Comment 

The Compelling Call 

Falling Leaves 

The Death-Way 

The Knight of Gentle Folly 

The Abuse of the Homestead Law 

The Shadow of the Law 

Mrs. Bonticue and Another Landlord 

Phases of the Liquor Question . 

The Girl at Splayfoot Thompson's 

The Toad, According to Bobby Jonks 

The Common Roads 

O'Rourke's Way 

Tim's Monument 

Educational Department 

Shipwrecked Hopes 


Letters from the People 

The Eagle and the Hen 


The Say of Other Editors 

Old French Song . 

Neivs Record 

This Age 

Along the Firing Line 

Margaret Hughes ^oj 
George E. Woods jii 
Maarten Afaartens 5/5 
Louise Forssliind 
Hugh J. Hughes 
Helen Tompkins 
. Charles Fort 
David A. Gates 
Hugh Herdrnan 
Tom P. Morgan 
John Seitc 
F. R. Bcchdolt 
M. G. Woodward 
Thomas E. Watson 
Marie Conway Oemler 
Louise H. JMiller 






Siash AUotkowski 
Thomas E. Watson 

TJionias Walsh 

. R. Andrews 
Charles Q. De France 




Entered as Second-Class Matter, February i6, 1906, at the rost-Office at New York, N. Y., 
under the Act of Congress of March 3, 1879. 

Copyright, 1906, in U. S. and Great Britain. Published b" Tom Watson's Magazine, 121 West 42D STREET, N. Y. 




,ii.ETffi)IEISW" cS"^(SIK§®Src 


Vol. IV 

' JUNE, 1906 

No. 4 



The Life and Times of Andrew Jackson 


IF I live and nothing happens, the 
July number of this Magazine will 
publish the first instalment of the 
"Life and Times of Andrew Jackson." 

Already there are half a dozen 
Lives of Jackson, but how can I help 

/ was not in collusion with any of 
the men who wrote the books. / am 
not estopped by what anybody else 
has done; and, inasmuch as Andrew 
Jackson is as much my Jackson as 
anybody's, I, too, am going to write a 
book about him. 

If he were alive, the job would be 
put oflE. I might have to say things 
about him which he would not like, 
and then I would have to move away 
from here. But Jackson is dead, and 
my life is insured in the Equitable, 
and Bryan has gone off to be gone two 
full, quiet, restful years, and the 
preachers have quit nagging Rocke- 
feller about "tainted money," and they 
have buried that Frenchman under 
the name of Paul Jones in spite of all 
that I could do: consequently I think 
the time has come for me to seat my- 
self and take my pen in hand and write 
you a few lines about Jackson, hoping 
they will find you enjoying the same 

The canvas is large; the figures that 
should be thrown upon it are great; 
the play of light and shade will be 
vivid; the situations dramatic. 

June, 1906— I — 481 

You shall see a panorama that makes 
the blood rush faster in the vems and 
the heart beat stronger in the breast. 

You shall see mighty movements of 
great peoples. Rifles advance, bows 
and arrows fall back ; the red man takes 
his way to the setting sun; the white 
man's empire moves on like a storm; 
heroes whose names have not been 
mentioned shall be made known to 
you; heroic deeds which have not been 
recorded in national annals shall be 
related to you ; some entries which have 
been made upon the wrong side of the 
ledger shall be put where they belong; 
and the whole truth about some men 
and some things will be told as it has 
not been told before. 

I shall not perforate apertures, but 

if the truth demands that I punch 

holes, I will punch holes. 


Before us will pass in review 
great men — the Immortals! — great in 
thought, or speech, or action. 

We shall hear Webster thunder in 
debate, hear the clarion call of Henry 
Clay, watch the bent form and fur- 
rowed face of Calhoun as he tries to 
carry a burden and solve a problem 
which no mortal can carry or solve. 

We shall see John Marshall, the 
bitterest of partisans, enthroned upon 
a lifelong office whose power he puts 
above the Congress and the President, 
and we shall hear him pronounce the 
decisions which have fastened upon us 
the galling chains of corporation rule. 

The Harry Hotspur of political fights 



will gallop by, and we shall wonder 
at the sharpness of "Jack Randle's' 
lance while we deplore the recklessness 
of his ride. 

We shall listen to the evening talk 
of Jefferson; shall spend a few minutes 
with prim little Mr. Madison; shall 
march once more with John Sevier, 
Daniel Boone, and George Rogers 

If I live and nothing happens, you 
shall know more about the great 
Georgian, William H. Crawford, 
and that marvelous boy whose cradle 
was rocked not far from where I write, 
George McDuffie. 

We shall follow that handful of men 
who took up the discredited dream of 
Aaron Burr and wrested imperial 
Texas from Mexico. Houston, Travis, 
Lamar, Fannin, Bowie, Crockett — 
they shall live again in the story of their 
wonderful deeds; and at the Alamo we 
shall pay the tribute of S3'mpathy and 
admiration to the bravest stand that 
men ever made for liberty since God 
created the world. 

The times of Andrew Jackson! Why, 
the nation was in its birth-struggles 
and pains in the times of Andrev/ Jack- 
son. Mighty as the river is to-day, it 
was first moving away from its sources 
in the times of Andrew Jackson. 

Words, deeds, individuals made in- 
delible impressions, good or evil; 
changed the course of empire, directed 
the trend of law, fixed the fate of 

By a speech, Daniel Webster made 
a new Constitution, put aside a writ- 
ten contract which created a con- 
federacy and substituted an implied 
contract which created a nation. 

A quarrel between two Southern 
chiefs divided the South at a crisis and 

transferred dommion to the N jrth 
which it holds till this day. 

Domestic trouble droVe Sam Hous- 
ton into the woods to live with the 
Indians, and out of this roving, un- 
happy, unsettled life finally rose the 
State of the Lone Star. 

William H. Crawford took the 
wrong medicine, and while prostrated, 
the sceptre was snatched from his 
hands. Had Crawford not been dis- 
abled, Clay would have supported him 
rather than John Quincy Adams, at 
the time when Clay was master, and 
had Crawford been President v/e would 
never have had the Civil War — perhaps. 

Yes, my son, it is a great story, and 
I have a mind to tell it to you. If I 
tell it at all, you must let me tell it in 
my own way. Those who want the 
South 's part left out or slurred over can 
get Woodrow Wilson to tell it his way. 

I am going to do ample justice to 
the North and East, but the South and 
the West shall not be slighted. The 
history of this Republic is something 
more than a New England primer. 

Nobility of motive, grandeur of pur- 
pose, heroism of mind and heart, 
strength of will and of hand — they 
have no sectional limits, thank God! 
Wherever the white man has set his 
foot the record proves his greatness — 
greatness in daring, greatness in doing, 
greatness in virtue and, alas! greatness 
in crimes. 

Let us tell the whole story. Let us 
cut geographical measurements of pa- 
triotism out of it. Let us give due 
credit to all the great men and move- 
ments, North, South, East, West. 

My son, in the July number of this 
Magazine I will begin to tell you the 
story of Andrew Jackson and his 

A Good Bargain 

The Georgia genius, Sam Jones, 
never said a better, truer thing than 
when he declared: 

"God alone knows how much dam- 
nation there is in a good trade." 

When you say that you have got " a 
bargain" in a horse, you mean that you 
paid less than the horse was worth. 
Therefore, you paid the owner only 
a part of its value. Therefore, you 



got part of the horse for nothing. 
Therefore, you cheated your neighbor. 
Therefore, you feel good, and you 
boast of your "bargain." It was "a 
good trade," and contains much 

Yet you are not the meanest man 
on earth. Every one of us is just 
about as mean ; and when we abuse you 
for swindling your neighbor out of his 
horse we are only covering, with fine 
words, our envy and regret — our envy 
of your luck and our regret that we 
didn't get that horse. 

(Ah me! — and that's the sort of 
human nature that the Socialist tells us 
only- wants the chance to turn earth into 
heaven and men into clarionet angels.) 

It is the same way all along the line. 
We want to get "something for noth- 
ing." When we make a trade, we don't 
feel proud unless we have got the better 
of the other fellow. No man "points 
with pride" to the fact that he honestly 
paid full value. But let him get the 
property at less than half its worth, 
and he will glow with happiness for 
weeks and months. 

What matters it to him that the 
other fellow was " in a tight place," and 
had to sell ? What matters it to him that 
his fellow-man was at his mercy, and 
that" the piteous appeal of utter help- 
lessness was in his plea for a fair price ? 

"Business is business," said the 
buyer; and he raked in "a good bar- 
gain," robbed his Christian brother 
of his property, and felt so good over it 
that he expanded, the next Sabbath, as 
the contribution basket came around, 
and actually chipped in fifty cents for 
Foreign Missions. 

And that night he doubtless dreamed 
pleasant dreams of the progress of 
Christianity among the heathen, the 
benighted heathen of uncivilized lands. 

When you buy a farm at a bargain, 
what does it mean? 

You are getting another man's labor 
for nothing ; you are squeezing him into 
a surrender of his property ; in the strug- 
gle for existence you have come upon 
a soldier too weak to fight and you are 
stripping him of his armor; in the bat- 
tle of life you have won and he has lost. 

"... stitching the garment which shall 
gladden your soul with a bargain." 

and you take possession of his citadel, 
his home, driving him forth into the 
wilderness, he and his wife and his 

Had you paid a fair price, he could 
have lived in comfort, and so could you 
have done; but you wanted a bargain, 
and your advantage clashing against 
his disadvantage gave it to you. Thus 
you despoiled your Christian brother 
and comfprted your conscience by re- 
minding yourself that "Business is 

When you rush to the "Bargain 
Counter" and actually find that which 
you seek — a bargain — what have you 
really done? 

You have secured for fifty cents an 
article which was worth one dollar; or 
have bought at five dollars a garment 
that was worth ten. 

But how did it happen that the mer- 
chant could afford to sell you the goods 
at half price? 

Why, he, in his turn, got a bargain 
when he purchased. He must have 



got the goods for one-third, or one- 
fourth, or two-fifths of their true value 
before he could offer them to you at 

When you got your bargain some- 
body had to lose one half the value of 
the goods. Who was that somebody? 
It was not the merchant. Oh, no. 
He does business for the profit there is 
in it, and he is entitled to his reasonable 
gains. The loss did not fall on hhn, 
when you paid for one-half of the goods 
and got theotherhalf for nothing. Upon 
WHOM did it fall? Upon the weakest 
man in the line, of course. 
- Many a time, my dear lady, when 
you have bought cotton fabrics at half- 
price, it would have wrung your heart, 
if it be not wholly dead, to have seen 
the home of the Southern farmer who 
grew the cotton. It would make your 
eyes fill if you could see some of the 
little girls and boys who furnish the 
"cheap labor" which enabled you, dear 
lady, to get "a good bargain," 

And if you will inquire about the 
places where those garments of yours 
are put together, you will often follow 
a trail which leads to the " sweat-shop," 
where hollow-eyed, hollow-chested, 
broken-spirited women and girls bend 
to a ceaseless, deadly task — stitching 
the garment which shall gladden your 
soul with a bargain. 

What is the true meaning of the 
shoddy goods and the counterfeit wares 
and the imitation fabrics, and the adul- 
terated articles which degrade the 
market, demoralize commercial condi- 
tions, and impose upon the credulous 
citizen seeking a bargain ? 

Can woolen goods by any chance be 
cheap ? 

Of course not. No matter what kind 
of laws we might have, fiscal or other- 
wise, woolen goods would necessarily 
be dear. 

But we must have a bargain when 
we go to buy overcoats, or blankets, or 
underwear. We must get something 
for nothing. All right. The manu- 

facturer is nobody's fool: he knows the 
market, and he knows human nature. 

It's his business to know, and he 

Consequently, the man who must 
have a woolen overcoat and who }nust 
have a bargain, is accommodated. He 
gets shoddy instead of wool — that's all. 

There are many instances where the 
genuine article should be in the market 
at a reasonable price, but which can- 
not be so had because of the unreason- 
able demands of a Trust. In these 
cases, the bogus articles have their 
origin in the dishonest purpose of the 
manufacturer to take advantage of the 
universal craving for a bargain. 

We see the disease, Sir Doctor — pray 
name the remedy. 

The craving for "a good trade" will 
never leave the blood of man. We are 
born gamblers, we are chock full of the 
lusts of the flesh, and we dearly love to 
cheat and fight. When we were half- 
clad savages, we used to get wildly 
drunk and furiously quarrel, and 
madly fight, and recklessly gamble. 
Many a husband has staked wife or 
child on the turn of a game : many a 
man has staked his own life, and lost". 

But while inherent traits cannot be 
entirely cast out, they can be curbed 
and mastered. 

If proper conditions were restored 
there would be the fewest number of 
chances for "a good trade." 

If every laborer were paid a just 
wage, if public utilities were used for 
the public good, if the necessaries of 
life were untaxed, if wealth were com- 
pelled to bear the expenses of our ex- 
travagant Government, if the people 
took charge of things by Direct Legis- 
lation and ran the Government in the 
interest of all, if Special Privilege were 
cut up, root and branch — tJiere would 
be enough for all, and few industrious 
citizens would ever find themselves in 
such a helpless condition that they 
would surrender their own to some 
other at a bargain. 



Teasing a Single-Taxer 

The following letter, given in full, 
is published from a sense of fairness to 
our friends, the Single-Taxers. 

"Litchfield, III., April lo, 1906. 
•'Hon. Thomas E. Watson, Thomson, 


"Dear Sir: Referring to your sin- 
gle-tax articles: About one hundred 
years ago a young Scotchman named 
Erskine located in St. Louis, Mo^ He 
became owner of a lot, 50 x 147 feet in 
dimensions, at the northeast corner of 
Eighth and Olive streets, in the brush 
at that time, for which he paid $500. 
He paid the small taxes on it for a few 
years — until somebody wanted it — 
when he leased it for twenty-five years 
at so much a year ground rent — ^bind- 
ing the lessee to make certain improve- 
ments, to be the property of the owner 
of the land at the expiration of the 
lease, the lessees meantime to pay all 
taxes of whatever sort. At the ex- 
piration of the twenty-five years he 
leased it again, binding the lessee to 
tear down the old improvements and 
make new ones costing much more, to 
pay all taxes as before and to pay a 
big advance on the ground rent. Thus 
he and his heirs continued to do until 
the last twenty-five year lease expired 
January i, 1895. Then the estate 
leased it again for ninety-nine years for 
$20,000 a year, ground rent and im- 
provements, taxes to follow as in pre- 
vious leases ; and at present one of the 
biggest skyscrapers in the city occupies 
the lot. Understand, since the date of 
the first twenty-five year lease the 
owners of this lot have never paid any 
taxes or improvements and the growth 
of the city has made the enormous in- 
crease in the value of this 50 x 147 feet 
of ground, until, for the ninety-nine 
years from 1895, the heirs of this es- 
tate have an income of $20,000 a year 
without turning a hand for it. The 
city as a whole created this $20,000 a 
year in the land value of this lot and 
the city ought to have it. 

"If not, why not? What have the 

heirs of this estate done to entitle them 
to $20,000 a year for the next ninety 

The writer of the foregoing doubtless 
believed he had dealt me a "sock dol- 
ager." His illustration is merely the 
well-worn "Astor estate argument" 
carried down to St. Louis, and given a 
change in name. 

To the superficial mind, it carries 
overwhelming conviction. But it will 
not bear analysis. The train of reason- 
ing which would confiscate the Astor 
title in New York and the Erskine 
title in St. Louis would explode pretty 
nearly every vested interest on earth. 

At the time Astor bought in New 
York, and Erskine bought in St. Louis, 
every other human being had the same 
opportunity. They came into new 
communities and "staked out their 
claims," complying with the laws which 
the community had made. 

They took their chances on the in- 
vestment. It happened that their 
judgment was vindicated by events. It 
might have happened otherwise. In 
thousands of cases it has happened 
otherwise. Some men just naturally 
have more sense than others — more 
foresight, more pluck, more strength 
of purpose, more skill in knowing when 
and how to hit. Astor struck it right, 
but how many thousands of men have 
put their money into town property be- 
lieving the town would become a city 
when in fact the town couldn't even 
hold its own as a town? You will find 
dismal remains of busted "boom towns" 
all over the Union, to say nothing of 
those which once lived but which are 
now classed as "dead." Shall Society 
make good the losses of those men who 
bet on the wrong town? 

How absurd such a proposition 
would be ! Yet Erskine and Astor did 
no more than put their stake on the 
winning town. If your logic confis- 
cates the winnings, why shouldn't it 
make good the losses? 

No law compelled a hundred thou- 



sand people to go to New York, or St. 
Louis, to live after the first hundred 
thousand had gone there. No law 
compels people to pack themselves into 
the big cities. Humanity would be 
better ofiE if they did not do so. The 
world would be cleaner, happier, and 
better if population would distribute 
itself more evenly. The unutterable 
horror of life in the great cities would 
not then stagger one's faith in the 
progress of civilization. 

But the crowding does occur, never- 
theless, and it does not seem to me that 
the early settler, who bought when 
land was dheap, should be stripped of 
his property simply because the little 
town grew to be a large city. 

If I find it to my interest to sell out 
my holdings in the town of Thomson 
and to rent a house from the Erskine 
estate in St. Louis, I do so with my eyes 
open. Nobody compels me to do it. 
If, as a part of the rent, I also pay 
Erskine's taxes to the state and city, 
that's my lookout. No law compels 

me to do it. And / don't do it unless I 
find it to my interest to do it. 

The same conditions which have 
added to the value of the Astor and 
Erskine land have constituted those 
attractions which would have induced 
me to sell out in Thomson and go to 
New York or St. Louis. These cities 
must possess certain advantages, real 
or imaginary, over the average town, 
and those advantages — ^whatever they 
are — make up the sum total of the 
inducements which lead several million 
people to crowd together, as they do 
on Manhattan Island and its immedi- 
ate vicinity. 

No merchant in a small town has the 
opportunities which the large city gives. 
Will you confiscate the profits of the 
New York merchant f If not, why not ? 
He, also, reaps his gains from the fact 
that so many people live so close to- 

The newspaper publisher has greater 
opportunities in a city like New York 
than in a town like Thomson. Will 

"Every man and woman now living is legatee of ages of the best efiEorts of the race. 



"The men who pioneered great cities were in many respects the equals of the men who 
built our Republic." 

you confiscate the newspapers of Mr. 
Hearst because they profit by the fact 
that so many people bunch themselves 
together? If not, why not? 

Wonderful as is the genius of Mr. 
Hearst and of his chief editor, Mr. 
Brisbane, they could not make a great 
deal of money out of two daily news- 
papers published in Thomson, Georgia. 

My town is a great town, but less 
than two thousand people have as yet 
discovered the fact. The other be- 
nighted millions of our fellow-citizens 
may catch on, a hundred years from 
now, and tlien my modest patrimony 
in Thomson will call forth communistic 
howls. At present / do the howling — 
when I look at the bill for taxes. 

Many a time in the history of New 
York the original Astors may have 
been sorely tempted to sell out and 
invest elsewhere. Hundreds of owners, 
who had just as good a thing as Astor 
had, did lose confidence, sell out and 
invest elsewhere. Astor held- on; and 
now, after the lapse of generations, 
comes the brilliant William R. Hearst 
and the brilliant Arthur Brisbane, and 

they gloriously, beneficently reap the 
advantage of the mere physical facts 
in the case — namely, that New York 
and its adjacent towns supply millions 
of readers to the morning and evening 

The Single-Taxers and Socialists take 
a toe-hold upon the argument that 
"Astor's revenue is increased by the 
bare increase of population: Astor did 
not increase the population; the city 
made itself big; therefore the city, and 
not Astor, should have the increase in 
land value." 

Evidently, this reasoning is superb, 
but I have my doubts as to whether 
Mr. Hearst would like to see the muz- 
zle of such a gun pointed his way, 

Astor's genius was manifest in the 
selection of his location and in his stub- 
born holding on, as that of Horace 
Greeley, Pulitzer, and Hearst in the 
conduct of their newspapers, but 
Greeley, Pulitzer and Hearst profited by 
tJie same fhysical conditions that in- 
creased the Astor estate. In each case, 
the newspaper publisher exploited a 
great city which Jie had had nothing 



"Men and women go into competition to 
see who can pay the highest price for the 
ugliest old vase." 

to do with making great. Tn each case 
the newspaper profited by the bigness 
of the city, just as Astor did. 

Again, we must remember that mere 
numbers do not make a city great. 
The right kind of men must be in the 
lead. Three million Digger Indians 
dumped into another Manhattan 
Island, wouldn't make another New 
York. Supplant the present inhabi- 
tants of New York with an equal num- 
ber of blacks from the Congo Free 
State, and what do you guess would 
be the effect upon the value of the Astor 
Estate and the Hearst newspapers? 

In the up-building of great cities, 
you may be sure that great men were 
enlisted. The men who pioneered 
New York, Chicago, Boston, Galves- 
ton, San Francisco, St. Louis, New 
Orleans, Philadelphia and the others 
were in many respects the equals of the 
men who built our Republic. If you 
will read the volumes called "The Old 
Merchants of New York," you will 
understand what I mian. 

My point is that quality rather than 
quantity makes the great city. New 
York is not great because of the hordes 
of the slums ; but in spite of them. 

Now, to confiscate that which the 
great men create, and dump it, practi- 
cally, into the common pot, where all 
are equally entitled to an equal share of 
the pot-liquor, does not seem just. 

The equity of the case is met, not by • 
confiscation, but by taxing each estate 
pro rata, compelling each citizen to con- 
tribute to the support of the govern- 
ment in accordance with his wealth. 

A man, usually a tenderfoot, stum- 
bles upon a gold mine, or a diamond 
field. ^ 

Is it his ? 

If he complies with the regulations 
made for such cases, it is his. 

By what right? 

By that which we used when we 
shot the Indians away from their 

The right of Discovery. 

Nature made the gold and the dia- 
monds, but Nature hid them; conse- 
quently we give them to the fortunate 

But does it occur to you, Mr. Single- 
Taxer, that the gold and the diamonds 
w^ould not be worth picking up in 
the road if it were not for the very 
same general condition of things which 
put value into the Astor estate? 

The value of the gold and the diamonds 
depends upon the standards of our civi- 

They can hardly be said to have 
intrinsic value at all. In no sense of 
the word are diamonds necessary to 
the human race, as wheat and corn and 
cotton are. 

The finder of the gold and the 
diamonds adds nothing to their value. 

He reaps the benefit of what the 
human race has been doing for thou- 
sands of years. He gets his fortune 
out of conditions which he did not 
help to make. He deserves no credit 
whatever for the system of things 
which prevails and which gives im- 
mense value to gold and diamonds. 
Yet even the single-taxer will not dis- 



pute his right to reap the benefits of the 
system into which he came by birth. 

In Voltaire's famous book, "Can- 
dide," the hero's adventures carry him 
into a South American state, peopled 
by Indians, where gold is so plentiful 
that the natives value it no more than 
they value common mud. They laugh- 
ingly tell Candide that he can have as 
much of it as he wants. Naturally he 
wants all he can carry away, and he 
proceeds to load up. In a most divert- 
ing manner Voltaire relates how Can- 
dide lost most of his treasure on his 
way home to France. He manages to 
hold on to enough, however, to make 
him rich in France, 

The gold, in South America, had no 
value! In France, a small amount was 

Because of Civilization, its laws, 
tastes, customs, standards. 

Candide, being a Frenchman, got the 
benefit of the French system as a birth- 
right. Of course, he inherited the dis- 
advantages along with the advan- 
tages, just as we do in our Republic. 
Take another illustration ! 
A fisherman finds a pearl, either by 
design or accident. In either event, 
the Single-Taxer does not combat the 
proposition that the pearl belongs to 
the fisherman. The pearl was under- 
neath the water, doing no good to any- 
one. Intrinsically it had no value. 
It was a mere pebble amid millions of 
pebbles. Even when it was found to 
be different from the other pebbles, in 
color, etc., it yet remained intrinsically 
useless. The fisherman could not eat 
it when hungry, drink it when thirsty, 
clothe himself with it when naked, or 
warm himself by it when cold. On the 
basis of Nature's arrangements, the 
pearl was worth less to the fisherman 
than a peck of corn. 

But the finding of the pearl raised 
the fisherman to riches. The peculiar 
kind of pebble which he had found 
turned out to be worth thousands of 

Because of the laws of fashion, the 
cravings of Taste and Pride which 

made the market for the pearl, and this 
market for the pearl, which he had had 
nothing to do with making, brought 
the fisherman wealth. 

All the fashionable world made the 
market for the pearl: according to Single- 
Tax logic the fashionable world should 
have thrown the fisherman down and 
taken the pearl away from him. 

All of us are familiar with the story 
of the Florida Indian queen who 
swapped a long string of large pearls 
to De Soto for a few bits of bright 
colored velvet. Under the standards 
of barbarism, the pearls had no greater 
value to the queen than the bits of 
velvet; under the standards of civiliza- 
tion the pearls were worth a king's 
ransom to De Soto; both the queen 
and the Spaniard were inheritors of 
fixed conditions. 

In many other ways, 1 could illus-* 
trate the truth of the statement that 
the argument against the Erskine title 
is an argument that undermines almost 
everything. Born into this European 
system of things, we inherit from all 
the great men of the past, are legatees 
of their^ struggles, their sufferings, 
their aspirations, their victories. Every 
boy that comes out of our schools, 
equipped _ for his life -battle, wears 
armor which was hundreds of years in 
forging, gets the benefit of conceptions, 
suggestions, plans and experiments 
which reach back to Alfred the Great. 
The boy gave no hand to the building 
of the system. He gets the benefit of 
what was done by others, long before 
his ancestors set foot in the land. 
Every man and woman now living in 
the European-American world is leg- 
atee of ages of the best efforts of the 
best men and women of the race. All 
of us get the benefit of conditions which 
we did not bring about. We also must 
bear burdens which came to us along 
with the inheritance, for our system, 
like ourselves, is wonderfully and fear- 
fully made. 

Some of these burdens worry me 
more than the Astor estate does, be- 
cause they are unavoidable. 

The Astor estate is pegged down on 
Manhattan Island. It can't get away. 



It can't chase me down to Thomson. 
If I don't want to get bit by that partic- 
ular snake, I needn't go near its hole. 
There is not a man in New York who 
cannot escape the Astor estate if he 
wants to; all that is necessary is that he 
shall pull up stakes and leave. There 
are a good many desirable places to 
live on in this world besides New 
York — though it is difficult to per- 
suade a New Yorker to that effect. 

The inherited burdens which worry 
me most are those that I cannot resist 
and cannot escape. They hold me 
prisoner, no matter where I go. What 

them competes for that particular spot 
of grovmd, all the angels in heaven 
coiildn't keep the price from advanc- 
ing. If everybody wants the same 
thing at the same time, the upward 
tendency of the market is not to be 
checked by remonstrance, argument, 
protest or pleading. 

One of the " Old Masters' " paintings 
may not be worth hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars, but if a great 
number of wealthy snobs compete 
for the painting, it fetches hundreds 
of thousands of dollars. 

Likewise, those hideous old China 



"Thus the banker's pail is ever full." 

those inherited burdens are, you know 
if you have been a reader of this 

With 200,000,000 acres of public 
domain awaiting the settler; with irri- 
gation plans in operation which will 
add at least 300,000,000 acres more; 
with abandoned farms throughout the 
land which can be bought for less than 
the houses on the land cost, I am not 
bothering my head about the Astor 
estate, or that Erskine property. 

Of course, as long as several million 
people want the Astor land, and each of 

and Japanese pots and vases may not 
be worth a place in the kitchen : so far 
as I am concerned I wouldn't give ten 
dollars a ton for them; but if they be- 
come a fad among the rich, and thou- 
sands of men and women go into com- 
petition to see who can pay the highest 
price for the ugliest old vase — why, the 
market for ugliness gets so stiff that I 
almost conclude to hav^e my own fea- 
tures cast into antique Japanese 

The moment those three million men 
quit wanting Astor land, all at the 



same time, that moment its value will 
begin to decline. But so long as that 
number of men all want their land in 
the same spot, at the same time, 
the identical principle which caused 
Maud S. to bring $40,000 when 
Robert Bonner bought her will uphold 

the market price of the Astor land. 
And society has no more right to con- 
fiscate Astor's title because he got what 
so many others want than it has to 
confiscate the title to the fastest race- 
horse, the finest painting, or the ugliest 
Japanese pot. 

National Banks and the ''''Educated Clientage' 

The following letter will be read with 

"March 2, 1906. 
" My dear Mr. Watson: 

"I have been interested in your 
discussion of the national banks. 
Wouldn't your arguments be more in- 
genuous if you took up the stock ob- 
jection of conservative economists [to 
the issue by the Government of notes 
on only a fractional reserve — that it 
would impair the credit of the Govern- 
ment, and increase the rate of interest 
which it must pay on the national debt? 
A full statement of this and other ob- 
jections may be found in Hadley's 
* Economics,' pp. 260-263. Surely, if 
you seek influence with an educated 
clientage, these objections are worth 
your editorial consideration. 
"Yours very truly, 

" K. N. Washburn, Jr. 

"Springfield, Massachusetts." 

I feel flattered by the assurance that 
Mr. Washburn, Jr., has been interested 
in my discussion of national banks. 

Whether it will ever be within my 
power to gain "influence with an edu- 
cated cUentage," I do not know; but 
if Mr. Washburn will prevail upon his 
author. Dr. Hadley, to prepare an ar- 
gument for national banks, and to send 
it to me for publication, I will promise 
to pay for it, publish it, and then knock 
it into a cocked hat. 

There are many things which admit 
of doubt, but if there is any one thing 
that is absolutely certain, it is that our 
national bank system is wrong. Sal- 
mon P. Chase, the author of the system, 
grew alarmed when he saw its evolu- 
tion and rued the day that he pro- 
posed it.. 

Mr. Washburn evidently is aware of 
the fact that I never had what he 
would call an "education"; hence, his 
inclination to disparage what I have 
written upon the subject of national 
banks; but I beg to call his attention 
to the fact that I have been following 
the lines of argument laid down, gen- 
erations ago, by some of our most 
thoroughly educated men. 

Dr. Hadley is a scholar, but so was 
Thomas Jefferson; and Jefferson's ar- 
guments against the national banking 
system are those which I have re- 

John C. Calhoun was a scholar; and 
his reasoning against national banks 
has been constantly in my mind. 

Thomas H. Benton, while not so 
much of an academician as Dr. Hadley, 
probably carried a larger stock of 
knowledge, in his prime, than any 
scholar of the present day; and the 
points Benton made against national 
banks have not been overlooked in my 
own discussions of the question. 

Then there is Andrew Jackson — but 
probably he doesn't count. Professor 
Sumner and others have written him 
down as an illiterate backwoodsman, 
and perhaps the warnings against na- 
tional banks and concentrated wealth 
— contained in his Farewell Address — 
would not "have influence with an 
educated clientage" ; although this cele- 
brated state-paper was prepared by a 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of 
the United States, Roger B. Taney. 

If Mr. Washburn has quoted Dr. 
Hadley's strongest point against the 
creation of a national paper currency, 
then I pity Dr. Hadley if ever he has 
to defend his book before "an edu- 
cated clientage." 

What does he mean by "the issue of 



Government notes on only a fractional 

If the Government were to issue its 
ownnotes, in the place of national bank 
notes now outstanding, such Govern- 
ment notes would have back of them 
to insure their value and their redemption 
the following guarantees: 

(i) The Legal Tender quality, which 
would make the notes payable for all 
public dues and taxes; and the annual 
expenses of the Government could now 
annually absorb the entire issue. 

(2) The Legal Tender quality, which, 
being applied to private debts and pur- 
chases, would annually absorb the entire 
issue. In fact, it would hardly be a 
drop in the bucket. 

(3) The power of the Government to 
tax the entire wealth of tlie country to 
support the notes. 

"There is a sentinel on the watch-tower 
of every man's soul." 

In other words, the national bank 
currency of the present time is based 
on Government credit, as represented 
by a bond. If the currency based upon 
the bond is good, the currency based 
upon the entire credit, wealth, power 
and resources of the Government which 
issued the bond woidd be better. 

The bonds issued by the Govern- 
ment can only be as good as the Govern- 
ment. They are the stream issuing 
from the Government; and the stream 
cannot rise higher than its source. 

Currency based upon these bonds 
cannot be better than the bonds. And 
the bonds are only a part of the Govern- 
ment wealth, credit, resources. If a 
currency based upon a part of the na- 
tional strength is good, a currency based 
upon tlie whole of that strength would 
be better. 

In short, the Government now dele- 
gates to the national banks the privilege 
of issuing currency based upon Govern- 
tnent credit. 

If the exercise of this delegated 
power gives us a sound currency, then 
the currency would be at least equally 
sound if the function were exercised 
by the Government itself. An exer- 
cise of such delegated powers cannot, 
in the nature of things, produce a safer 
currency than we would have if the 
Government reserved the function to 
itself, refusing to delegate it. 

How could the issue of small notes, 
say for a billion dollars, impair the 
credit of the Government to any 
greater extent than the issue of bonds 
to the amount of a billion.'' 

A billion-dollar debt is just that much 
debt, and it does not at all matter 
whether Uncle Sam signs big notes or 
little ones. 

Bonds are merely large notes, given 
for debt. 

National bank ctu-rency consists of 
small notes, given for debt. The small 
note of the national banker is based on 
the large note of the Government. The 
one big note of ten thousand dollars 
supports ten thousand small notes of 
one dollar each. But the debt of ten 



thousand dollars is just that much, and 
no more. 

Now if ten thousand one dollar notes, 
issued by the banker, are good because 
they are based upon one large note of 
ten thousand dollars, issued by the 
Government, why is it that they would 
not be equally good if the Government 
were to call in its big note for 
$10,000 and issue, in lieu thereof, ten 
thousand little notes of one dollar 

The educated will please answer. 

C3) What do you mean by increas- 
ing "the rate of interest which it (the 
Government) must pay on the national 

The national debt is represented by 
the bonds which the banks now use as 
the basis of their currency. Those 
bonds bear interest. Now, suppose the 
Government should call in one-half of 
those bonds (say $500,000,000), and 
should issue five hundred million dol- 
lars in one dollar notes, to take the 
place of the bonds. 

The national debt would remain the 

One half of it would still be repre- 
sented by big notes (bonds) bearing 
interest. The other half would be rep- 
resented by little notes (paper currency) 
bearing no interest. Thus the Govern- 
ment would have reduced its interest- 
bearing debt one half. 

Do you mean to tell me that our ed- 
ucated classes believe that the stoppage 
of interest upon one half of the national 
debt will impair the national credit? 
Do you mean to say that the nation 
will be injured by saving the interest 
on bonds — which interest is now paid 

to the national banks? Never before 
did I hear it said that one's credit was 
mipaired by the reduction of his debt. 
If Dr. Hadley contends that half a bil- 
lion dollars of indebtedness, issued in 
non-interest-bearing small notes, will 
impair our credit to a greater degree 
than the same amount issued in large 
notes which bear interest, his education 
has a flaw in it somewhere. 

By issuing the notes itself, without 
delegating the function to the national 
bankers, the Government would con- 
fer two enormous advantages upon the 

(i) The nation would save the in- 
terest now paid on the bonds. 

(2) The borrowers of the country 
would save the interest which they 
now pay for the use of the national 
banker's notes. 

And that's why the national bankers 
do not want the Government to issue 
its own notes, free of interest, based 
upon its own credit. 

Says the national banker to the 
Government: "Give me the use of 
your credit, issue your notes in such 
large denominations that none but the 
rich can buy; then let me issue the 
little notes, based on the credit of your 
big one; you pay me interest on your 
big notes, while I charge the borrower 
interest for the use of my little ones, 
and I'll be happy — for I'll milk you, 
the Government, with one hand and I 
milk the fool people with the other." 

Thus the banker's pail is ever full, 
for he milks the cow dry with exceeding 
regularity — leaving just enough for 
the calf, which, in time, will be another 
just such a cow. 

The Tobacco Trust 

The following address of Hon. Joel 
B. Fort, of Tennessee, is so much to the 
point, so forcible in its statement of the 
case against the Tobacco Trust, that I 
cheerfully yield to it a portion of my 
editorial space. 

The reader is asked to bear in mind 
the fact that the Thomas F. Ryan men- 
tioned in the address is the same Wall 

Street individual who in 1904 carried 
the Virginia delegation to the Demo- 
cratic National Convention in his pri- 
vate car and delivered them to the Wall 
Street candidate, Judge Parker, of 

"The seed of the ills and abuses which 
afflict a country are sown with such 



deft hands, and grows so rapidly and 
luxuriantly that the general welfare of 
the country suffers long before a remedy 
is suggested. 

"The oppression of the weak and in- 
nocent by the strong and unscrupu- 
lous grows day by day. Then follow 
the mutterings and complaints of the 
populace. It is the foreboding thun- 
der of the storm of revolution. 

"Then the lightning flash of popular 
indignation burns up and destroys the 
attendant evils, and the country is once 
more in sunshine, peace and prosperity. 
We term this REFORMATION. 

"Today we are in the midst of a rev- 
olution the like of which the world has 
not experienced before. We hear no 
martial tread of armed legions; no 
flash of swords or glitter of bayonets; 
no rattle of musketry or roar of cannon, 
yet the silent forces are in deadly 

"It is a fight of purity and justice against 
and corruption." 

"It is a fight of purity and justice 
against greed and corruption. It is a 
revolution of sentiment, a revolution of 
principle, and a revolution that must 
give to the individual, and to the state, 
the municipal and the national honor 
and integrity the higher place. 

"Upon such reformation depend the 
happiness, peace, and prosperity of the 
whole nation. It only requires a little 
reflection to know that we have wan- 
dered far away from the good, old, well- 
beaten pathway in which our illustrious 
ancestors were wont to travel. 


"After the besom of ruin and de- 
struction of the Civil War had swept 
over the land, and peace was restored, 
commenced a new era; old time 
customs gave way to the new; the de- 
moralizing effect of war was infused 
into business enterprises, and the 
feeling for earning an honest penny 
gave way to the intense 
desire to obtain the penny 
at any hazard. New enter- 
prises came into being; cor- 
porations multiplied like the 
locusts in ancient Egypt. 
Now and then you saw the 
flash of Aladdin's lamp upon 
the highway of commerce, 
and from poverty and obscur- 
ity sprang the millionaire, 
and the whole country went 
mad with the money craze. 

"Then came the trust, 
and, flashing its lurid lights 
along the financial ocean, 
opened up to the startled 
gaze of the world that mon- 
strous being known as the 
multimillionaire. Upon these 
new creatures the labor- 
ing man and the man in the 
humbler walks of life looked 
with wonder and amazement 
and reverence. We had 
reached the point when we 
bowed down and admired the 
man of wealth without ever 
looking to ascertain how he 
obtained it, and, in the mean- 
while, the present generation 
came forward, worshiping 




the god of mammon ; with an inbred 
craving for money — more money at all 
hazards. Why, my fellow countrymen, 
it came to pass, if the organizer of a 
trust or combine and worth [millions 
walked the streets, so crazy about 
money had we become, that we stared 
at him as a man transcendentally 
great, bowed and knelt to him, and 
paid to him all the honors due to a 
Cffisar. 'We had placed the dollar 
above the man.'" 


"Revolution was but the necessary 
sequence. Revolution has come, opin- 
ions and sentiments are rapidly chang- 
ing, and will prevent and check the im- 
pending ruin, desolation and degenera- 
tion of the morality and manhood of 
this Government. At times revolution 
is an absolute necessity, and I would 
have the masses aroused to the true 
state of affairs. I would have them 
return to the teachings and noble ideals 
of our ancestors, and bear aloft the 
old standard, placing manhood above 
money, and honor above ill-gotten 
gain. I would have the people 
know that for more than five hun- 
dred years the common law of 
England has forbidden trusts or 
combines in restraint of trade. That 
under the statute law of the United 
States, and, so far as I am informed, 
of every state in the Union, it is a peni- 
tentiary ofifense for any persons or cor- 
porations to organize or engage in any 
way in a trust or combine. The statute 
of my own state of Tennessee, passed in 
1903, provides: 'All arrangements, 
contracts, agreements, trusts or combi- 
nations, between persons or corpora- 
tions, made with a view to lessen, or 
which tend to lessen full and free com- 
petition in the importation or sale of 
articles imported into this state, or in 
the manufacture or sale of articles of 
domestic growth or of raw domestic 
material, and all arrangements, con- 
tracts, agreements, trusts or combina- 
tions between persons or corporations 
designed, or which tend, to advance, 
reduce, or control the price or the cost 
to the producer or consumer of any 

such product or article are hereby de- 
clared to be against public policy, un- 
lawful, and void.* The second section 
provides for forfeiture of charters, etc. 

"Section 3 provides: 'Any violation 
of the provisions of this act shall be 
deemed, and is hereby declared to be 
destructive of full and free competition 
and a conspiracy against trade, and any 
person or persons who may engage in 
any such conspiracy or who shall, as 
principal, manager, director, or agent 
or in any other capacity, knowingly 
carry out any of the stipulations, pur- 
poses, prices, rates, or orders made in 
furtherance of such conspiracy, shall 
upon conviction be punished by a fine 
of not less than one hundred dollars 
($100) nor more than five thousand 
dollars ($5,000), and by imprisonment 
in the penitentiary not less than one 
year nor more than ten years.' 

' 'And our Supreme Court has on more 
than one occasion held this statute to 
be constitutional. So, my friends, you 
see that to be engaged in or connected 
in anyway with a trust or combine is 
not only illegal but immoral. I would 
have this revolution and reformation, 
which has of late swept over Philadel- 
phia, Ohio and Missouri, traverse the 
whole country, until the moral standing 
of the man is elevated above the dollar, 
until the good people feel and know 
that a man who engages in a beef trust, 
in good m .rals and in the law stands 
on the very same plane and is nothing 
more than an ordinary hog or cattle 
thief. That a man who organizes or 
is connected with a turkey trust is an 
ordinary chicken thief, and that a man 
who organizes or is in any way connected 
with a tobacco trust is a tobacco 
thief. That sounds like pretty strong 
language, does it not? Well, if this is 
not so why did the Congress of the 
United States appropriate $500,000 to 
the Department of Justice to enable it 
to put just such men in the peniten- 
tiary ? It is not necessary to convict a 
man in order that he become a thief. 
He is a thief as soon as he steals and the 
conviction does not affect his standing 
in regard to the offense one way or the 




"But the trust that has robbed us, 
and the one we are interested in more 
directly, is the tobacco trust. It is 
Tinnecessary for me to state in detail 
the organization and history of this 
most exacting and grinding of all the 
trusts, but I will say that when Thomas 
Fortune Ryan, of Equitable Insurance 
notoriety, went to England in the inter- 
est of the Consolidated Tobacco Com- 
pany and made terms of peace with 
Sir Charles Wills, representing the Eng- 
lish tobacco people, the greatest out- 
rage that was ever perpetrated was 
fastened on the tobacco growers of 
this district. Competition was gone 
forever, and they there and then agreed 
to a systematic robbery of the grower 
of tobacco, and he became an abject 
slave to a merciless and pitiless trust. 
It were needless for me to remind you 
of how the Baron Tobacco Robber sat 
in his castle in the north, surrounded 
by all the luxuries of life, beneath the 
dazzling light of the electric flash, and 
divided your country into districts by 
public roads, states and county lines. 
It were needless for me to tell you how 
he appointed a little lord to rule over 
and dictate prices on the fruits of your 
toil; how he with golden soldiers men- 
aced anyone who would interfere in 
the least with his little lord buyer. I 
need not remind you how this little 
lord, booted and spurred, rode over 
your country, took your tobacco at 
his own sweet will when you were help- 
less to prevent, and when you delivered 
your crop he, to add insult to injury, 
DOCKED you on every pound, and, 
my countrymen, one little lord in my 
county, even became so infatuated 
with the docking system that he even 
docked on a due bill which he had given 
a farmer for tobacco he had already de- 
livered and which had been received 
by this sir lord. Under this rule of the 
lorded robber baron we saw the money 
crop of the Dark District in the clutches 
of a ravenous, insatiate monster. We 
saw the splendid farms and houses fall- 
ing to decay and ruin. We saw the 
farm labor moving away to find more 
lucrative employment. We heard the 

complaint of the people as they groaned 
under the heavy burden. We heard 
labor cry out as the Russian knout in 
the hands of the trust fell hard and 
fast upon its back. 

"We appealed to Congress and to the 
law in vain. The blood of Kentuckians 
and Tennesseans began to boil in in- 
dignation; the tocsin of war sounded 
from Glen Raven's heights in the good 
old County of Robertson, and Felix G. 
Ewing, followed by the gallant sons of 
Tennessee and Kentucky, marched 
forth to do battle for justice, right and 
home. It was a battle of manhood, 
honor and integrity against money. For 
more than one year the conflict raged. 
The cowardly, sneaking enemy hid be- 
hind falsehood and slander and shot 
golden bullets. Their tactics were to 
buy our troops with gold, and to make 
traitors of good citizens and ofttimes 
they sent the Trojan horse to our very 
gates. Glorious Kentuckians and Ten- 
nesseans — you stood side by side with 
' Old Hickory ' behind the cotton bales 
at New Orleans and with your squirrel 
rifles hurled the Red Coats to death and 
into the sea. 

"There is not a spot in this great 
nation where the marble shaft marks 
the sacred spot of valor but that, side 
by side, Tennesseans and Kentuckians 
stood and moistened the sod with their 
chivalrous blood. 

" No, these men could not be bought 
with a price. With these people, with 
their ancestors, and so it will ever be 
with their descendants, death before 
dishonor. For one year the battle 
raged, determined farmers fighting for 
liberty, justice and home; on the south 
could be seen faithful old John Wesley 
Gaines dealing deadly blows to all 
trusts, and the matchless Joseph E. 
Washington firing one continuous vol- 
ley of grape and canister, and there 
also was one John B. Allen fighting, 
at all parts of the field, with any kind of 
weapon he could get, and when he had 
no gun, fighting with 'fist and skull.' 
From the north could be heard the 
ceaseless roar of the impetuous charge 
of glorious A. O. Stanley and his gallant 
Kentucky brigade, and, amid all, night 



'We saw the money crop of the Dark District in the clutches of a ravenous, insatiate 


and day, at every part of the field, could 
be seen the banner of the association, 
high in the air and waving a proud 
salute to every soldier, in the hands of 
Felix G. Ewing, and above all could be 
heard his voice : ' Stand firm and the 
victory is ours.' By his side stood 
that firm and steady Charles H. Fort, 
president of the association, contesting 
every inch and always begging for a 
charge and an onslaught. A glorious 
victory was ours, a victory for right 
against wrong, a victory of manhood 
over money. 

"But, my friends, while we have 
won this fight, don't think for amoment 
you can lay down your arms and sleep 
on your rights; more than ever we need 
to stand guard, and present a united 
front. We want every farmer , whether 
he was with us in the first battle or not, 
to line up now and be one of us in hold- 
ing this country free from another at- 
tack of the bold robber barons. 


" When we took up the fight on that 

memorable 24th day of September, 
1904, the little lords of the district 
for several years had been taking our 
tobacco at an average price of 4 cents- 
per pound and told us that the cause 
of such extreme low prices was on 
account of over-production. 

" In less than four months the same 
little lord was begging for tobacco at 
double the price he had been paying 
and that he expected to pay. Was 
that on account of overproduction? 
Can you grow tobacco after September 
24? In one year we had sold the 
association tobacco, or the greater 
part of it, at double the former prices, 
and the little lord was offering more 
than he had paid the year before, and 
all summer was telling that there was 
20 per cent, more tobacco than was 
raised the year before. When the 
true state of affairs was given out by 
this association there had not been an 
overproduction, but an actual deficit, 
and instead of a 20 per cent, increase 
over the 1904 crop, there was a 20 per 



cent, decrease. And thus we found 
that all the while they had been lying 
to us. They tell us that the law of 
'supply and demand' regulates, but 
let me tell you that, as long as that 
robber tobacco baron has all the demand 
and you tobacco growers have all the 
supply, the demand they use on you is 
the same that the midnight assassin 
makes on the lonely highwayman 
when he points a pistol in his face and 
demands his monev. 

"Little aching backs; little tired feet. 
Working in hope." 


" My friends who are out of the asso- 
ciation, you have profited by every 
labor of ours and we are glad to benefit 
everyone. Why will you longer let 
your neighbor fight for you and your 
family and render him no assistance? 
You know it is not characteristic of 
Kentuckians. Have the little trust 
lords poisoned you against your neigh- 
bor and friend? 

" I know that they have said we were 
getting it too hot. Didn't we tell 
them in the beginning that we were 
going to make it hot for them? And 

when it got hot and we sent a com- 
mittee to see them in a peaceable and 
lawful way and asked them to stand 
by country and home, and let the rob- 
ber go, why they had so much lord 
installed in them that they were too 
big to be approached by an American 
citizen, they got mad and bought all 
kinds of improved shooting machinery, 
magazine loading pistols that shoot defend themselves. Those 
guns were not made to kill me or mem- 
bers of this association, any ordinary 
pistol will kill us, and besides we would 
do no one harm, but good. We are no 
law breakers, nor do we approve of any- 
thing that smacks of lawlessness. I 
tell you of a truth what made them arm 
so strongly. There is a sentinel on the 
watch tower of every man's soul, a 
faithful sentinel The storm may rage, 
the winds may howl and the lightning 
flash, but he never deserts his post. 
Faithful sentinel — is conscience. When 
we do wrong he tells us, and that is 
what made him buy the great guns. 
They know it is wrong to stand for a 
cruel trust and against their own people 
just for the sake of the money they 
receive. Why did I not buy guns? I 
have been all over this district, over 
rough and towering mountains and in 
deserted valleys in the lonely night 
without even a pocket-knife, and was 
not alarmed. I can tell you why. I 
knew that I was fighting a patriotic 
fight for the ragged children and the 
poor, starving mother; for justice, 
home and right. I knew that ninety per 
cent, of the good farmers and patriotic 
men were behind me, and that all the 
pure, noble women, the ministers, the 
lawyers and business men who wanted 
commercial liberty were behind me, 
and with such an army as that with 
me I would not be afraid to charge hell 
with a toothpick. My non-association 
friends, we want you to come with us 
and be with us in this organization. 
You are good men and true, hear me: 
Are you for the right as against the 
wrong? — Then I need say no more, for 
you have felt the galling load put on 
these people by the trusts as well as we. 
Will you be free from commercial 



slavery ? Then come with us, for when 
the law was powerless to protect you 
this band of farmers brought the trusts 
to terms and made them pay you a 
fair price for your tobacco. Have you 
any sentiment in you, and do you 
think it is your duty to love your neigh- 
bor and country? Then stand by 
your country and neighbor. Proud 
men as you are, can you stand by and 
sip the sweets of your neighbor's toil, 
and not lend a helping hand in gather- 
ing them ? 

" Let's put the proposition this way: 
An army is coming to invade your 
country, to lay waste your homes, 
to murder your wives and children; 
the call to arms comes to defend your 
home. Will you take to the bushes 
while your neighbor goes to the front? 
The trust was laying waste your home 
and sending your wives and children 
into the icy grasp of winter barefoot 
and ragged, and we called to arms to 
fight the robber from our land. You 
won't take to the bushes, much less 
aid the trust, our enemy, by selling it 
your tobacco, will you? 

"Let's put it this way: A certain 
man traveled from Jerusalem to Jericho. 
He was set upon by robbers and 
wounded and left in the ditch half 
dead. A Priest and Levite came by 
and heard his dying groans, but icy in 
heart and callous of human suffering, 
passed on the other side. Then came 
a man who loved his neighbor, in the 
garden of whose heart bloomed all the 
flowers of human affection. He heard 
the cry and rushed to him, took him to 
his bosom, loved him, bound up his 
wounds, took him to the inn, paid his 
bill and saved his life. The name of the 
immortal Washington may fade from 
the pages of history, the name of the 
soldier, statesman, and idol of the 
Southern heart, Robert E. Lee, may be 
forgotten, but as long as man loves his 
fellow-man and worships God, the name 
of the Good Samaritan will be written 
in every human heart with letters of 
everlasting, living fire. 

"The trusts had us down and were 
every year robbing us. We call to you 
for help. Will you be the Good Samar- 
itan, or the Levite and Priest? 

"My countrymen, I know not what 
you may do, but when I looked over the 
Dark Tobacco District, and saw the 
poor tobacco grower who lived on 
rented land in a log cabin with stick 
chimney, and saw him come forth in 
July and August, and heard the plank 
rattle on the floor, as his little girls 
followed him to the tobacco patch; 
yes, I saw those little girls following 
him down the rows in blistering and 
burning sun, pulling wonns andsuckers, 
and I could hear him encourage them 
when the burden grew heavy: 'Come 
on, little Mary, just a little longer and 
papa will buy you new shoes and 
stockings and good warm clothes for 
winter. Come on, Httle Martha, and 
help a little more, and papa will buy 
you both shoes and clothes and nice 
dresses so that you can go to Sunday- 
school like other children.' Little 
aching backs ; little tired feet. Work- 
ing in hope. Hoping for clothes, and 
hoping for Sunday-school. I saw that 
poor man sell his tobacco to the trusts 
for a pittance. I saw him deHver it 
and then get docked, and there was 
the rent note that must come first. 
And when he settled he did not have a 
dollar. I saw him go home with a sad 
and aching heart, and saw little Mary 
and Martha clamber on his knee and ask 
him when he would bring the shoes 
and clothing he had promised. And I 
saw his noble heart sink in sorrow — I 
tell you, my countrymen, that every 
pang of that poor man's heart appealed 
to me in trumpet tones, and I said, ' My 
God, Tennesseans and Kentuckians, 
we can't stand it. Fall in line and, by 
'the Eternal,' we will drive the rob- 
ber tobacco baron from our fair land, 
and we will bring prosperity and 
happiness to the humblest homes, 
and fill the stockings of the little 
Marvs and Marthas all over the Black 



Editorial Comment 

Here is the style in which Bob 
Taj'lor goes after the plutocrat, in his 

" I saw a man pile mountains to the 
skies, up which he climbed toward 
fame's alluring heights, and I saw his 
coffers bulging with bonds and stocks 
and stacks of gold and precious stones. 
I saw him unfold the columned inven- 
tory of his fabulous wealth and lave and 
steep his soul in gloating contempla- 
tion. I heard the clamor of the 
crowded streets and the shouts and 
plaudits of the fawning throng as he 
passed proudly by, and I saw him pass 
on and up toward the zenith of re- 
nown and seek his place among the 
great, supremely satisfied with himself, 
finding consolation in the thought that 
'envy assails the noblest; the winds 
howl about the highest peaks.' 

" And then I saw him look for a mo- 
ment into his own soul and blanch in 
affrighted terror at the black stain 
that sin had made, and I saw a cloud of 
remorse settle upon his brow and the 
writhing twinge of sore regret wrench 
it into frowns, and I heard his heart 
cry out in its anguish, 'Oh, that I had 
risen to this height by fairer means!'" 

If Bob continues to shell the woods 
with that sort of rhetoric, it is only a 
question of time when the plutes will 
have to come in and give up. 

I wonder if Bob Taylor did see his 
"man" do all these things! 

Let us consider, for a moment, what 
the man accomplished while in plain 
view of Bob. 

First, he piled mountains to the 
skies, then he climbed up these moun- 
tains which he had already piled, and 
he climbed toward "fame's alluring 
heights," which may or may not have 
been the same mountains which the 
man had already "piled." The man's 
coffers were bulging with bonds, stocks, 
gold, precious stones. The where- 
abouts of the "coffers" is not stated. 
When the man got to the top of the 
mountains. Bob sav/ him unfold the 

"columned inventory of his fabulous 
wealth and lave and steep his soul in 
gloating contemplation" — of the col- 
umned inventory, apparently. But 
why bother with the inventory when 
the bulging coffers filled with bonds, 
stocks, gold and precious stones were 
in plain view? 

Then this man apparently slid down 
from "fame's alluring heights " into the 
streets, where he passed proudly by 
amid "the shouts, the plaudits of the 
fawning throng," etc. 

Bob forgets that a crowd of process 
servers have been chasing John D. 
Rockefeller, and that the noise which 
he heard was probably that of the 

But Bob saw the man "pass on and 
up toward the zenith," etc. 

What, again? 

Why, he had already gone up once, 

But perhaps he came down just to 
accommodate Hadley, of Missouri, and 
the officials who wanted to serve papers 
on him. 

After the man had got back to the 
pinnacle of fame's alluring heights. 
Bob Taylor saw him, "look for a mo- 
ment into his own soul and blanch in 
affrighted terror." 

Think of that! 

This man did not blanch in affright, 
nor did he blanch in terror, but he 
blanched in affrighted terror — much 
as to say that he got scared because he 
was afraid ; or, to vary the phrase, that 
he was afraid because he got scared. 

*I» •?» »i» <J JfC 

Then Bob saw a cloud of remorse 
settle on the man's brow; "and the 
writhing twinge of sore regret wrench 
it into a frown." 

The man's brow was as clearly over- 
worked as was the man himself. The 
man had piled mountains to the skies, 
had mounted these mountains, had 
exhibited his bulging coffers, had un- 
folded his columned inventory, had 



laved and steeped his soul in gloating 
contemplation, had returned to town for 
the convenience of subpoena servers, had 
passed on up the mountain, again had 
seated himself among the great, had 
looked into his own soul, and had 
thereby brought on an attack of 
affrighted terror. 

Poor man! 

Now, as to the "brow" of this man. 
First, a cloud of remorse settled on it. 
Not a passing shadow, nor a fleeting 
gloom, but a come-to-stay cloud settled 

Then a writhing twinge of sore regret 
seized upon the same brow "and 
wrenched it into frowns." 

Poor brow. 

Then Bob heard the man's "heart 
cry out in its anguish, 'Oh, that,' " etc. 

After this Bob thought he had seen 
and heard enough, and he released his 
"man" without bail. 

As I have already stated, if Bob 
keeps up that lick, the plutes will have 
to knock under. 

jji 5j* *i» •?• T^ 

The more or less famous author, 
Jerome K. Jerome, is very "hard down" 
on the South because negro men are 
lynched for ravishing white women. 

But then, you see, Mr. Jerome has 
never had his sister or wife or daughter 
raped by a negro. 

If that hell-born calamity should 
ever befall him, and he should still cry 
out in favor of the criminal, his protest 
will have more weight. 

^ ^ SfC r)^ ^ 

Southern people will never be able to 
understand why the people of other 
parts of the world allow the ravisher to 
get all their sympathy. 

The victim is forgotten in the rush of 
pity for the brute who outraged her. 

The South will never understand why 
this should be so. 

When a negro is lynched because of 
his horrible crime, the victim is there in 
sight of her avengers. 

Men whose wives, sisters and 
daughters live in the same community, 
and run the same awful risks each day of 
their lives, have had their passions 
aroused by hearing the cries of the poor 

victim of beastly lust ; they have heard 
her heart-broken sobs, have seen her 
blood where it stained the earth, have 
perhaps seen her in the agonies of death. 
Therefore, the lynchers view the case 
from the standpoint of the innocent 

Would not the outside world under- 
stand the South better if it did the 
same thing ? 

Take a case which occurred near 
Charlottesville, Va. 

A white girl was returning to her 
home from the town: she had to pass 
near a swamp where a negro was 
picking blackberries. He saw his 
chance and acted upon it. Seizing her 
before she could escape his clutch, he 
dragged her into the bushes, and 
carried out his devilish purpose. After 
that, he went into the town with his 
blackberries, and peddled them about 
the streets, until he was arrested. The 
poor girl had been able to describe him, 
and she identified him after his arrest. 
The crime was so revolting, the girl's 
condition was so horrible, that the 
passions of the crowd leaped beyond 
all control, and the brute was lynched. 

Now, mark the effect upon the girl. 
She did not die from her injuries. It 
would have been better had she done 
so, for she was reserved for a fate that 
was even more awful. 

The white man whom she loved, and 
to whom she was engaged to be 
married, could not bear the idea of 
taking a ravished woman to wife. He 
broke the engagement. Then, indeed, 
the poor girl felt that the end of all 
things had came. Ruined by a negro, 
deserted by her lover, she, the innocent 
maiden, was left to suffer as though she 
had done some frightful deed, com- 
mitted some unpardonable crime. No 
wonder that the world turned dark and 
cold to her. No wonder that she lost 
her mind, became a raving maniac, 
and so — died! 

Ah, Mr. Jerome K. Jerome! Wait 
till something like that happens to 
your sweet daughter, or sister, or wife 
before you again speak quite so harshly 
of the South. 



The little old Island of Tahiti, away 
oflE in the South Seas, does not belong 
to us, but we seem determined that it 
shall not have cause to complain about 
not getting its mail. 

The Post Office Appropriation bill 
recently passed by Congress gives cer- 
tain steamship corporations $45,000 
per year to carry Tahiti mail to those 
happy islanders. 

Why not let the country which 
owns the island carry the mail to the 
islanders? And why pay our steam- 
ship companies $45,000 for the car- 
riage of this mail when the French 
steamers offered to take it for a few 
hundred dollars? 

The only reason is that the American 
corporation wanted the money, and a 
corporation Congress is willing to feed 
the corporation on your public funds. 

•J! *!» 't* *!• I* 

Did you know that you paid the 
salary of a lady who attends to the 
dinner invitations and things of that 
sort for Mrs. Roosevelt? Well, you do. 
This lady, who looks after the matters 
of sending and accepting invitations 
to society functions, is called the 
"Social Secretary" of Mrs. Roosevelt. 

Does the law anywhere authorize the 
expenditure of your public money in 
this manner? 

It does.not. 

Did nobody object to the illegal use 
of your money, when the matter was 
up in Congress? 

One man did, and only one — Hon. 
T. W. Hardwick, of Georgia. 

His was the only voice and the only 
vote against what is an absolutely un- 
lawful use of the taxes of the people. 

A member of Congress, not long ago, 
did his level best to pass an appropria- 
tion of $100,000 for a special train for 
Mr. Roosevelt. 

Any law for it? 

None whatever. 

Roosevelt is a Republican, isn't he? 

So I have understood. 

Well, was it a Republican who tried 
to break the law — a hundred thousand 
dollars' worth — for Roosevelt's benefit? 

No; it was a Democrat. In fact, 
it was a Southern Democrat — John 
Wesley Gaines, of Tennessee. 

And yet quite a lot of simlin-headed 
editors and politicians have been giving 
me "down the country" because I said 
that, under present conditions, it 
did not make a particle of difference 
whether our representation in Con- 
gress were less than it is now, or not. 

If the simlin-headed brethren can 
explain what difference it would make 
to Tennessee or Georgia whether each 
state had ten members or fifteen, I will 
take immense pleasure in publishing 
the explanation. 

Come forward, simlins. 

The Southern Railroad stole that 
"Fast Mail" subsidy again, all right 

The Democrats led the raid, and the 
obliging Republicans helped it on. 

Under the false pretense of fast mail 
forthe South, this dishonest corporation 
has for many years been robbing the 
public treasury of $98,000 per year. 

As a matter of fact, the compensation 
which this railroad is entitled to for 
carrying the mail is fixed by law. If 
Congress did not vote the extra $98,000 
the people would get their mail just 
the same. The law is ample. The 
Post Office Department could compel 
the railroad to do pist what it does now, 
in the matter of the mails. 

But the Southern Railroad has its 
grip on so many Democratic Congress- 
men from the South that it gets $98,000 
of extra pay every year. 

It is a steal, pure and simple. 

Not a member of the House from 
Georgia voted against the job, excepting 
Gordon Lee and Thomas W. Hardwick. 

And yet the simlin-headed brethren 
stoutly maintain that I am an enemy 
of the South, because I said that, as 
matters now stand, a few members 
less, or a few members more, in the 
House of Representatives would make 
no earthly difference to the South. 

It would tickle me to death to have 
one of the simlins come forward and 
explain what difference it would make. 

Come one at a time, simlins. 

The Compelling Call 



OUISE read again the letter 
which the postman had just de- 
My Dear Mrs. Kenyan (it ran) : 

I find that I am growing too feeble to give 
to my little orphan granddaughter the care 
she should have, and to you, her dead 
mother's sister, I appeal in her behalf. 

When I am gone, you and your brother 
Frank will be her only kindred. Pardon the 
expression of my reasons for not wishing to 
appeal to him unless I must. Mr. Cather- 
wood and his wife belong to that class in the 
social world that leaves its children to the 
care of servants. Though wealthy and cul- 
tured, neither would have the time, nor, 
doubtless, the inclination, to give to sensi- 
tive little Alma the affection she would re- 
ceive from you. 

You know, however, that she is penniless. 
Her father left little, and my annuity dies 
with me. I have not been able to save 
anything to smooth her future. 

Can you and your husband take her into 
your childless home ? 

Sincerely yours, 

Celine Fontanel. 

As she finished the last uneven lines, 
the impulsive little woman who read 
them pressed the letter against her 
breast, quivering with the sudden joy 
of realizing, even in this way, the hopes 
and prayers of her married life. " Oh ! ' ' 
she breathed ; and in such a moment a 
woman sounds the depths of her reli- 
gion; "Oh, dear God, you are good to 

She turned quickly to her desk, and 
took out pen and paper to claim at 
once the treasure. 

It would be so good to have her — 
Alma, the sensitive little girl whose soul 
fluttered in her innocent gray eyes! 
They would be so proud of her, Herbert 

She straightened quickly, her glad 

face reddening with a guilty flush. 
Herbert! Had she been disloyal? It 
was the first time she had thought of 
her husband since the letter came. 
How strange that she, who had always 
turned to him for the decision of mat- 
ters great and small, should have for- 
gotten him in this supreme minute! 
She could not answer the letter until 
she had spoken to him. But it would 
be all right, of course. He would be as 

proud as 

She was conscious that her interlaced 
fingers were pressing down a question 
that was hardening painfully in her 
breast, and she threw out her hands 
dispellingly. How foolish she was! 
Just this way people conjured the 
ghosts of things that tortured them. 
Herbert v/ould consent; he would, of 
course. Why should he not? 

The answer came with a rush of 
recollection from which she covered her 
eyes. Herbert's nerves; the need of 
absolute quiet; his none too lucrative 
law practice; his slender, undeveloped 
affection for children. All that, against 
her hungering mother-love. 

A declaration from the past came 
back with cruel emphasis: "Louise, 
I'm glad that we haven't any children — 
they'd disturb the peace of our home." 
He had said it thankfully, once, when a 
trying day in court had frayed his nerves 
to the point of collapse, and she had 
soothed him until hope had returned. 
She had forgiven and almost forgotten, 
attributing at the time the cruel words 
to his broken health. Now, she put 
the declaration from her, impatient 
with herself for remembering. 

You didn 't mean it , " she whispered, 



addressing her absent husband; "it is 
your nerves, and they are so much im- 
proved. Don't you see, dear — don't 
you see that it would be better for us 
both to have her? Little footsteps 
along the hall, Herbert; a little voice in 
our home. Someone to plan for; some- 
one to have for our own. Can't you 
see it would be better for us both ? " 

Of course, he would see it as she did. 
He would be home presently, and she 
could ask him. Together they would 
answer the letter. It was time now to 
prepare dinner. 

She went down to the kitchen, and 
hastily raked her fire. She would not 
listen to the doubts that confronted 
her. She clung to the belief that her 
husband would consent. But the 
kitchen has a way of robbing theory of 
its roses, and presently she was voicing 
the troubled prayer; " If Herbert would 
only consent!" 

She spread a violet embroidered 
centerpiece on the dining-cloth, and set 
a bowl of the blossoms on it; but the 
gray drip of the foggy afternoon chilled 
her as she passed the dining-room win- 
dows, and she lifted the dark-hued 
flowers from the table and folded the 
centerpiece with quick fingers. 

" You'll make it sweet for us here to- 
night," she said apologetically, bend- 
ing her head to the blossoms as she 
carried them to the living room. " But 
you understand, don't you? It's foggy 
and gray and cold outside, and if you 
had been bent at your desk all day, if 
your nerves were weak and tired, you'd 
want a little bright color and warmth 
when you came to your wife and your 
dinner. There! I'll put 3'ou near his 
' Modem Painters.' Carnations will be 
better for the table." 

Her hair was blown and her color was 
heightened when she came from the 
garden with a dewy red bunch in her 
hand. She arranged the spicy flowers 
in a slender vase on a centerpiece 'that 
caught their vivid shades. A blossom 
fell, and she let it lie on the white 
damask, but the second that fell she 
tucked in the coils of her ruffled dark 
hair, laughing a catching little laugh at 
a woman's subtle wiles to gain her will. 

She laid covers for two, and threw a 
log on the fire, pausing a minute to 
muse over the crackling blaze. 

"If — if — " Through the tortur- 
ing doubts, she caught her husband's 
footfall on the stairs. She ran down 
the hallway, reaching the door as he 
opened it. 

" I'm so glad you've come," she said, 
putting her arms around his neck and 
lifting her face to his; "I'm so glad 
you've come." 

A gleam shot from his tired eyes ; his 
drooping, boyish face lighted. " You're 
a mighty sweet little woman to come 
to," he responded affectionately, hold- 
ing her from him that he might admire 
the effect of the red carnation in her 

" I thought you'd like it," she smiled. 

He folded his arms about her thank- 
fully. "The years make little differ- 
ence to you, lassie Louise. Are there 
many women who care to please their 
husbands when they have been married 
seven years?" 

"Maybe there aren't many men 
who'd appreciate it," she laughed, a bit 
uncomfortable under the recollection 
that a special motive lay behind her 
desire to be fair for him. " Now, guess 
what we'll have for dinner?" 

"Something good, I hope; though I 
didn't know I was hungry until I saw 

"Then I'm the sauce piquante?" 

"The best in the world," he asserted. 

She patted his cheek. "Get into 
your jacket as quickly as you can, and 
come out." She hurried back to the 
kitchen, rubbing her little palms to- 
gether as she went. "If — if — oh, 
Herbert! you will consent. You must, 
dear. If I could ask you now, and 
have it over — but I won't annoy you 
until you've had your dinner. You 
will consent; I know you will." 

The warmth and color of the dining- 
room acted on his fatigue like a tonic. 
A thought went through his mind as 
they took their places: What would 
life be if, after the irritating toil of the 
day, he could not find rest in his home! 

Louise's nervousness relieved itself 
in soft chatter during the meal, but 



with the coffee httle chills of doubt be- 
gan to run along her spine, and her 
flushed cheeks paled. Herbert, with a 
sigh of contentment, put down his cup. 
Now was her time. 

"You look so comfortable in that 
brown jacket," she said, taking one of 
the sidetracks by which a woman 
approaches the main theme. 

He nodded cozily. 

She went and stood behind his chair, 
putting her arms around his neck, and 
bending her head to his. 

"I had a letter from Alma's grand- 
mother today, Herbert." 

"Yes? Is Alma well?" 

Louise nodded. "That's nice," he 
said; "I know you are fond of the 

She brightened and plunged into her 
subject. "So fond that I want you to 
let me take her and care for her — I 
want to make her ours, Herbert." 

He drew quickly from her embrace, 
the weary irritation coming back to his 

"Listen!" she said before he could 
speak. " Her grandmother is growing 
too old to care for her; she must give 
her up. There are only brother Frank 
and I left, and he — Herbert, dear, we 
need her. Can't we give her a home ? " 

" Frank is the person to take her, 
Louise. He can give her advantages 
she couldn't have with us." 

Louise placed the old lady's letter in 
his hand to make its own appeal. He 
read it, and then laid it down indiffer- 

"An old lady's fancy," he com- 
mented. "Frank's a generous man, 
very generous — and he hasn't any 

"Neither have we, Herbert." Her 
hands crept wistfully to his shoulders. 

"No; but — " The fingers of his 
left hand flirted their nails against the 

"She's my dead sister's child, Her- 
bert. Shouldn't we do our share?" 

"Yes, if we could afford it, but we 
can't. It's all I can do now to keep up 
my insurance and continue the pay- 
ments on our home. I couldn't do it 
at all, if you weren't the best little 

manager in the world," he added 

"I could scrape even more, if you'd 
let me have Alma. I know I could." 

"And kill yourself working and sew- 
ing for her." 

"Oh, I'd love to!" she exclaimed 
childishly. "We could manage it 
easily. Herbert, dear, say yes!" The 
mother-love throbbed in her appeal, 
but the man did not recognize the call. 

"I'm sorry, Louise; it's impossible. 
I would not deny you anything if I 
could see my way to giving it. But, 
even if we could afford it financially, 
my nerves could not bear the noise of 
a child. We've a haven here now. 
When I come home at night, deep 
down I'm thankful that we have no 

A cry smothered in the woman's 
throat. The repeated thanksgiving 
was, to her, a sacrilege. 

"Don't you understand, Louise?" 
he continued, softening a little at the 
whiteness of her face. " Don't you see 
it is impossible to take her? I'm 
doing my level best now, but you see 
what a poor little best it is." 

She was quick to soothe the awaken- 
ing discontent. "This home is all I 
want as long as I have you, Herbert. 
But " 

"It is not all that I wanted you to 
have, not near what I dreamed I could 
give you. But a man can't do more 
than he can. I can't do what you've 
asked me." 

He pushed back his chair. Louise 
silently carried the dishes to the 
kitchen, and went about straightening 
the dining-room. Silently, too, he 
watched her. When she came near 
him in her work, he put his hand on her 

"Louise, do you not understand?" 

"I can't," she answered. "I can 
only see that it would be better for us 
both, that we could manage it if we 
would. Think of it, Herbert. Little 
footsteps along the hall ; a little voice in 
our home ; someone to plan for ; some- 
one to have for our own. I've never 
wanted anything so much in my life." 

He dropped his hand. "If you 



loved me, Louise, ^'ou would not try to 
deprive me of the little peace I have." 

The weariness of his voice stung her 
to repentance. "I do love you," she 
choked; "whatever comes I must al- 
ways love you. But " 

Her rebellion was new to him. 
Hitherto he had decided; she had 
acquiesced. He thought her present 
attitude ungracious. 

" Haven't I always done what I 
believed best for us both, Louise? " 


He patted her shoulder. "You 
must believe I am doing that now 
when I tell you we cannot take the 

That night Lomse wrote the letter 
which gave little Alma into her imcle's 

"Alma!" Mr. Catherwood's call was 

The response came quickly from a 
room across the hall. "Yeth, Uncle 

Mr. Catherwood's florid brow con- 
tracted. " What's that? You're lisping 
again, aren't you? How many more 
months will you take to stop? Leave 
your practice now, and come here. 
Your Aunt Louise wishes you to go on 
an errand." 

A fair child of eight years hastened 
into the sewing-room of her uncle's 
elegant home. Embarrassment over 
her delinquency did not quite suppress 
her delight in serving "Aunt Louise." 

Mr. Catherwood watched her across 
the room. "Turn out your toes, 
miss!" he directed. "The first thing 
you know your right foot will be step- 
ping on your left. Turn 'em out." 

The child jerked her right foot into 
position, offering a flushed apologetic 
smile to her uncle. 

"That left foot there — look at it! 
Alma, are you ever going to remember 
that left foot?" 

The inflexible left foot turned slowly. 
"Ye-es, Uncle Frank," she responded 

Louise hastily broached the subject 
of the errand. "Dear," she said softly, 
"could you get me a spool of sewing 

silk to match this?" She held up a 
yard of filmy pink silk. 

An ecstatic light touched the child's 
eyes. "Oh, isn't it pretty! Is it — is 
it going on a dress for me? " 

"Yes, dear; it's to be puffed into a 
yoke for this. I thought you'd like it." 

"Oh, auntie auntie — "Alma caught 
her lip with her small white teeth, and 
glanced at Mr. Catherwood. 

" Caught yourself just in time, didn't 
you?" he said. "Finish it now as it 
should be." 

"I think it will be very nice, Aunt 
Louise." The enthusiasm had died 
from the childish voice. 

"We'll make it pretty," said Louise, 
throwing her brightness into the 
charged atmosphere. " Get the sewing 
silk as nearly the shade as you can, 

Glad to escape her uncle's vigilant 
eye, Alma quickly took the parcel with 
her left hand, and started for the door. 

"One minute. Alma, if you please." 
The relentlessness she had come to 
recognize as inevitable was in Mr. 
Catherwood's voice. Her clear eyes 
met his fairly. 

" Every day for the four months you 
have been in this house," he began; 
" I've taught you the use of your right 

The culprit awkwardly transferred 
the package. " I forgot. Uncle Frank." 

"You always forget — it's your one 
excuse. I often wonder what substi- 
tute you have for a brain. Sawdust, 
most likely. Don't stand there all day 
like Patience," he concluded irritably, 
"start on your errand." Alma ran. 

Louise regarded her brother disap- 
provingly. " She's only a child, Frank, 
with rather more than her share of 
childish faults; but her grandmother 
was old, you know. Don't be so hard 
on her," she pleaded. "She'll forget 
them all the sooner if you don't make 
her self-conscious." 

"She's a little Indian that you can't 
teach anything, and that you'll never 
get a particle of thanks for trying to 
teach," he asserted. " She's been spoil- 
ing for a whipping all week, and she'll 
get it, I'll promise you." 



"You don't whip her — that sensitive 
child! " Louise shuddered. 

"H'm! I've taken the 'sensitiveness' 
out of her by punishment," he boasted, 
sljraightening his broad back against 
the mantel shelf and digging his hands 
complacently into his coat pockets. 
"When I first got her, there were tears 
from morning until night. New, we 
don't have any tears whatever hap- 

The woman's throat grew painful. 
"I'm afraid you're taking the wrong 
way," she said. 

" It's the way that is accomplishing 
results," he answered shortly. 

She regarded him critically, this 
well-fed brother of hers, who, even in 
his cruelty, meant to be kind. She 
opened her lips; then shut them reso- 
lutely. She could not tell him that he 
was accomplishing results that had no 
place in his plan. Her thoughts and 
her fingers were so busy that she did 
not observe the subsequent silence. 

Presently Mr. Catherwood went to 
the windows, drew aside their drapery, 
and stood alertly watching the street. 
"I wonder what's keeping her!" he 

"She has hardly had time to get to 
the store, Frank." 

"Nonsense! It is not two blocks 
away. She's indulging in another of 
her pleasant habits — loitering. There 
is always a stray puppy, or a baby, or 
just nothing at all, that engrosses her 
attention — and her errand can wait." 

Louise began a running comment on 
recent happenings, but her effort to 
divert his impatience was futile. If he 
joined in her chatter a minute, he in- 
variably reverted to the child's delay. 
Finally he called a maid and sent her 
after the delinquent. 

Louise regretted having sent Alma 
on the errand. She regretted her own 
insistence, when Catherwood and his 
wife had taken the child, that she be 
allowed to make for her the clothes 
they provided. During the anxious 
minutes of the maid's absence, Louise 
lived again the night she had pleaded 
with her husband to take Alma into 
their home. She had subdued the 

rebellion his refusal had stirred in her, 
but now, the first time in her seven 
years of married life, she wondered 
whether her submission to his will in 
this particular had not been an 

The street door closed. Two little 
feet came flying up the stairs, and 
Alma, flushed and breathless, came 
into the room and laid the package in 
her aunt's lap. Mr. Catherwood mo- 
tioned her to a chair. 

"Where did you meet the maid?" he 

"On the way back. Uncle Frank." 
Alma felt the storm coming, and lifted 
her proud little head to meet it, but 
there was no defiance in her clear eyes . 

"Your Aunt Inez is away today, 
isn't she?" 

"Ye-es, Uncle Frank." 

"And who has charge of you when 
she is away?" 

"You, Uncle Frank." 

"H'm! H'm! " was his pleased cor- 

Louise glanced up quickly and saw 
the enjoyment on his face. She went 
as white as the garment on which she 

Mr. Catherwood's business had never 
given him control of anyone. He had 
married a wealthy woman, a woman 
capable of managing her fortune and 
her husband. No children had come 
to them. With his first taste of power, 
when Alma entered his household, he 
had become a martinet. 

"And what is the thing to do when 
you're sent on an errand?" His cold 
glance fixed on the child's face, but she 
met it steadily. 

"To go straight there and back, sir." 

"What!" he thundered. "To go 
straight there and back — what?" 

Alma's little fingers crept to her 
throat. "To go straight there and 
back. Uncle Frank." 

The parrot-like diction came from 
her tongue haltingly. It had been hard 
to remember "sir" and "ma'am" for 
grandmother; it was harder to forget 
them, now that her guardian forbade 
their use. 

"To go straight there and back, eh? 



And that's just what you didn't do, 
isn't it?" 

Louise grew restless. "Alma had 
to wait her turn at the store, Frank." 
She could not resist the interference, 
though she felt it was not wise. Alma's 
truthfulness made it useless. 

"Was the store crowded?" he asked. 

"No, Uncle Frank." 

"Then what in the world kept you 
so long?" 

" I didn't know I was long, Uncle 

"Oh, you didn't! What passed the 
time so quickly for you?" 

The irony was bitter, but sudden 
recollection suffused the little girl's 
face with ecstasy. 

"The sky!" she breathed; "oh, it's 
all Httle ripples of soft white clouds!" 

Louise gave her brother a pleading 
smile of comprehension, but it gained 
no response. 

"So the sky clouded your intellect, 
and you couldn't remember to come 
home," he badgered. "Well, we'll 
have to get it clear before you're sent 
again. Go to the dining-room and get 
a teaspoon, and bring me that bottle 
of castor oil from the medicine closet." 

Sudden nausea turned the little face 
gray. She stood a few seconds, seem- 
ingly stunned, her eyes still meeting 
his. Then her hand went up to her 
throat again, and, without one plead- 
ing word, she left the room. 

Louise was on her feet, her fingers 
pressed into her palms. Mr. Cather- 
wood waved her aside. 

"Now, sit down, Louise, and calm 
yourself, or I'M give you some, too. 
You didn't take her when you had the 
chance, and you're not to interfere 
with my methods of discipline." 

"I'll take her now," blazed Louise; 
" I'll work for her myself, if need be — 
anything, anything, rather than that 
she should be tortured." 

" Don't be absurd! " he said. There's 
no torture in a spoonful of castor oil. 
As for taking her, you can do it when- 
ever you like — but doubtless Herbert 
has some say in the matter." 

She remembered her husband's stern 
decision. "Please don't make her 

take that dose," she pleaded, her 
impotence sending her back to her 

"I never break my word," he an- 
swered as Alma came into the room. 
He poured a spoonful of oil, and handed 
it to the child. "Take that," he or- 
dered, "in three parts." 

Louise turned her head, but Alma's 
hand was steady as she lifted the spoon 
to her lips. 

" Pretty nice, isn't it? " Mr. Cather- 
wood regarded her with pleasure as she 
took the first sip. 

"No, Uncle Frank." 

"Have some more. I'm glad you 
like it so well." The second portion 
was swallowed. 

"Must I — must I take it all, Uncle 
Frank?" The question had the harsh 
tension of being forced out against her 

"Yes," he said, "and we'll v/aive 
manners so that you can lick the spoon. 
There, now; replace the bottle in the 
closet, wash the spoon, and then come 
back here." 

She complied silently, and it angered 
Mr. Catherwood that she made no out- 
cry. When she returned to the room 
he soothed himself by scolding her. 
Every fault received more than its due. 
Her heedlessness, her forgetfulness, her 
lisp, the toes that would turn in, the 
use of her unfortunate left hand. The 
little girl slowly gathered herself almost 
double with shame. 

"Sit up straight, miss! I think 
you'll remember now to return quickly 
when sent on an errand, won't you?" 

She straightened, lifting her eyes to 
his with her reply. " I hope so, Uncle 

"I beg your pardon," he said ex- 
travagantly; "you'll what?" 

"I'll try to. Uncle Frank." 

His lips lengthened grimly. "I am 
waiting, Alma, for you to tell me you 

The child hesitated. "I can't say I 
will. Uncle Frank," she answered fi- 
nally ; " but I'll try to, the very hardest 
I can." 

" You will say it tonight before you 
sleep," he declared. " Now, go to yoxir 



room and do your tables all afternoon. 
When I come from the office tonight 
I'll whip you for your defiance." 

He called to her before she reached 
the hall. " Have I ever broken my 
word, when I told you I would whip 

"No, Uncle Frank," was the low 

"And you know you may expect it 
before you sleep?" 

"Ye-es, Uncle Frank." 

"All right. You have four good 
hours in which to think of it." 

The portiere dropped behind the 
child, and Louise stood facing her 
brother, her slender form strong with 

"I'm glad that you keep your word," 
she said. "I'm thankful that you 
never break it — for you have told me 
within the hour that I could take Alma 
when I willed. I'll take her now! 
When I go home today, she goes with 
me, and I'll keep her if I have to work 
my fingers off to do it!" 

Her eyes blazed; there was some- 
thing a little wild in them. It oc- 
curred to Mr. Catherwood that perhaps 
he had gone too far. 

"Don't get so ruffled, Louise. Her- 
bert's nerves are not any better now 
than they were four months ago. It 
was his physical condition, you remem- 
ber, more than his finances that pre- 
vented your taking Alma in the first 

He did not regard the child with any 
affection; he had never wanted her. 
But his sense of mastery was sweet and 
he did not now want to let her go. " I 
hardly think," he added insinuatingly, 
"that it's wise to have Alma come be- 
tween your husband and yourself." 

"I'm going to take her." Louise 
was resolute. " I'm going to take her 
today. Don't you see what it is that 
makes the child forget? Don't you 
see her mother's craving for the beauti- 
ful of life reflected in her? Don't you 
see the inheritance her artist father 
gave her? And you'd try to eradicate 
that with a rod! But you won't! I'll 
give her her chance. I'll take her with 
me when I go." 

"You're like a tigress," he said. 
"Remember, if you take her and can- 
not keep her — ^remember that I'll not 
bring her here again. If the fruit of 
your folly is failure, Alma goes to a 

"She goes to mine today," Louise 
flashed, and she went and stood before 
the door of Alnia's room, fearing that 
he might try to redeem his wretched 

When the street door closed behind 
him, she went in to the child. The 
room was darkened, and on the floor 
near the windows, in the faint bars of 
light that fell below the drawn shades. 
Alma's right hand was awkwardly pen- 
ciling the multiplication tables. 

"Dearest, won't you strain your 

eyes I 

In her endeavor to ignore the 

painful trial through which the little 
girl had passed Louise did not note her 
criticism. "Why have you drawn the 
curtains, dear?" 

Alma brightened at the caressing 
word, but her voice came huskily from 
her pressing throat. 

"There are pink baby roses on the 
walls. Aunt Louise, and the sky is still 
little ripples. I — I was afraid I'd see, 
and forget again." 

Louise was down beside her in- 
stantly, and drew the child into her 

"My baby! My poor dear baby!" 
she whispered. "It's all right now; 
it's going to be right from now on. 
You're coming home with me. Alma." 

"For always?" It was a quick, 
tight gasp, and the gray eyes closed. 
They had openly met so much; they 
could not meet the probable negative. 

Louise kissed the closed lids. " For 
always, my own. I'm going to give 
you all that I can — and you're going 
to be happy." 

The small arms went quickly around 
Louise's neck, but drew away in their 
first pressure. " And Uncle Herbert ? " 
she asked. 

Louise drew a painful breath. Who 
had dared to tell the child of Herbert's 

But the question brought Louise face 



to face with the future. She could see 
dispassionately now; anger had dulled 
her reason in her encounter with her 
brother. A surge of emotions choked 
her. She recognized the conflict in 
her distinctly: it was the mother-love 
warring with her affection for the hus- 
band who sought to suppress that 
love. And with the clearer vision came 
the blow that her seven years of petting, 
of smoothing the way for him, of 
yielding him implicit obedience, had 
been the means of developing in him 
the nerves she sought to subdue, of 
retarding the growth she had fondly 
believed she had encouraged. She 
faced the conflict, and made her first 
unaided decision. The moment was 
poignant, but she smiled on the 

"Uncle Herbert likes you." She 
committed him as far as she could. 
Then her lips set determinedly. " You 
are going to be happy. Alma." 

The frail little form quivered. Louise 
held her close, caressing and consoling 
until tears came to relieve the bitter- 
ness of the months she had spent in her 
uncle's care. When she could speak, 
she said: 

"Please — please may I call you just 
'Auntie?' It means that I love you, 
and the other don't." 

The excitement and the joy of her re- 
lease proved beyond her strength; she 
was ijl when they reached Louise's 
home that afternoon. Louise tucked 
her comfortably in bed in the guest 
chamber and sat beside her until she 
fell asleep. The dark lashes curled 
from the tear-reddened lids and lay 
pathetically on the pale cheeks. Louise 
kissed them gently. How frail, how 
sweet, how pretty she was! She was 
going to be happy! She should be 
happy ! 

"Oh, Herbert, Herbert," Louise 
breathed into the portiere to which she 
clung in sudden fear, "it has come to 
this: Alma and you and I together, or 
Alma and I alone." 

She went down to the kitchen and 
prepared the dinner. She laid the 
covers, choosing again the carnation 

centerpiece that had brightened the 
table that fog-dripped night four 
months before when she had failed. 
Would she fail today? Her hands 
caught in a clasp that pained. Every 
beat of her heart was a prayer that this 
time Herbert would understand. 

Presently his footstep sounded on 
the stairway. Her knees trembled, 
her head quivered, as she went through 
the hall to meet him, but her little 
hands were clenched, the fingers pressed 
tight to the palms. 

She stood a little back from the door, 
as he opened it, but he did not notice. 
Neither did he observe the trouble in 
her eyes. 

"Don't I get a kiss, lassie?" he 
asked, neatly folding his gloves. 

When she did not respond, he looked 
at her quickly, but, deeming her aloof- 
ness caprice, he lifted her face. 

"Don't Herbert!" she said; "at 
least, not yet." 

He knew then that something was 
wrong. He sighed wearily — he was 
accustomed to brightness when he 
reached home. What had put away 
his wife's cheery smile? Household 
troubles should have been corrected 
earlier in the day; the annoyance 
should have disappeared or have been 
suppressed before he reached home. 

"Well?" he asked querulously. 

"It's Alma," she said nervously; 
"I've brought her home. Oh, listen! 
Listen! — " The frown that came to 
his face loosened her tongue. Before 
he spoke he must know the circum- 
stances, and must weigh them. His 
decision must rest on them, and then, 
and only if that decision should be 
adverse, should he know the greater 
question she had faced that day, and 
the resolution she had made. 

In quick, catching words, she de- 
tailed the scene she had witnessed, her 
indignation staining her cheeks. Her 
eyes flashed as they had upon her 
brother, and her startled husband read 
in them a determination of which he 
did not deem her capable. 

"But, Louise — " he expostulated. 

She held up her hand. "There is but 
one thing to be said, Herbert. Alma is 



asleep upstairs — is she asleep in her 
own home ? ' ' 

Her voice was cold; the question 
tense. But even as she framed it, 
Louise knew that she was playing a 
part, knew that her husband was too 
dear to her to voluntarily live her life 
without him. The small clenched fists 
relaxed; her hands went out to him. 
With a quick step she was the Louise 
of old, her soft arms about his 
neck forestalHng a decision which 

neither might have been able to 

"Give her to me, Herbert," she 
whispered. "I need her! I want her 
so!" The call of a woman's soul was on 
her trembling lips. "Herbert, don't 
you understand?" 

The majesty of it awed him, and he 
bent his head reverently to hers. 

"Yes, I understand, I understand," 
he said. " You're a good little woman, 
Louise. We'll manage it somehow." 

Falling Leaves 


ONE by one they fall and fade- 
Some in the sunshine, some in the shade; 
Some in the bright and glowing noon. 
Some 'neath the cold and quiet moon ; 
One whirleth here, one falleth there. 
Till the ground is cover'd, the bough is bare; 
So every passing hour receives 
These falling, fading, dying leaves. 

One by one we fall and fade — 

Some in the sunshine, some in the shade; 

Some in the broad, unclouded light, 

Some in the cold and quiet night ; 

One mourneth here, one parteth there. 

Till the soul is heavy, the home is bare; 

So every passing hour receives 

These fading hearts, these dving leaves. 

Not Compulsory 

-pHE HON. THOMAS ROTT-But, my dear sir, all politicians are not 
-^ necessarily grafters! 

Plain Citizen— No, I don't suppose there is any compulsion about it. 

Somebody Is Going to Get Hart 
Handy y in Duluth News- Tribune 

King Joe Kan{on) ate: " It's no ase, boys, I'm afraid 

I can't stop it! It s'mply won't obey me!" 
Warren, in Boston Herald 

Why Doesn't the Dog Go After the Thieves f 
Morris, in Spokane Spokesman-Review 




THE one old man sat by the bed, 
and the other lay in it. Neither 
spoke a word. 

Ten minutes passed, and more. They 
remained thus together, almost immov- 
able. The one old man sat by the bed, 
his head sunk forward, his underlip pro- 
truding; both hands were folded upon 
his stick. The other lay staring, as it 
seemed, at nothing, his crumpled shirt 
unloosened about his scraggy neck. 
Around his hollow face the ragged hairs 
streamed wide. 

"You're in a bad way," said, at last, 
the old man in the chair. 

He in the bed stared steadily on. 
"You've said that before," he an- 
swered. " 'Twas the last thing that 
you said." 

"Well — it's true." 

" I'd like a bit of news," retorted the 
invalid, " I can find out about the way 
I'm in, for myself." 

"You might be civiller, Jan," ob- 
jected his visitor, "to a man that's 
come near on two mile, to see ye." 

"It ain't more'n one and a half," 
said the sick man, "nor as much." 

' ' And his best milker off her feed. ' ' 

The invalid wriggled himself round 
in a series of j erks . "Off her feed ? " he 
cried, "Which is it? Liza?" 

The other shook his long head up and 
down. " Liza, " he said. " Something 
gone wrong in her innards. She can't 
tell what." 

" Have ye had the vet?" 

"Pooh, the vet! If a cow could 
speak, she'd soon let a vet know what 
a fool he is. The old woman can't tell. 
It was her as I meant." 

"Cows is cows," replied the invalid 
and lay back a long time, thinking. 

June, 1906 — 513 

Presently he remarked: "I had a cow 
went like that, seventeen years ago, 
come next midsummer. Nobody knew 
what ailed her. She went about bel- 
lowing all day." 

"Liza doesn't bellow," interposed 
the visitor. The other took no notice 
of the interruption. 

" She'd stand in a ditch for hours, and 
low, with her feet in the water. To 
hear her like that, loud and long, it was 
like the psalm-singing in church." 

" Did she get over it ? " asked the vis- 
itor, anxious for Liza. 

" She died. And when we opened her 
we found the old woman's church-book 
that had been missing. So that ex- 
plained it." He sank back with the 
effort of all this conversation, and, in 
fact, "the old woman" had already 
come forward to the bed. 

" It's time you were going, neighbor," 
she began; "the doctor says as he 
mayn't talk above more than a minute 
or two." Her husband broke into an 
angry gurgle. "And not get into one 
of his rages," added the old woman, 
hastily, "or the doctor says as he'll 
burst something, and that'll be the end 
of him." 

"D — the doctor," said the invalid 

The visitor had risen solemnly and 
shuffled to the door. "There's more 
chance of the doctor doing that to you 
than you to the doctor," he remarked, 
with an ugly chuckle. " By the bye, I 
forgot to tell you, the young baron has 
altered the direction of the Death- 

Both husband and wife gave utter- 
ance to a cry of astonished dismay. 

" He's making a new garden and a 



play-game place close to the castle," 
continued the visitor, "and so he's 
blocked up the Death- Way and carried 
it round straight to the highway. 
Round to the right, you know, by the 
clump of larches. ' ' Both listeners nod- 
ded. "Yes, that's what he's been and 

' 'To think of it ! " said the old woman , 
with uplifted hands. "Moved the 
Death-Way! Lord! Lord! to think 
what the rich may do!" 

The sick man struck the coverlet. 
"D — it, he can't!" he cried. "There's 
not a power in the land could move the 
Death-Way: the Queen couldn't do it! 
I've heard my old father say a hundred 
times that the Death-Way was here 
long afore there was any such thing as 
a king." 

" 'Tis as old as death, belike," sug- 
gested the visitor, standing by the door. 

The woman nodded. "He can't do 
it," repeated the sick man, nodding 
also. "I'm eighty-three, come next 
Christmas, and my father was eighty- 
seven when he went, in harvest-time, 
and neither of us has known of a man, 
woman or child that died in this hamlet 
but was carried along the Death-Way 
to Overbeek churchyard. Lord ! How 
was we to be buried, if he moves the 
Death-Way? Answer me that ? " He 
half lifted himself in the bed. 

" We shall have to go round," replied 
the more laconic visitor. The old 
woman seemed suddenly to have re- 
verted to the peril from which the great 
tidings had distracted her. "Ye'U be 
taken along quick enough, if you go on 
like this!" she cried, turning to the 
bed. " Doesn't the doctor tell ye every 
time he comes that ye'll kill yourself by 
moving about?" 

"He'll have to go round," said the 
visitor, who had passed through the 

The words infuriated the invalid. 
" Never," he shouted, regardless of his 
wife. "Here, Jan! Piet! Where are 
the boys?" 

" Gone to the pigs," replied the wife. 
"They'll be back in a minute or two. 
There was a butcher from Wyk " 

"What, and they never told me? 

How much did he offer? Do they 
think I'm dead already? No, not by 
ten years yet! I've a better constitu- 
tion than my father. Look here, how 
much did you say?" 

"Why, he was only a-come to have 
a look at them. You'll hear all about 
it. Lie still, father, do, and don't 

"How can I not talk about the 
Death- Way? And as for not moving! 
I wonder how much he'll offer. Pork 
is dear just now. He ought to offer 
twenty-two cents!" He looked round 
at her with eager, wistful eyes. "D'ye 
think he'll offer twenty-two cents?" 

"No," she said, walking across to 
the fire, and removing the kettle. 
' ' Pigs is down . ' ' 

The old man gave a faint howl. 
"Like my luck!" he said. "I've 
never sold yet that some other man 
didn't sooner, or later, sell dearer. It 
might be twenty-one and a half now, 
don't you — oh! oh! oh!" He sat up 
in bed, bent double with internal 
suffering, his face grew livid. 

The wife ran up to him. "Deary! 
Deary me ! Is it one of your spasms ? ' ' 
she cried. 

His pains prevented his answering: 
they increased upon him: she hurried 
to and fro in the chamber. "It's all 
your fault," she said several times, 
" a-twisting yourself in the bed ! " He 
was in too great pain to reply. He lay 
forward, alternately moaning and 
shrieking. So the doctor found him, 
a few minutes later. The doctor 

"What's he been doing, Vrouw 
Putters ? ' ' demanded the doctor. ' ' Jan 
Putters, who's to blame for this?" 

"He is," replied the wife. "He's 
been fussing and fuming about the 
Death- Way, as if he was a-going to be 
taken along it tomorrer!" Then, sud- 
denly, she began to cry. "He don't 
even abuse me, doctor," she sobbed. 
"He can't get to do it. Lord, what a 
bad way he must be in!" 

"He is in a bad way," assented the 
doctor, who had been removing the 
patient's bandages. "His — Heavens, 
man, hadn't I told you to lie still for 



your life ? Are you mad that you want 
to kill yourself, Jan Putters?" 

"No, nor to be killed by a doctor," 
retorted the sick man, between his 

"Well, I shall have to have a try at 
that, all the same," replied the doctor, 
roughly. "I must take immediate 
measures,or you haven't a day to live." 

The wife shrieked pitiful protests: 
The old man turned his head angrily 
in her direction. "Have ye never 
heard doctors' talk before? " he gasped. 
"I've a better constitution than my — 
father." Through the half-open door 
his two stalwart sons came in, with 
awkward vigor and a smell of the damp 
outside. "Boys," he stammered, 
"neighbor Lops has been here. Liza's 
gone, like me. There's something 
wrong in her innards." Then he fell 
back, gurgling: the sweat stood on his 

"You must help me, " said the doctor 
to the sons, "and be quick!" They 
were clumsy: they did their best. No 
deftness of doctor or assistants could 
have saved the sick man agonies of 
suffering. When at last the operation 
was completed, he lay like one more 
dead than alive. 

"And what do you think now, 
doctor?" questioned the anxious wife, 
by the door. 

"He may pull through," replied the 
man of science. His tone was very 
serious; he put up his little case. 

"If he doesn't move?" 

"If he doesn't move, of course. 
He has brought this last crisis upon 

The patient faintly opened one eye. 
"I hear you," he whispered, audibly, 
"my constitution — " he could get no 
farther. From sheer fatigue he lay 
silent through two long hours, while 
the twilight gradually glimmered into 

Then he moved his head and called, 
in a murmur, for his eldest, Jan. 

"Lift me up!" he said, as his son 
bent over him. 

"Lord, father, didn't you hear the 
doctor say ' ' 

"Lift me up!" The son had never 

during fifty years of his life, disobeyed 
that voice: he could not begin now. 

"D'ye believe in doctors?" con- 
tinued the father with a sneer. "As 
well believe in vets. I don't need a 
doctor to tell me how I feel. I've got 
something to say. Turn the old 
'oman out. " 

As if she heard them, the wife glanced 
across from some mess she was con- 
cocting for the invalid. "Ye must 
die, if ye want to," she said. 

"Tell her the chicks are running 
loose!" whispered the old man. 

"Mother, you go out!" said the son. 
He faced her with a heavy air of com- 
mand. She looked him silently in the 
eyes and did as he bade her. 

The old man chuckled feebly. 
"You're a chip of the old block," he 
said. "Look here, Jan, doctor or no 
doctor, want or want not, my time's 
come." The son would have objected, 
but old Jan stopped him, "D' ye 
think I thought I was going to live 
forever?" he asked. 

"Your constitution — " began the 

"Something's gone in my innards; 
I've a-felt it going. The farm's very 
small and poor, but I done my 
best. I've nothing left to say to you 
or Piet. You'll find a little money in 
the bank. Now, you must take me up 
and carry me into the state chamber. 
I mean to die where my father and 
my grandfather died." 

"I can't, father; it's murder." 

"Ye can't murder a dying man, ye 
fool! Stay! Call Piet, so they can 
say it was both of you! " 

Piet came, and between them the 
brothers carried their light yet clumsy 
burden, shuffling, across the little 
passage. Halfway stood the old wo- 
man, lamenting. The old man took 
no notice, breathing short, in loud 
gaspings of pain. 

They stumbled into the "state 
chamber" — the best room, close and 
stuffy with unused furniture and ex- 
cluded sunlight, as such rooms are 
likely to become. It was dark and 
sombre-looking. The great black and 
brown cabinet shone dully in the half- 



light beneath its weight of delft. In 
the wall was an oaken cupboard-bed 
with paneled doors and green damask 
curtains: into this the brothers sank 
their burden as best they could. 

For a long time Jan Putters lay there 
tortured. The sons stood, lumpish, 
beside the bed. The mother had 
come in, trembling. 

At last he opened his eyes. 

" Draw the blinds up! " he whispered. 
" I want to see the old place once more." 

There was not much light left, even 
when they had let in all they could. 
From where he lay, he could just see 
the front of the "new" barn, now ten 
years old. " 'Tis a good building," 
he said, aloud; "I should like to see a 
couple of the cows again, just for once. 
I've been ill a long time, a week. I've 
missed the cows. I should like to see 
a cow again before I go where there 
ain't any. I don't seem to mind so 
much any longer which I see." All 
this he had spat out, with great labor, 
in faint jerks. The two brothers 
looked at each other: the younger stole 
from the room and, presently, in the 
falling night, a massive gray shape 
appeared beyond the nearer window. 
It stood there impassive at first: then, 
disconcerted, it broke into a melan- 
choly roar. 

"He's chosen 'White Bess,'" said 
the elder son, "so you could see her 

"Take her away. She don't want 
to stay there," replied the dying 

Then he lifted his scraggy gray 
head again and hissed amid suppressed 
catches of pain: "Call Piet! Call him 
quick! Call!" The weeping woman 
ran out. 

" D — her crying, " said the old man, 
"but I can't do it to her face, as it's 
for me. It's the first time, Jan, that 
I cannot damn your mother for doing 
what I don't want her to. " 

In spite of his eagerness he lay una- 
ble to speak to them for more than a 
quarter of an hour after the mother had 
returned with Piet. It was fully dark 
now outside; a candle stood, ghastly, 
behind the bed. 

When at last he again found strength 
and breath, it was to say: 
" Boys, come here ! " 
They bent over him, catching at his 

"I'm a-lying here a-dying," he 
whispered solemnly, "in the same 
place and same bed as my father did, 
and his father afore him. I ought to 
have had at least five years more, but 
there's something gone wrong in my 
innards and here am I a-dying in the 
state chamber as I ought to be. It 
might have hurt less, but that can't 
be helped. Some pigs squeal a great 
deal more'n others. I'm glad I'm a 
dying in the state chamber, boys." 
His eyes wandered round the splendors 
of the apartment, in the flare of the 
shaky candle. "Your turn now," 
he said. 

The two sons, both grizzly-haired, 
bowed their heads toward him. They 
watched him, as he lay there, far into 
the night. The mother busied herself 
about such poor nursing as lay within 
her scope. Once or twice he cursed 
her feebly, not unkindly, for doing 
something awkwardly, or for doing it 
at all. His sufferings were continuous. 

Shortly before the end, he beckoned 
his two sons down close to his lips. 
"Swear that you'll take me along 
the old Death-Way," he murmured. 
" Swear. " 

They hesitated, looked at each 
other, stammered that the baron was 
making changes, that the road now 
went round by the clump of 

"Swear!" he reiterated. "I can't 
die till I know that I'm going as my 
father went. It's the road that we've 
always took. The baron can't change 
it. I — the Death- Way — the — I — swear 
— swear ! " 

"We swear," said the sons. 

" So help me — how does it go?" 

" God," said the sons. 

An hour later he muttered some- 
thing about the price of pigs, and at 
three o'clock, in the first chill change 
of the darkness, he said, distinctly, 
"My constitution," and died. 

The doctor came just before break- 
fast. " I told you so," said the doctor. 



They spoke little, being Dutch peas- 
ants, but the widow, looking askance 
from her coffee-pot, asked mildly 
whether anyone had been in any way 
to blame. 

"Everybody except myself," re- 
pHed the doctor promptly. "Imagine 
his being moved to another room after 
what I'd said — and done — last night! 
You've killed him, and he's killed 

"We never didn't do what he told 
us to do," expostulated the widow. 
"We couldn't have begun the day 
afore he died." And she commenced 

"Well, well," said the doctor, "what 
you've got to do now is to make ar- 
rangements about the funeral." He 
found them not easy to manage, from 
sheer inertness. They had never, any 
of them, during the last half century, 
initiated anything, taken any step 
that had not been pointed out to them; 
the sons had remained unmarried be- 
cause he had never told them to pro- 
pose to any particular girl. It was im- 
possible for them to realize, as they 
stood by the dead man, that they must 
now give orders and begin by giving 
them about him. 

The doctor helped them, and the 
parson and the notary. In all pro- 
posals that were made to them they 
reasonably acquiesced. They went about 
their farm-work as if nothing had 
happened. The daily round of duties 
engrossed their interest : it was diversi- 
fied rather pleasantly than otherwise 
by the mild excitement of exhibiting 
the corpse to every neighbor that 

On the day of the funeral, relations 
and acquaintances assembled in con- 
siderable numbers. For, next to a 
wedding, a funeral is the most grati- 
fying public occurrence in the dullness 
of a peasant's daily existence. Com- 
pared to a funeral a christening is quite 
third-rate. There is no thrill con- 
nected with a christening. 

The two rooms were full of mourn- 
ers, a prominent place being occupied 
by the "weepers," amazing old hags 
in black cloaks and black head-cloths. 

relations, expressly invited to weep. 
The widow sat beside her sons, at the 
top of the state chamber, perfunc- 
torily pretending to listen to the minis- 
ter, and frowning with annoyance 
whenever one of the weepers stopped 
weeping to take breath. The sons 
said yes and no to everybody, occasion- 
ally wrong. They both fetched a sigh 
of relief when the head-mute appeared 
in the doorway, announcing thereby 
that the procession must get ready to 
start. In old peasant fashion the 
cofhn was placed upon the dead man's 
wagon, a black pall spread neatly over 
the wagon's gaily painted sides, The 
"weepers," swathed in black, were 
hoisted on top of it. The male mourn- 
ers came behind in rusty beaver hats, 
twice the height of our modem ones, 
with enormous crape streamers that 
hung limp in the still air. 

Slowly the little company went 
wending up across the sand-heath. 
The heavy road lay white before them, 
enclosed in far masses of purple bloom. 
Above, shone the sun with few clouds 
around him. The landscape was deso- 
late: only once or twice a rabbit 
stopped, inquisitive, and fled. 

In the loose sand the horses strained 
and stumbled. The mourners strag- 
gled, two and two, with a peasant's un- 
steady gait. The two sons came be- 
hind the wagon, close, their counte- 
nances set. 

From the open heath the road crept 
into brushwood ; then it wound into fir- 
plantations and so into the beech- 
woods of a park. The hush of tall 
stems and full foliage fell upon it. In 
silence and shadows the little company 
plodded on. 

Suddenly, the white path came to a 
stop, almost with a jerk as it were, cut 
off, dead, by a dry ditch, a small em- 
bankment, a sharp curve into loose 
brown soil. On the top of the low 
earth-wall, thrown up from the newly 
dug trench, a white board confronted 
the advancing peasants: "No Thor- 
oughfare. Trespassers will be prose- 
cuted." The head-mute, some few 
steps in advance, came to a halt, in a 
twinkling of doubt; then he swerved 



to the right, where the freshly-hewn 
trunks lay scattered on both sides of 
the still uncompleted track. 

"Stop! " cried Jan, the elder son, in a 
voice that rang up to the green canopy 

"Straight ahead!" he continued, 
pointing through the board. "The 
Death-Way!" He had left his place 
behind the wagon, coming forward, 
his brother following close. The cart 
stopped: all the little band stood 
immovable in their places, not under- 
standing as yet. 

"But the road has been altered by 
the baron," expostulated the under- 
taker. ' ' It now runs 

"The Death- Way lies yonder!'' said 
Jan. He ran to the horses' heads and 
hoarsely summoned the old women to 
get down, which they did, tumbling 
over each other with surprising agility. 
Then, calling to his single farm-servant, 
who was driving, to sit tight, and to 
Piet and a couple of cousins to steady 
the coffin, he deliberately dragged the 
struggling animals down into the deep 
furrow, for it was little more, and up 
again, with a great creaking and hoist- 
ing of the wheels and their load, over 
the low earth- work, to the other side. 
By main force he did it. Then he 
shook himself, taking breath, and qui- 
etly patted the horsenearest him. "So, 
ho ! " he said. Piet, having given a tug 
at the pall to straighten it, came and 
stood beside his brother. 

All the others stared curiously and 
shuffled. Some hung back, glancing 
at each other, uncertain. 

"Those of you as want to turn back 
may turn!" called Jan. "I'm a-going 
to take my father to his grave by the 
way that his father went." 

" Yes, by G—!" said Piet. 

Then, ashamed before one another, 
they all came over the ditch, some 
jumping, some tumbling, as a flight of 
ravens might swoop down upon a field. 
For some hundred yards ahead of them 
the old Way still lay untouched: they 
moved along it, wondering, till it opened 
on to a large square of hard gravel, 
which, although they did not know this, 
was a new tennis-court, not yet en- 

closed. Two young girls who had been 
playing, white figures, fied as the 
funeral company broke from among the 
brushwood upon their startled view. 
The two brothers advanced: they had 
taken the place of the terrified under- 
taker. Their heavy peasant faces were 
carved in stone: they kicked aside a 
couple of balls, without seeing them, 
till they stood before the tennis-net, 
nonplussed for a moment only: then 
Jan, now unable to act otherwise, 
stooped and with a steady descent of 
his long, sharp knife sawed the net 
asunder. It fell away on both sides: 
the wagon and its load scrunched on. 
Behind it sank its two big ruts across 
the ruined court. 

So they went straight ahead, and 
down the central alley of the newly- 
planned rose-garden. And at the end 
of this they met the baron's sun-bon- 
neted babies in their donkey-cart and 
the young baron himself on horseback, 
beside his children. 

He rode up to them at once, as they 
came steadily towards him: the small 
creatures in the low carriage held back, 
staring, alarmed at the collection of 
black scare-crows, the great black- 
clothed wagon with the dreadful crea- 
tures a-top. The prosperous donkey 
cropped up his ears. 

"And what is the meaning of this?" 
imperiously demanded the baron. He 
looked very handsome and important 
in his leggings, on his showy bay mare. 

Jan Putters and Piet Putters stood 
opposite him. They drew their tall 
hats over their eyebrows. " We are 
burying our father," they said together. 
"By the old Death-Way," added Jan. 

"But you knew I had altered the 
road! You saw the notice. By 
George, you've come right across the 
tennis-court! I'll have you prosecuted! 
I " 

" Mynheer the Baron has no right to 
alter it," said Jan, while all the others 
gathered round. " The Death- Way be- 
longs to us all; it is older than any 
kings or barons. " 

" No, Mynheer the Baron has no 
right," chimed in Piet, coming to his 
brother's assistance. The others — the 



most courageous of them — muttered 

"Right? No right? I have an ab- 
solute right! " exclaimed the astonished 
baron. "There was no right of way of 
any kind, if you go talking of rights! " 
His irritated steed sprang aside. The 
babies screamed; the baroness came 
round to them out of a shrubbery. 

Another mother had also joined her 
children ; the old woman had clambered 
down from her perch on the coffin and 
stood trembling, by the baron, between 
her sons. 

" You've ruined my new plantation ! " 
shouted the baron, endeavoring to 
steady his horse. "I'll summons you! 
You shall pay for the damage, every 
halfpenny! " 

" The damage ? " replied Jan, and cast 
a scornful glance upon the track behind 
him. " For that we will pay, if neces- 
sary, poor as we are. We can pay for 
it" — he turned to his mother — "with 
the things that are in the state chamber. 
And, if Mynheer the Baron has a right 
to stop up the Death-Way, the law 
must decide. But it is not so; only 
there is another law for the rich and 
another for the poor." 

"Right! You shall hear of my 
right!" cried the baron. He drew up 
his careering steed straight across the 
path of the little band. 

" So be it, Mynheer the Baron! " said 
Jan. " But yonder, behind you, is the 
end of the Death-Way. Let us carry 
our dead to the churchyard." 

The baron's horse stood where it 
stood, with arched neck and waving 

The old woman, the widow, had 
stolen away to the baroness, with eager 
entreaty. "Let me bury my dead in 
peace!" she pleaded. "Oh, if it were 
he you were carrying away, and you I ! 
I have loved and obeyed him faithfully 
for nigh on sixty years. It was his last 
command, high-born lady ; I must obey 

"What can I do? It was very 
wrong, " answered the young baroness, 
with tears in her eyes. 

Then, still that appeal in her face 
under the grim nun-like veiling, the old 
woman took her timidly by the hand as 
the children nestled closer, and, falter- 
ing at first, but with increase of pur- 
pose, led her and the children up to the 
lord of the manor, on his horse, across 
the path. 

As his wife and his little ones 
came close to him, he fell back: the 
women passed, and the little pro- 
cession, the coffin with the silent draped 
figures upon it, the straggling mourners, 
the curious mutes, closed in and passed^ 

His Failure 

* 'T^HE Rev. Dr. Droan preached for two hours yesterdav, on the sub- 
-L ject, 'After Death, What?' " 

"And ?" 

"Well, as he did not succeed in talking anybody quite to death, we never 
found out." 

Her Status 

IVfOW, woman's rights " 

^^ "Do not interest me in the least," replied the plump and pleasing 
widow. " I am a man's left, you know." 


-^ BY 


So long as none but the widowed 
and unmated lived at the Old 
Folks' Home, lone Mrs. Mary- 
Bell Baker was content to sit in the 
sun through long summer days, by 
the fireside when winter howled with- 
out the Home, and nod and nap 
and smile and patchwork her life 
away; while the past with its one 
frightful hurt, the dull ache of the 
many succeeding years, and the lovely 
warm joys that had come before 
the great hurt, seemed never to have 
belonged to her, but to someone else — 
someone who must remain forever 
young and passionate, someone who 
could never, never grow into a quiet, 
unruffled old lady, with no greater 
enthusiasm in life than that aroused 
by the sight of a new pattern for a bed- 

But when the old couple came, the 
deeps were broken up. Mary Bell saw 
the old man, with his gray, deep-lined 
face, his stiff, gaunt, rheumatic body, 
and the sprightly little old lady twitter- 
ing to him, cuddhng him, brooding over 
him, shielding, sheltering him, and,_ in 
spite of her gentle noisiness, seeming 
ever mutely to apologize for having 
brought him to this pass — the seeking 
of succor at the Old Folks' Home. 
Mary Bell had known them both in 
their youth — had gone to boarding- 
school with the wife — and she knew 
that no apology should come from her ; 
but, nevertheless, this was Mary Bell's 
idea of love — to serve, not to be served ; 
and, when she saw the aged couple, 
fierce woman-hunger, fierce mother- 
hunger ate into her heart, and she 
longed with exceeding great bitterness 
for her own aged husband to gather 
close under her wing "as a hen gather- 

eth her chickeas." From that hour 
there was no peace for Mary Bell, but, 
as it were, a constant running to and 
fro, and a plaintive cluck-clucking for 
the chick that would not come. 

She was waiting outside the old 
wife's door when, after seeing her hus- 
band safe in bed. Charity Blossom 
came out into the hall to "get her bear- 
ings," so that if the fire she expected 
every night and which every night 
magnanimously disappointed her, 
should at last break out, she might 
know the quickest way to get John 
down stairs. Mary Bell made room 
for Charity, where she sat on the 'top 
step of the staircase. 

"Is he asleep?" she asked, eagerly. 
"Ah, the young uns an' old uns fall 
off easy." 

" Tell me : how old is he now ? " 
Before she answered, Mrs. Blossom 
carefully lifted her time-worn black 
silk "Sunday skirt" around her knees 
and sat down on her stiff white petti- 
coat. The embroidery on the hem of 
the yellow-white petticoat had been 
done years and years ago , when Charity 
had been more accustomed to sitting 
at the top of a flight of stairs talking 
about this same John Blossom to this 
very same Mary Bell. How hke the 
old boarding-school this frugal Old 
Folks' Home seemed tonight! Charity 
looked hard at Mary Bell, and wondered 
whether she were thinking the same. 

" How old is he now? " she repeated, 
as she settled her wiry little back 
against the wall. "Lemme see; John 
will be seventy-three come this April." 
"Seventy-three," repeated Mary Bell 
Baker, with a quaver in her sweet, 
thin old voice. "Seventy-three." She 
clasped her handkerchief in a tight 



little ball within one withered palm, and 
blinked her hot, dry eyes. "Seventy- 
three," she whispered yet again. "Just 
the age my husband would have been 
ef — ef — " She paused, and, after 
the space of a moment, Charity added 
softly, hesitatingly : " Ef he had lived ? " 

There was a throbbing silence in the 
dusky hall. Out of doors the crickets 
were chirping, and a thousand lusty- 
winged creatures of the night were call- 
ing, just as they had called through the 
windows of that boarding-school so 
many years ago, when Charity had 
twined her arms around Mary Bell's 
neck and talked of John, John, John 
Blossom; and the younger Mary Bell 
had cried out softly: "Just wait until 
my Mr. Right comes!" And he had 
come, and gone, after the two friends 
had drifted far apart, Charity going 
West with her John Blossom beyond 
even the echo of Mary Bell's life story. 

"I didn't know you was here, Mary 
Bell, till jest the other day," said Mrs. 
Blossom. "Tell me about your hus- 

Mary Bell's shriveled old hands 
clutched at her young, awakened heart, 
which was beating wildly. She spoke 
in husky tones. 

"It was love at first sight. You'd 
been West maybe two years. He was 
a cap'n — a sea cap'n. She was a 
three-master an' he named her Mary 
Bell. 1 lived down to the east end of 
the Island then. He went away. I 
stood on the dock an' waved ' Good- 
bye' to the Mary Bell, until the Mary 
Bell turned the P'int ^n' I couldn't see 
her no more. I never see her agin. 
She was lost with all hands." Again 
Mary Bell paused, her breath coming 
loud and fast, and then she cried out in 
a storm of passionate protest: "How 
do I know he is dead? How do I know? 
They found every body on the Mary 
Bell but the cap'n." 

Again the stillness fell in the hallway, 
and with that eloquence which can 
speak only in silence, Charity Blossom 
laid her warm hand over the twitching 
fingers of Mary Bell. The twilight 
throbbed and trembled all about them 
and out of the twilight of the haUway 

there came stealing one mem.ory after 
another of the days gone by. 

"Dear heart," murmured Charity at 
last ! "To think I never knew! Was it 
long ago?" 

"Thirty year," answered Mary Bell, 
and Charity's arm slipped over her 
shoulder, and for a long while the two 
women sat very still. After a time, 
Mary Bell drew away and repeated 
with that old, hot, dry passion: 

"How do I know that he is dead? 
If I could have kissed him in his coffin, 
then I would not feel so bad. But I 
don't know — I never could feel sure 
that he was safe up thar with God, 
Every now an' agin the feelin' comes 
over me: 'Here you be a-livin' on the 
fat o' the land, Mary Bell, an' who's 
a-lookin' after your old husband? He 
did need a sight o' lookin' after, Wil- 
Ham did. Mebbe he's on a desert 
island somewhars a-wavin' a fan over 
a cannibile king." 

Mrs. Blossom sat up straight. She 
was a practical woman. 

"Whar was the vessel lost?" she 

"Off the coast of Maine." 

In spite of herself, a low, comfortable 
laugh escaped Charity Blossom. 

" Mercy me, Mary Bell, you must try 
to use more sense. I cruised the coast 
up an' down in my young days an' I 
never heard of no cannibile islands 
ofE'n Maine. Ef I was you, Mary Bell, 
I would try to think he was dead in 
heaven a-waitin' fer me." 

Charity arose stiffly with a stif[ 
rustling of her white petticoat and, 
remorseful at having spoken so sharply, 
she softened her voice into a pitying 
"Good-night." Then went into her 
husband's room and closed the door. 

Long after she had gone Mary Bell 
sat very still in the gathering dark- 
ness with her hands clasped rigidly 
about her knees. 

From that night a change came over 
Mary Bell, so great a change that it 
was noticed by every member of that 
quiet little household of broken down 
men and women. The Home was a 
small country branch of one of the 
large City Homes, and was devoted to 



the aged ones who felt that they coulJ 
not breathe near brick walls and above 
stone pavements. There were men 
who had followed the sea, people who 
had had their farms swept away from 
them, one gardener who had lost all 
his joy in life — so he declared — when 
his ears had lost their cunning so that 
he could no longer hear his flowers grow. 
He used to say this with a humorous 
vet pitiful twist of the lips and eagerly 
watch for the laugh it would call forth, 
but which he could not hear. Then 
there was an old creature with a keen, 
bright, happy face who used to sum up 
her life's history readily for everyone: 

"Yes, it's my heart's desire come 
true — a place in the country. I sold 
papers in the New York streets for 
twenty years an' thin I was able to fold 
my hands an' ride out in the parlor 

It was good to see the old soul enjoy 
the Home and dispense hospitality as if 
the place indeed belonged to her alone. 
In everyone of the inmates she took an 
eager interest and now she turned her 
bright, curious, but tender, eyes toward 
Mary Bell. 

"What do you think ails her?" she 
asked the old gardener in a soundless 
motion of the lips. 

The old gardener tapped his fingers 
against his forehead suggestively : 

"She don't eat nuthin' but prison 
diet. She had a big appetite fer sweets, 
but it seems all parched up. She don't 
take enough nourishment to keep her 
leaves green. An' in my opinion" — 
again he tapped his forehead sugges- 
tively — " her hardy old brain is a-gittin' 
all choked up with pizenous weeds." 

" Dear me ! " said the old newswoman, 
her sunny face struggling to shine 
behind the clouds rushing over it. 
" Dear me ! " her lip trembled and then 
the clouds dispersed. She smiled with 
her habitual hopefulness: "We'll see 
about it!" 

The early apples were ripening and 
the newswoman went out into the 
garden and took the first step toward 
preparing for dinner that day Mary 
Bell's favorite dessert, apple-dumplings. 
A good dinner, she reflected, her cheeks 

as rosy as the very apples, a good dinner 
has saved many a man's reason. The 
apple-dumplings came on the table as a 
surprise, and were so very light and 
palatable that they surprised even 
their maker. 

"Ah!" she cried, as if to say: "All 
the ills of the world are over.' ' " Ah! " 
cried the old newspaper woman: " Now, 
Mary Bell, do take an apple-dumpling." 

Mary Bell looked up from her plate 
where she had been crumbling some 
bread. There was a dazed expression 
in her eyes. The newspaper woman 
set the steaming apple-dumpling down 
before her with a triumphant laugh. 
Then an incongruous thing happened. 
Mary Bell arose suddenly from the 
table, her eyes flashing with hurt and 
protest, darkened with longing. Sweep- 
ing out of the room, she flared up like a 
passionate, half-grown girl: 

"Apple-dumplings! Do you 'spose 
I kin sit here an' eat apple-dumplings 
when my husband may be starvin' fer 
an honest bite o' bread?" 

Silence fell upon the dining-room, 
and had it not been for that deep-rooted 
rule of the Home that nothing should 
be wasted, the dumplings would have 
gone begging that day. As it was the 
old paper woman ate hers salted with 
the salt of tears. 

The deaf old gardener looked around 
the table with a puzzled expression; 
then gravely tapped his forehead with 
his forefinger; whereupon Mrs. Blos- 
som, forgetful of his affliction, made 
angry retort: 

" I don't say as she is dafty. Mebbe 
she knows somethin' we don't know. 
Ef John here had gone away an' left me 
thirty year ago an' I hadn't never heard 
from him from that day to this, I'd 
know whether he was dead or not. I 
guess I would, but I ain't a-tellin' her 
so. You know what she done this 
momin'?" Mrs. Blossom addressed 
the whole table with a speedy, charac- 
teristic softening of her manner: "Mary 
Bell she come into John's room an' 
mine a-luggin' her rockin' chair. 
'Here, Mis' Blossom,' she says, says 
she: 'You take this here chair fer your 
husband. I can't never bear ter set in 



it when I think as mebbe Will ain't 
seen a rockin'-chair f er thirty year ! ' ' 

There was a long silence at the table, 
then John Blossom leaned forward with 
his elbow on the cloth and covered his 
bearded face with his trembling hand. 

The winter came suddenly on the 
very heels of the flying autumn leaves. 
The golden-rod had puffed all of its 
golden drift out upon the winds. The 
white and purple asters had burned 
all their white and purple glory away. 
Of a sudden, all the birds had gone 
with the exception of the crows that 
went spinning their black wings over 
the meadows and ever croaked of the 
dreariness of winter days to come. 
With many a hurried, excited honk! 
honk! the flocks of wild geese had 
gone swirling southward, and now the 
sound of the honk! honk! would not 
be heard again until it came as the 
loud scraping which preludes the first 
gentle orchestral notes of spring. 

Over the Old Folks' Home a sense of 
mingled security and sadness fell, for 
as each inmate of the Home huddled 
more closely to its warm fires, he could 
look with his mental eye through the 
Home windows and see other old folks, 
the poor, the ragged, the unfortunate, 
run shivering under the lash of the 
winter's wind to seek shelter in the 
County Almshouse. 

One twilight the old gardener, who 
was wont to retail all the gossip of the 
village, gathered on his daily tramp to 
the store and the post-office, came into 
the hall, his hands innocent of any mail 
matter, and joined the group waiting 
around the fireplace for the sound of 
the supper bell. He sat stiff and 
straight, as a soldier on the hard ingle- 
nook bench and, looking with bristling 
fierceness of expression into the fire, 
announced : 

"Ishmael's been turned out of that 
old bam. There's no help for it. He's 
got to go to the Poor House." 

Ishmael was an aged "God's Fool" 
who had been roaming about the village 
for many years, but who had never been 
seen in the Old Folk's Home — first, be- 
cause his fear and hatred of all insti- 

tutions made him avoid the place as a 
social resort; and, second, because he 
never had the money to approach the 
Home in the hope of becoming a regu- 
lar inmate. However, though few of 
them had seen the old man, they were 
all keenly alive to his situation. 

"The Poor House!" repeated John 
Blossom in shaking tones. Some one 
else caught his breath sharply and 
audibly, and many an old eye wondered 
why old eyes will water so frequently. 
Then up spoke the newspaper woman : 

"Ain't there nobody to take care o' 
him decent? He's that sot aginst the 
Poor House that it'll kill him to go 

The deaf gardener, still staring into 
the fire as if his whole soul resented the 
warmth and comfort of the blaze, un- 
consciously answered the newspaper 
woman's question: 

"Ishmael lost his best friend when 
Mis' Elbert died. An' now he ain't 
got nobody. She had a warm corner 
for him for ten winters. She even 
made him believe he earned his board 
an' clothes — God bless the woman! 
But you can't blame the boy for not 
keepin' up no such charity as that. 
Besides, the old man will get better 
care at the Poor House than young 
Elbert could ever give him." 

Mary Bell Baker Hfted her sadly 
hanging gray head and looked from 
one to another of the group. 

"Jest 'sposin' it was my Will in that 
fix!" she said, softly. 

"He's goin' tomorrow mornin'," 
said the deaf gardener. "The 
overseer of the poor is a-goin' to 
take him down along with three 

"Poor old Ishmael ! " exclaimed John 
Blossom. " I knowed him fer twenty- 
five year an' more, but he never was no 
common tramp. He come from good 
stock, that's what he did. How he 
come to be what he is, God only knows. 
Ishmael don't, an' we don't. But I say 
he was a gentleman, onct an' he's a 
gentleman yit." 

John Blossom looked around de- 
fiantly, as if expecting some one to 
deny the right of gentle birth to the 



village fool, but no one spoke save 
Mary Bell. 

"I ain't never seen him," she said 
simplv. " But I got a favor I want to 
ask of him. An' him being kind o' 
simple like, I want to impress it on his 
mind myself. Mr. Blossom, you an' 
him seems to be pretty good friends. 
Will you undertake to bring him around 
here before the train starts tomorrow 
mornin ? I want to ask him while he's 
at the Poor House to go around 
amongst all them folks an' ask ef in 
any of their wanderin's they ever come 
acrost a man named Will Baker." 

Mary Bell's voice when she spoke her 
husband's name was scarcely audible. 
Then there was no sound save that of 
the fire crackHng cheeiily, bringing 
ruthlessly to memory the thought of 
other fire-places now grown black and 
fire-forgetting. Mary Bell leaned far 
back, covering her face from the blaze 
and from all the eyes that might have 
been watching her but which, instead, 
were looking into the fire with tears 
sparkling on their lashes. Then one by 
one the old folks got up and went away, 
leaving Mary Bell alone, except for the 
moment when John Blossom leaned 
over her chair to give her his promise. 

In the morning, John Blossom and 
Ishmael came up the steps of the Home, 
both laughing, for Ishmael had ever 
been a fun-loving, fun-making old 
vagabond ; and John Blossom was de- 
termined that he should laugh, too, 
though the lump in his throat threat- 
ened to choke him. 

"Just think of 3'our calling on a 
young lady at your time of life! " cried 
Mr. Blossom with a ponderous attempt 
at humor. 

Ishmael looked down, his foolish, 
kindly face beaming with pride. He 
looked down at his long, gray ulster 
many sizes too wide and many inches 
too long for his figure. He looked 
down at all the badges, all the medals 
and decorations on his breast and he 
muttered with a sly twinkle in his eye : 

" I hope the young lady will like my 

If Mary Bell did not like them all, 

surely she would approve of some of 
them, thought John Blossom, for Ish- 
mael, Knight of Gentle Folly, was 
decorated with a great variety of em- 
blems, from the badge of an Exempt 
Fireman to a minature frying-pan 
which advertised a certain exposition, 
from the emblem of a Red Cross nurse 
sewed carefully upon his gray chest to 
a "Vote For No License" button. 

"She'll admire your ornaments, 
that's what she will!" cried John 
Blossom, still with the same ponderous 
humor, still with the lump in his throat 
making his voice gruff and hoarse. 
"But she will admire yoit even more 
than your ornaments, you old rogue, 
you!" He poked the vagrant in the 
ribs with his stiff, rheumatic forefinger 
just beneath the little cotton flag of 
our own country, but even as he did so, 
he dropped his eyes so that Ishmael 
might not see how of a sudden his 
glasses had grown blurred and misty. 
In a passionate welling of pity, John 
Blossom thought : "Whose old father is 
this poor gentleman? Whose young 
son was he in those days before some 
terrible hurt happened to his brain and 
he became a simple, amusing, gentle 
wanderer over the face of the earth?" 
The vagrant's own voice aroused him 
with a start as smilingly Ishmael looked 
into his face and asked : 

"Afraid to go into your own house. 

John Blossom laughed nervously, 
and placing his hand within the simple- 
ton's arm, led him into the hallway and 
up to the ingle-nook bench where Mary 
Bell Baker was sitting straight and stiff, 
and all the more straight and stiff be- 
cause she was fearful of weak trembling. 
It occurred to her, in a gush of despair, 
that she herself had been silly to ex- 
pect any intelligent effort in a man as 
silly as this Ishmael. 

"Mrs. Baker," began John Blossom, 
with the manner of a rusty courtier; 
"let me introduce my friend, my friend 
of over a quarter of a century, Captain 

Ishmael, swelling with pride over 
the formal introduction and the use of 
his title, pressed his hand against the 



little cotton flag and bowed low. So 
he might have bowed in the old, old 
days, when he paused before some 
ingle-nook bench in quite another place, 
and, thrilling with the joy of youth, 
alive with a gracious intelligence, mur- 
mured: "I have the honor of this 

By the time Ishmael had straightened 
his back John Blossom had disappeared, 
and Ishmael found the old lady placing 
her hand in his and giving him a keen, 
penetrating look out of her slowly 
brightening old eyes. At the touch of 
her fingers and the sense of no man's 
being near to support him, a great ner- 
vousness came upon Ishmael. Then, 
too, she was old, and in spite of all the 
claims of friendship made upon him, 
Ishmael had always felt more at home 
with young folks, for through many 
years he had been wandering back 
toward the sunny fields of childhood. 
He began to talk at once with nervous 

"You know, Cap'n Rover ain't my 
real name. It ain't my real name. 
They call me Ishmael, the Rover, but 
it ain't my real name. I don't know 
what my real name is — only Cap'n. 
It's Cap'n, all right. Did you ever lose 
your name, miss — madam?" 

"Won't you sit down, Cap'n?" 
asked Mary Bell, the more quietly be- 
cause she was thinking with all her sup- 
pressed youthful passion: "Oh, if my 
husband had grown like this! " 

Will had been tall and broad and 
strong. This man seemed pitifully 
small and stooped in his great ulster. 
Will had been proud of his smooth face, 
the firm, square chin, and the unusual, 
beautiful man's mouth. Though he 
had lived to be a thousand years, he 
would never have covered himself with 
such a grizzly, disfiguring growth of 
beard as old Ishmael's. Will had had 
bright, fadeless blue eyes. Even now 
she could see them burning with love 
for her, while the vagrant blinked at her 
with his faded-out, watery blue eyes, 
blinked and smiled in kindly propitiat- 
ing fashion. 

"Set down? Thank you, ma'am," 
said he, and, very carefully hfting the 

skirts of his long ulster, he sat down 
beside her on the bench. 

"You ain't noticed my medals," he 
suggested with tacit reproach. 

Mary Bell remorsefully put out her 
long, lean hand and lifted the end of 
the fireman's badge. 

^ "You're a member of the fire com- 
p'ny, ain't you?" 

"Yes — yes, I'm a fireman. I don't 
see how the Hook-an '-Ladders is a-goin 
ter git along without me when I go to 
the Poor House." 

His bright face clouded over. Mary 
Bell uttered a pitying sigh, and instantly 
the vagrant smiled again, vaguely 
ashamed that he should have been the 
cause of that sigh. "But that ain't 
my real business," he added brightly; 
"I was a cap'n." 

" My husband was a cap'n, too," in- 
terposed Mary Bell, but Ishmael, not 
seeming to hear, went on: 

" I had a boat loaded with post-holes, 
an' I lost her an' I lost myself, too. An' 
when I come to, I was Ishmael, the 

"That is very sad," said Mary Bell, 
and her voice shook, her eyes sought 
the fire. For a long time she kept 
silence, thinking, ever thinking pas- 
sionately: " Oh, if this poor creature had 
been my captain!" First Ishmael 
looked at her furtively, then he gazed 
at her openly, and with a pained, puz- 
zled look coming into his eves — a look 
as if he were trying to remember some- 
thing and was sore hurt by the process. 
When at last she turned her eyes on 
him, he cried out softly: 

"My, but you must have been pretty 
when you was voung ! " 

Mary Bell blushed, and there was a 
curious fluttering at her old heart. 
Somehow the vagrant's voice sounded 
different when he said that — as a voice 
sounding to her out of the love-lit past. 
He looked different, and then, too. 
Will had been wont to say : " Whatever 
makes 3^ou so pretty, Mary Bell ? " 

The changed voice of the vagrant 
came to her again — softened, sweet- 
ened, trembling: 

"Do you remember ever a-sittin' on 
a bench in front of a fire-place before.?" 



After it was said, it seemed as if he 
could not have said it, but some lovely, 
tormenting spirit who had known her 
in the days of long ago, when she and 
Will used to sit down to rest on a bench 
beside the fire. She looked sideways 
at the vagrant. He was no longer 
looking at her, but at the fire, and there 
was so abstracted a look on his face 
that Mary Bell felt sure her ears had 
played her false. She told herself that 
she was acting very foolishly for an old 
woman, and straightway deciding to go 
at once to the subject most important 
of all subjects in the world to her, she 
began by first placing her hand on 
Ishmael's shoulder, for she thought 
that so she could better hold the simple 
man's attention. 

He started when her touch fell upon 
him and a wildness came into his eyes. 
He looked at her again, and as he looked 
something struggled to open those 
shutters that had closed over his brain 
so long ago. Mary Bell felt his 
shoulder twitching and, to her own 
amazement, she felt an unaccountable 
thrill, as the echo of old remembered 
thrills, pass up her arm. Her lips grew 
white. Sternly taking herself in hand, 
she began, with a little gasp for breath : 

"They tell me that you're goin' ter 
the Poor House ter-day, Cap'n Rover. 
I'm very sorry. But I wish that when 
you get there, you would go around 
amongst all them folks an' ask them — 
each and every one — ef in any of their 
wanderin's they ever heard tell of a 
man named Cap'n William Barclay 

Ishmael nodded his head with the 
intense knowingness of the foolish, and 
repeated slowly : 

"Cap'n William Barclay Baker." 
A puzzled set of lines appeared between 
his brows. " The name sounds familiar. 
Your father, like enough? " 

"Mercy me! I'm too old to have a 
father livin' ! " She added, with gentle 
dignity: "My husband." 

Then, thinking with a girlish loyalty 
of reasoning, that there might be some 
disloyalty to her lost husband in her 
present attitude, Mary Bell would have 
taken her hand from Ishmael's shoulder 

had he not placed his own hard fingers 
over it and held it tight against his 
shaking shoulder. He looked deep 
into her eyes, a strange fire burning in 
his own, as if the shutters had entirely 
opened and the light come streaming 

"Your husband!" he half whispered 
in wondering, awe-struck tones, and 
Mary Bell replied, with exquisitely 
tender compassion : 

" Did 3'ou ever have a wife ? " 

"A wife?" repeated Ishmael in a 
whisper. Then he cried aloud: "A 
wife ! " Stooping swiftly, he uncovered 
the hand that he had been clasping 
against his shoulder, uncovered it and 
brushed his gray moustache against 
the wrinkled flesh. Then quickly he 
arose, trembling and shaking from his 
head to his feet. His eyes refused to 
meet Mary Bell's, but she saw the tears 
sparkling on his lashes. 

"Yes — yes," he said, in his old foolish, 
gentle voice: "I be Cap'n Ishmael 
Rover an' I'm a-goin' to the Poor House. 
Yaphank's good enough fer me, but it 
wouldn't suit nice women folks. You're 
well fixed here. You stay here. It's 
the proper place for nice women folks. 
I'll look out fer your husband. Don't 
yerfret. You stay — you stay " 

With that he would have passed out of 
the door, thinking that she would never 
know and he himself would in time 
come back to complete forgetfulness. 
But, in turning to the door, he turned 
to the light also and the light searched 
out his forehead across which the silver 
locks clustered thickly as the chestnut 
locks had used to do ; and lo! some sub- 
tle change had come over his once 
foolish, faded eyes, leaving them bright 
with inward fire and blue with the deep 
blue of the sapphire. A little cry came 
from Mary Bell's lips as she saw him 
thus clearly for the first time. Then 
he would have turned the knob of the 
door and gone hastening down the 
steps, but she was too quick for him. 
In the flash of a moment, she was before 
him, holding him by both arms, search- 
ing his face with a curious, half-fright- 
ened, trembling 'smile upon her own. 
She was afraid that it was he — so piti- 



ably changed! She was afraid that it 
was not he for whom she had waited 
these long 3^ ears. 

"Will!" she gasped, incredulously. 
And again: "Will?" And once again, 
in an overwhelming of pure, simple joy 
she faltered faintly : " Will!" Now she 
was swaying back and forth, her face 
as white as death, and of a sudden a 
terrible fear came upon him. What if 
at this moment of their finding each 
other, she should slip away from him 
into that land which lies across the 
borders of hope-deferred? 

" Wife!" he called out and seized her 
in his arms; and again: " Wife!" as he 
kissed her fiercely on the lips. Then 
something within the fool's brain burst 
and he was a fool no longer. Once 
again, he said: "Wife!" tenderly, 
softly, with sane, strong sweetness, and 
Mary Bell came back into her own. 
They looked at each other, these two, 
each with tremulous, uncertain smiles, 
as if to say: "Can it be true?" 

And then, gently, he placed her in a 
chair, and one by one he began to re- 
move the decorations from his breast 
— the fireman's badge, the silly frying- 
pan, the Prohibition button — all the 
trappings of the late Knight of Gentle 
Folly. He laid them on the table and 
when the foolish pile was complete, he 
lifted his chest high and breathed deep, 
smiling with ineffable tenderness at 
Mary Bell. 

At last she found her voice: 

" Now, sir," said she with an attempt 
at sprightly cheerfulness as she arose 
from her seat: "I'll get my bonnet and 
we'll start right ofT for the Poor House. 
Hey? What's that? Yes, I am agoin' 
with you! " 

He caught her two hands and held 
them fast, smiling down at her with 
tears in his eyes, tears of gratitude for 
her devotion. He shook his head in 

the negative that he was unable to 
speak — shook it again and again, and 
at last he muttered: "No — no!" 
Another pause and again, chokingly: 
" No, no! I'm not a-goiri' to take Mary 
Bell to the Poor House. I'm a-goin' 
to work! I ain't a fool any longer — 
look at me!" Mary Bell looked and 
drooped her eyes as she had been wont 
to droop them so long ago. "I'm 
young!" he cried: "Young!" There 
was a triumphant pause while she 
glanced up and saw the miracle of 
Youth's return a-sparkle in his face. 
So much of his substance was ctill un- 
spent! So much had he still of life 
before him! And Mary Bell, ah, she 
was young, too, for during the passing 
of all the years she had kept her youth 
alive with the daily food of youthful 
love and youthful hope. 

He was talking now in new, energetic 
tones: "There's a job as caretaker in 
the old Powell house up the road. They 
told me only yesterday that if I wa'n't 
sech a dum fool they'd give it to me; 
an' I ain't a durn fool any longer." 

How they laughed, these two, who 
had not laughed freely for so many 
years. "The caretaker's house," he 
went on, "is jest about the size of 
a band-box. Mary Bell" — his voice 
trembled and his hands gripped hers 
tightly — " Mary Bell, when I git the 
job — mind, I don't say if — when I git 
the job, will you come and keep house 
in the band-box for me?" 

Mary Bell could not speak. Back 
she went to that old, old feeling of 
safety and security which she had felt in 
the long ago when he had first put his 
arms around her. She looked at him 
a long while in joyful silence, thinking 
of all that life must yet hold for them 
and thinking — oh, wonder of God's 
eternal wonders — how Love had made 
her husband whole. 

Two Problems 

CUBURBANITE — Some of miv plants don't seem to flourish. I wonder 

^ why ? 

City Friend — But others do. I wonder why! 

The Abuse of the Homestead Law 


THE commutation clause of the 
Homestead Law is like the 
famous wooden horse by means 
of which the ancient Greeks entered 
Troy — fair on the outside, but within 
full of deceit and treachery. And, to 
continue our parallel, the hidden Greeks 
in this modem wooden horse are the 
private monopolizers of land. 

Apart from an inconsiderable num- 
ber of people, the private ownership of 
land is agreed upon among men to be 
fair and just. It is only when private 
ownership abuses its trust that doubt 
enters and we begin to question the 
wisdom of allowing one man to own 
and withhold from use what another 
man desires, but cannot obtain. 

A new country affords especially 
favorable conditions under which to 
study the methods by which lands pass 
into the hands of individual or corpo- 
rate speculative holders, and are by 
them "watered" in value before they 
are passed on to the public. Here the 
methods are simpler and more direct, 
even if not more profitable, than in the 
more thickly settled parts of the coun- 
try. The ways by which the public 
lands are used as a means to exploit 
the former are clear and known to all. 
The degree of exploitation is fairly 
measurable. The results are already 
becoming apparent. 

Briefly, the commutation clause of 
the Homestead Law provides that after 
fourteen months' residence the home- 
steader may commute for a cash sum, 
avoid further residence requirements, 
and become the absolute owner of i6o 
acres of land at a total expense, out- 

side of residence and other improve- 
ments, of not more than $450. 

Since the average "claim" is worth 
not less than $1 ,000, and many of them 
$2,000 and upward, it is evident that 
the commutation clause will be eagerly 
seized upon by those anxious only to 
get the cash value of their lands to in- 
vest in other lines of business. Those 
who take advantage of the homestead 
laws are not as a rule men and women 
of large money-earning power, and the 
fourteen months' residence becomes 
profitable — or at least way-paying — 
by labor for older settlers, teaching 
school, or, in many instances, by work- 
ing in one of the many small towns 
springing up along the line of the rail- 
road. The cost of a claim-shanty is, 
or may be made, very small. A build- 
ing meeting the official requirements 
need not cost to exceed $75. The net gain 
to the commuter, selling after fourteen 
months' residence on his claim, is from 
$400 up, according to location and de- 
sirability of his claim, and his ability 
as a salesman. 

The commuters come from many 
walks of life, but the larger proportion 
of them are men and women from the 
country, settled ten or a dozen years 
ago, where the memory of lands secured 
easily and sold at a handsome profit 
still lingers. Sons of these earlier set- 
tlers, men who have not as yet used 
their homestead rights, teachers in the 
public schools, clerks, day laborers — all 
these are to be numbered among those 
who take up government land for the 
purposes of speculation. 

In some parts of the country com- 



panics owning timber lands encourage 
married men to take up claims, the 
companies building houses and making 
the required improvements, for a con- 
sideration — a subsequent sale to them 
of timber and land. 

The commuter justifies his action by 
saying that as a citizen he has an equal 
right with any and all other men to the 
government lands. Undoubtedly the 
money so secured has started many an 
enterprising young man in business. 
He would resent the idea that he is not 
fully entitled to the land he has entered 
upon, or that he has in any way been 
party to a fraud. 

The original intent of the Homestead 
Law was to furnish free homes to the 
people. The minimum of labor and 
of realty improvement was required, 
in order that even the poorest man 
could meet the conditions of home mak- 
ing. The framers of this law, however, 
had buiided better than they knew — - 
no loophole was left through which the 
speculator could exploit the public 
lands. So the commutation rider was 
added to the law — and, presto! the 
deed was done, and the speculator's 
days were lengthened indefinitely in 
the land. 

Barring the accidents of sickness or 
death, the genuine settler has no need 
for the commutation clause. He is 
better off, having no taxes to pay, to 
let title rest with the government the 
full period of his homesteading term. 
It is true that he cannot mortgage his 
land until the title is in his own name, 
but that is not a disadvantage. In 
fact, it is a very real and valuable pro- 
tection to a new man in a new country. 
If he lives closer, he also lives safer than 
the man who buys all that joins him 
and everything going with it. 

The real settler builds his shanty — I 
knew one that was a covered wagon 
with the sides sodded up in winter — 
gets out his breaking-plow, and goes to 
work. The first season he puts in a 
little garden, a few acres of flax and 
oats, and breaks as much more as he 
can. The second year he harvests a 
wheat and flax crop and begins to pay 
for his improvements. He goes ahead, 

some men, of course, faster than others, 
giving small heed to land values, except 
as they indicate gathering neighbors 
and better markets. He starts a 
school and sends his children, and often 
drives with them from over three to six 
miles of wind-swept prairie in order that 
they may have the benefits of a com- 
mon-school education. He gathers 
with his neighbors at the school-house 
and begins a church. He taxes him- 
self heavily for his schools. He puts 
the grading machine on the trail of the 
bison. He builds bridges, and barns, 
and houses. He strings the telephone 
wires across the prairies. He builds 
elevators for his grain. In time he be- 
comes influential, respected, if not a 
leader — we cannot all be leaders — that 
better thing, one of the common peo- 
ple, of whom Lincoln said :" God must 
have loved them, because he made so 
many of them." 

And the commuter — what of him? 
He builds his shack as cheaply as 
possible — one window, one door, single 
board walls, his household goods, a 
second-hand stove, a chair, a bunk and 
a bench on which to eat his meals. He 
hires a man to come and break the ten 
acres required by law. He attends to 
his business, which, if it does not call 
him away from his claim, is to sit and 
watch the days go by. He has no 
community of interest with the real 
settler. A school near his claim is a 
good thing because it will enhance the 
value of his land. Roads are desirable 
for the same reason. The broader 
reasons why men labor and get homes 
do not appeal to him. His effort is to 
gain the maximum amount of wealth 
with the least possible effort. 

Wittingly or not, he plays into the 
hands of the land speculator. Some- 
times this is a neighbor whose pros- 
perity enables him' to enlarge his farm. 
Oftener, in fact usually, the speculator 
is a real estate agent whose business 
it is to buy up commuted claims, and 
induce men to commute their claims in 
order that he may buy them. 

There is a word to be said even where 
a farmer enlarges his farm by buying 
a commuted claim. The fact that he 



is able to purchase, establishes beyond 
question his ability to make a living 
without purchasing. He secures, by 
the payment of five to ten dollars per 
acre, land that has an annual earning 
power of nearly loo per cent, of its cost 
price. While this is a legitimate trans- 
action, it is clearly to be seen that this 
farmer, rather than the commuter, is 
the real beneficiary of a grant intended, 
not for the landed, but for the landless. 
It is not the original intent of the law 
to make larger farms, but to make more 
homes; not to give more to him that 
has much, but to give something to 
him that has little. 

The real-estate agent is the repre- 
sentative of land plunder. He is not 
often more than the figurehead — the 
agent simply — through whom the real- 
estate business is done. Back of him 
are the banks and the moneyed inter- 
ests. First the local bank, then the 
metropolitan bank situated in the twin 
cities, Chicago, or the East, and back 
of these again the trust companies, the 
insurance companies, the great indus- 
trial trusts. 

The real-estate agent is a commis- 
sioned representative of these allied 
forces. He is the boy over the fence 
ready to pocket the apples when 
Johnny Commuter has shaken them 
from the Government tree. He is a 
good fellow — popular ; that is part of his 
business. He is ordinarily "square" 
in his dealings — barring some generally 
winked-at lapses from strict business 
morality. He works industriously, 
spends money, and makes it. His 
methods are worthy a separate paper. 
It is sufficient for our present purposes 
to say that he is in the market to 
buy what the commuter has to 
sell, and that he buys it as cheaply as 

Instances are frequent where collu- 
sion is shown between the land agent 
and the commuter, the former furnish- 
ing to the latter the cash necessary to 
make final proof, upon conditions of 
sale expressly understood. It is gener- 
ally known among men taking up land 
that they can secure commutation 
money whenever they desire to make 

early proof, especially if they desire to 

When the land passes from the 
ownership of the Government to the 
commuter, it generally happens that 
soon afterward another deed is recorded 
transferring the title to some land com- 
pany. The company, at this stage of 
the transaction, wisely enough refrains 
from advertising its business very 
largely or booming the country. While 
it will sell lands, it prefers to buy. It 
is only when a large number of individ- 
ual holdings have passed into its posses- 
sion that the second phase of its activi- 
ties, the "booming" and selling of the 
lands, is definitely undertaken. 

A year, or two, or ten, may have 
elapsed since the first settlement. To 
money, time has no meaning, save as it 
represents interest. Money can wait, 
men cannot. They must be clothed 
and housed and fed. Their must is 
money's opportunity. 

The scene shifts from the great West 
to "back East" in Iowa or Illinois or 
Wisconsin. There a neighborhood of 
men have gained a living by hard work 
and close figuring. Almost without 
their knowledge, land values have 
risen and risen. Their farms are pro- 
ductive. They are prosperous. There 
the Western "boom" begins. 

An eastern branch of the real estate 
firm begins to flood them with circulars, 
special editions of papers, reports of 
phenomenal crops, tales of twenty, 
fifteen, ten dollar lands that will pay 
for themselves out of the first crop. 

The new land is good. The soil is 
productive. The price is low. So 
they sell out to the "Dutch, "who buy — 
and in time pay for — their sixty, eighty 
one hundred dollar lands, and locate in 
the new region, buying lands at fifteen 
and twenty dollars an acre, that cost the 
real estate firm possibly five to eight 
dollars — frequently less than that — 
and which have not turned into the 
wealth of the nation one cent of reve- 
nue. The well-to-do buy for cash, 
getting each from 320 acres up to one 
and two thousand. The poorer men 
buy on "crop-payment" — that is, they 
agree to furnish everything, pay all ex- 



penses, and turn in one-half the crop 
annually until the land is paid for. 
Since the rate of interest is high, 
usually 8 per cent., and the prices of 
crops and the yield of crop per acre are 
seldom up to the high-water mark of 
the circulars, the crop, or two, that 
was expected to wipe out the debt 
and leave the man owner of a 320-acre 
farm runs into six or seven or ten 
before the debts are paid and the farm 
is clear. 

This, briefly told, is the story of the 
alienation of the public land from its 
intended purpose. The real estate 
man, through the commuter, is enabled 
to hold up the genuine farmer for from 
$1,500 to $2,500 per quarter section of 
land. He has added nothing to its 
value, real or imaginary. He took raw 
prairie, and in the main he sells raw 
prairie. If he broke the land while 
awaiting a purchaser he got his pay 
back in crops, thereby lessening the 
available fertility of the soil, and when 
he comes to sell, he sells at "improved 
farm" prices, which range $5 to $10 
above those of adjoining raw prairie. 
His value to the community has been 
negative. He has retarded rather than 
fostered immigration until such time as 
he could profit by it. He has held 
lands out of the market, and forced men 
to take up with less desirable lands. 
He has done this, and more, to levy a 
tribute on the farmer, the settler who 
desires and will have a home. 

All along the border line of settle- 
ment, wherever it has gone, wherever 
it is, the real estate man is present, and 
the commuter, like one of old, comes 
also. The short-sightedness of the one 
turns to the profit of the other, and the 
cupidity of both becomes a tax upon 
honest labor. 

Nor is it the settler upon the frontier 
who is the sole loser. The landless 
eastern man, the tenant, sees prices in 
general going up. He attributes it to 
mixed and dairy farming. Mixed and 
dairy farming are the result of high- 
priced lands, not the cause. He will 
see that clearly enough if he comes out 
to my North Dakota home where land 
values are now forcing us to abandon 

grain farming and become dairymen 
and mixed farmers. 

In another locality perhaps he attrib- 
utes it to "the Dutch. "_ He is pretty 
certain, because of his limited knowl- 
edge of conditions, to see in the rising 
values some local, temporary cause, 
and so is the more anxious to sell, if he 
owns a farm, and buy in a cheaper lo- 

But the landless man finds lands and 
rentals steadily rising in the East. 
Local causes operate to this end. Once 
the La Crosse valley, in western Wis- 
consin, was a grain -growing region, then 
it became a dairying section as prices 
advanced. Then someone discovered 
its splendid adaptation to small fruit 
growing. Lands sold for taxes twenty 
years ago are today worth over one 
hundred dollars per acre. But these 
local instances, numerous as they are, 
only emphasize the fact that the lessen- 
ing area of free lands in the West, 
coupled with the steady advance in 
prices of Western speculators' lands, 
forces up the level of prices in the East, 
as the raising of the crest of a dam 
raises the level of the stream for a long 
distance back. 

Someone will say: "But the farmers 
are the gainers from these increased 
values." They are not. For the gen- 
uine farmer, money invested in land 
represents just so much sunken capital. 
The productivity of the farm is not in- 
creased in the slightest degree by the 
fact that the values have trebled. 
Better methods give better results, 
but the added yield goes to meet the 
rental charges. A fai-m worth $10 will 
produce as much — probably more — of 
the cereal crops per acre than your one 
hundred dollar Illinois land. If there 
is no advantage due to closer markets, 
betterschoolfacilities, social advantages 
and the like, then $90 per acre repre- 
sents "water," upon which the farmer 
has to pay interest in the form of rental 
before he can begin to lay aside wages 
for himself. 

But, taking our twenty-five dollar 
land as representing fair farming val- 
ues, let us compare land values with the 
Easterner. It is worth while to state 



right here that the value of lands in my 
home county have been inflated not 
less than ten dollars an acre. But at 
twenty-five dollars per acre we have 
daily mail, the telephone, a 40-cent 
per 100 pounds freight rate to our base 
of shipment, 300 miles distant, and a 
price for our grain averaging 12 cents 
under the market quotations of Min- 
neapolis and Duluth. 

Wherein is the Illinois farmer fa- 
vored four times more than we? Tell 
me, if you can, where he has twice the 
advantage. He has an advantage in 
markets, in schools, in society. We ad- 
mit that. Agree that it doubles the 
desirability of his land. It does not, 
but I agree that it does. Then his 
land is worth, actually worth, $50 an 
acre — providing ours is worth $25, and, 
as I have stated, ours is two-fifths 
fictitious value. 

If his land be worth but fifty dollars 
per acre, and I think he will agree with 
me when I say that it will not earn him 
four per cent, interest and fair wages 
on a higher valuation, then $50 per 
acre, or one-half of his total valuation, 
is "water," pure and simple. 

Well, what of that?— Much of it! 
When a corporation creates fictitious 
values by issuing common stock it 
does not thereby increase the "visible" 
wealth. Take, for instance, the case of a 
railroad — mileage, rolling-stock, termi- 
nals, all remain as before. The taxable 
value has not been increased. And so 
with other corporations — an increase 
of the capital stock is unattended by a 
heavier check to the state for taxes. 
Not so with the farm. Let real estate 
advance, and the rate of valuation ad- 
vances, the rate of tax remains as 
before, the tax is increased. If the 
values of the farms of Illinois be 50 per 
cent, water, rest assured that the taxes 
of the Illinois farmers are not. 

So much by way of trying to make 

this point clear: that watered values of 
farms throw the burdens of taxation 
away from the large corporations and 
upon the farmers. South Dakota ad- 
mits of an increase in its farmers' tax 
bill within the past few years of a total 
now aggregating $500,000 per year. 

The money power, by watering the 
values of farm lands, has succeeded in 
throwing upon the farming classes much 
more than their share of local and state 

Another result of the watering of 
land values is the creation of a class of 
men living from the soil but not owning 
it — ^tenants, we call them. Every 
dollar of fictitious value you add to the 
farm means by that much a separation 
between the man and ownership of the 
land he works. Tenantry is not a good 
thing. It is bad for the land — wasteful 
and impoverishing. It is bad for the 
tenant. It puts him in the position of 
an underling. It is bad for the land- 
lord. It makes him arrogant. It is 
good only for organized wealth, which 
hopes, by means of a landed class, to 
perpetuate its reign of power. 

This menace to our freedom is be- 
coming more and more evident as the 
area of the available public lands nar- 
rows down. The eagerness with which 
the public lands are seized upon; the 
extent to which the commutation 
clause of the homestead law is being 
exploited by the land plunderers; the 
far-reaching consequences of land mo- 
nopoly, only the most evident phases of 
which have been touched upon in this 
article, all demand from the American 
people and from their representatives 
in Congress a thorough study of the 
facts in the case — and their action — 
action that shall remove at once this 
commutation clause from the statute 
books. Other land-law reforms are 
needed — are urgent — but this is im- 

<< T N Austria the express companies 
-*■ presszugsgesellschaf ts ' . " 

are called ' Lebensmittelexportex- 
What a round about way of saying ' robbers '! " 







HALL you be gone long, dear? " 
The governor climbed a 
little stiffly from the carriage 
before he answered. 

"Only a moment, Edith, I think. I 
must confess, my dear, that I look for- 
ward with some dread to the interview." 

" It is to please me, you know, Fran- 
cis," she said brightly. "I thought 
that the woman could speak to you 
more freely perhaps in her own poor 
home. It is a very sad case, and I — 
never interfere with your official affairs, 
you know. I only want you to see her 
— to talk with her." 

Governor Leonard sighed with as 
much impatience as he ever displayed 
toward his charming wife. " I will see 
her, of course," he said with some con- 
straint. "I came here for that pur- 
pose, Edith. But I tell you now, just 
as I shall tell the mother a little later, 
that it will do no good. The lad is 
hopeless — utterly so. I think I never 
saw a case of such sullen obstinacy. 
He does not deny his guilt." 

"I am sure that he is all that you 
say," said his wife in a lower voice. 
"He has no claim upon you, dear — 
upon anybody — not even upon the 
woman who bore him. Perhaps that 
is why I feel — as I do. Be very gentle 
with her, Francis. Poor soul, her 
burden is very heavy! " 

The governor, tucking the carriage 
robes carefully about his wife, touched 
her fingers caressingly and for a 
moment his hand closed over them. 
"I will not be long." hp said, and 
turned away. 

Edith Leonard leaned languidly bacl: 

in her carriage and looked about her. 

It was growing colder but her warm 

wraps made her indifferent to the 


change of temperature. The carriage, 
the splendid horses, even the driver, 
who looked about him in a slightly- 
bored fashion, served to accentuate the 
contrast between them and the narrow, 
dirty street — the shabby houses — the 
few pedestrians all branded with the 
hall-mark of poverty, who stared a 
little curiously as they passed at the 
well-known face of the governor's 
beautiful wife. She was very promi- 
nent in philanthropical circles and she 
nodded brightly more than once in 
answer to a gesture of recognition. 

The house before which the carriage 
had stopped was even more shabby 
than its fellows. It was set farther 
back from the street, and the board 
walk that led from the sagging gate 
to the house was little more than a mere 
trap for the unwary. The crazy door, 
propped in place by a bit of broken 
board, was slow to open to the gover- 
nor's knock. 

The governor knocked again, and had 
just begun with a feeling of relief to 
fancy that the house was empty when 
he heard heavy, lagging steps crossing 
the loose boards and the door was 

It was rather dark inside the room 
so that at first the woman, framed in 
the fading light, was a little confused. 
She shaded her eyes with her hand and 
looked at her visitor a little curiously, 
and then past him at the waiting 

"My name is Leonard," said the 
governor gently. " My wife told mc 
that she promised you I should come 
to see you." 

She looked at him dully. She was 
thin and angular, with grayish hair 
twisted in a tight knot on the back of 



her head and her heavy gaze met his 
reluctantly. He looked at the rounded 
shoulders, the flat, shapeless figure, the 
coarse, not overly-clean frock, with a 
thrill of disgust. The difference be- 
tween women such as she and Edith 
was a difference as wide as the world. 

"Yes, she told me she thought you 
would come," said the woman slowly, 
as she opened the door a little wider. 
"I guess I didn't believe her. Any- 
way, I haven't set much store by 
your coming." 

The wordi were ungracious enough, 
but something in them, or in the voice, 
turned the governor cold and made him 
entertain for the moment a childish 
longing for flight. An instant later the 
door closed behind him and he took the 
rickety chair which she handed him and 
looked about the room a little curi- 

It was a very poor, scantily-furnished 
room, not overly well-lighted now that 
the door was closed. There were a few 
scraps of shabby furniture and one or 
two paneless windows stuffed with 
rolls of faded rags. The chimney 
smoked abominably and the sting of 
the reek got into the governor's eyes 
and made them smart. 

He was trying to master his sick 
repugnance — for Edith's sake. "I 
would like to help you, Mrs. Hensley," 
he said, and there was something more 
than a touch of formal pity in his voice. 
" Mrs. Leonard tells me that you are a 
native of Tennessee, too — my own state. 
So if there is anything that I can 
do " 

The deliberate ignoring of the fact 
that there could be any connection be- 
tween his visit and her son's trouble 
broke down the woman's slender self- 
control. She began to cry helplessly. 
For the first time the governor forced 
himself to face her squarely and 

"Mary Lou!" he said thickly, his 
face paling a little. Mary Lou — yoii! 
Oh, my God!" 

The woman, startled by his agitated 
cry, ceased her sobbing and looked at 
him, at first wonderingly, then with a 
dawning stain of color in her thin face. 

"I believe that it is Frank!" she said, 
in a tone that was almost inaudible. 

The man before her thought of his 
position — the gentle woman waiting 
for him in the carriage outside — and 
steadied himself suddenly. But the 
color did not come back to his face and 
his hands, grasping the table before 
him, trembled oddly. 

"I cannot be mistaken," he said in a 
queer, shaken voice. "It is Mary Lou 
after all — Mary Lou, whom I thought 
dead and buried these twenty years!" 

She looked at him defiantly, and yet 
with a touch of trouble in her gaze. 

"There is no use in denying it, I 
reckon," she said slowly. "I would 
like for you to know, though, that if I 
had had the least idea — I am not so bad 
as that comes to, I guess " 

He tried to speak, but somehow the 
words would not come. In some vague 
way the very horror of the situation 
appalled him. Mary Lou here — Mary 
Lou, whom he had thought dead and 

"You needn't look at me," she said 

"It's not of you I am thinking," 
he said honestly. "It's Edith, Mary 
Lou — Edith, my wife." 

"You needn't worry about her, I 
guess." The tired, faded eyes grew 
suddenly moist. "I guess likely you 
don't know much about how I feel 
about her. She has given me the only 
kind words that I have heard for years. 
I'd have my right hand cut off rather 
than see her suffer." 

A new gentleness in the haggard face 
stirred him with a faint curiosity. 

' ' Why did you leave me , Mary Lou ? " 
he asked suddenly. 

The woman looked at him quietly — 
the well-fed, well-groomed figure — the 
high-bred face — the immaculate linen 
— the sparkling gem in the ring upon 
his finger — then her eyes fell. 

"It's so long ago," she complained 
wearily. "I just got tired, I guess. 
And my people were moving to Texas 
and I didn't want to be left behind. 
My mother talked to me a lot. She 
always said that you'd never be able to 
make a living for me." 



He looked at her quietly — at the tired 
figure — the shallow face which even 
now had little strength in it — and his 
heart sickened. "Did you ever care 
anything for me, Mary Lou? " he asked 
gently. "Even at first?" 

"Not much," she confessed frankly. 
"You were too old for me and too sol- 
emn, I guess. And that last da^^ there 
was a dance out at Abe Goodlett's, you 
know, and I guess maybe you was 
more than a little jealous. Anyway, 
you wouldn't let me go. I made up my 
mind then that it wasn't any use — that 
we couldn't get along together." 

He groaned a little. "And that was 
the reason that you broke my heart," 
he said stupidly. 

Her eyes fell before his. "I didn't 
know that you was going to take it so 
hard," she said in a lower voice. "I 
thought that ma3^be you was as tired as 
I was. So I waited until you went off 
that morning and then I slipped away 
myself. I stayed in the station almost 
an hour — the train was late — and I cried 
until I was nearly blind. I guess if you 
had come in then it might have been 

"And after that " 

For the first time a little flush crept 
into the man's face. "We had thought 
Mary Lou, that maybe — I think that 
that hurt me worst of all." The flush 
grew deeper. "And Edith and I have 
never had any children " 

A faint shadow of confusion crept 
into her voice. "After that, of course, 
I went to Texas with the others," she 
said a little hurriedly. " My brother 
brought my ticket — And after I got to 
Texas I was sick a long time. I guess 
that's all you want to know." 

"I heard that you were dead," he 
whispered. "That was after your 
brother wrote to me and said that you 
wanted a divorce. He said that there 
was another man — So I gave you 
your freedom, Mary Lou." 

She moved restlessly so that he could 
not see her face. "It's a long time 
ago," she said again , without meeting 
his gaze. " I guess that there's no use 
talking about it any more. That's not 
what brought you here, I guess. And 

you needn't be afraid of me giving you 
any trouble. God knows, I have caused 
you enough of that now — first and last ! 
I've got a brother living in Fort Worth. 
He'll look after me if I can get out 
there. And I am going — just as soon 
as I can." 

Governor Leonard stared at her for 
a moment dully. " You are a widow," 
he said. " Yotir son told me that your 
husband had been dead for over a year. 
And he told me that — good God, 
Mary Lou ! have I got that to bear, too ? 
He told me that Hensley was his step- 
father. In God's name, is it my son — 
your's and mine — that sullen, degen- 
erate rascal lying in jail now, waiting 
for the gallows?" 

Her face grew scarlet, but she did not 
answer him. She was thinking deeply, 
and she was not clever. Her mind 
worked slowly. 

"Your wife will be getting cold," 
she said. " You had better go back to 
her, I guess. I am not asking any 
favor of you — and neither is Zack. 
We don't want anything at your hands 
— except justice." She looked up 
sullenly and met his anxious eyes. 
"I've got a woman staying with me 
and she works at the factory," she 
added defiantly. " I heard the whistle 
a minute ago — she will be coming in 
soon. I guess that it would be just as 
well if she didn't find you here." 

She turned away, but he caught her 
roughly by the sleeve. "You don't 
understand," he stammered. "Jus- 
tice! Why, the lad is utterly de- 
praved! It would be a flagrant out- 
rage for me to help him cheat the 
gallows. Yet if what I suspect is true 
— for God's sake, Mary Lou, you owe 
me something, you know ! " 

"Suppose he was your son," she 
asked suddenly — sharply, "what would 
you do?" 

"What would I do?" The gov- 
ernor laughed bitterly. "There is 
only one thing I could do, Mary Lou — 
betray the trust committed to me — 
sign a pardon for that unhappy boy — 
and then resign the office which I 
shall have disgraced. We have sinned 
against him enough, Mary Lou. I 



would not send his soul to hell before 
the time. God knows, with more time 
he might repent." 

She still faced him, a little eagerly 
now. "And if he is not your son," 
she asked. "Suppose he has no 
shadow of a claim upon you. What 

A touch of resentment crept into* his 
face. "You can hardly expect me to 
feel very deeply interested in Hens- 
ley's child," he said simply. "The 
boy is guilty, Mary Lou; confessedly 
so. It would be unpardonable in me 
to interfere." 

She turned her face away. " I 
thought that I had trouble enough to 
bear before," she said, her face working 
oddly. " He may be all that you say — 
Zack may — but still he is my baby! " 
She choked a little. "Lord — Lord!" 
she said drearily. "I wanted to die 
that time I was sick so long. I wish 
to God now that I had! " 

The man was drawing his gloves on 
without being conscious of what he did. 
But his eyes never left the woman's 

"You must tell me," he said, 
stupidly. " I tell you, Mary Lou, I 
have a right to know! " 

The door behind him fell open and a 
woman entered. She looked at him 
a little curiously and then back over 
her shoulder at the restless horses — the 
coachman whose outraged dignity had 
suffertd cruelly in this long wait before 
the shabbiest cottage on West Second 
Street, and the fair woman muffled in 
her warm furs who faced the failing 
light — and waited. 

The governor rose to his feet. He 
had grown older; his face more care- 
worn and sordid, as if with the reflection 
of the trouble in the face before him. 

"I will hear from you again," he 
said miserably. "I am sorry that 
there is so little that I can do." 

The woman did not answer him. 
She only held the door open dully for 
him to pass. 

Four days until the time set for the 
execution. The prisoner still kept the 
old, insolent attitude with which he 

had faced the jury. Guilty of murder? 
Yes, he supposed he was. He had 
quarreled with the man over a game of 
cards; had gone home for his pistol: 
had returned and shot the unarmed 
man who was trying to conciliate him — 
deliberately. The only anxiety which 
he exhibited during the early days of 
his imprisonment was an anxiety lest 
his victim should after all recover. 
Governor Leonard had, after his inter- 
view with Mary Lou Hensley, seen the 
lad more than once — had gazed into 
his face searching for some half-hidden 
resemblance to his own — and had 
sought in vain. 

With the pallor that his incarcer- 
ation brought, it is true, Leonard saw 
glimpses more than once of the frail, 
wild-rose beauty of the woman who 
had made him play the fool to his own 
undoing so long before. It appealed to 
him even now in a vague way, and 


And from Mary Lou Hensley her- 
self there still came neither word nor 

The day before that set for the legal 
execution of her prot6g6 found the 
governor's wife lingering in the little 
tumble-down cottage while the car- 
riage waited again without. Mary 
Lou's face had grown colder, harder, 
these last few, hard days — the look of 
dumb suffering more pronounced. 
Edith Leonard's eyes filled at sight of 

" I thought that there might be some- 
thing that I could do," she said help- 
lessly. " Oh, you poor, poor woman! " 
"I am glad that you are here," said 
Mary Lou Hensley quietly. "There is 
something that I want you to do." 

Her hands were trembling a little as 
she loosened the cotton skirt that had 
been pinned tightly back. The loose 
boards of the floor were clean and wet 
and smelled of soap. On the bed, 
which was covered now with a coarse 
cotton sheet, were several masculine 
garments which had been cleaned and 
pressed neatly. Near them was a tiny 
baby frock of faded pink caHco, and a 
cotton cap with a wide frill of starched 
lace. The woman touched these 



last a little caressingly before she sat 

"Somehow I can't fret any more," 
she said wearily. " I have seen so much 
trouble that it does look like it ought 
to have killed me long ago. And it's 
my baby they — are going to hang to- 
morrowl Mrs. Leonard. My baby! Oh, 
Lord God! " 

There was nothing in the least irrev- 
erent in the half-crazed words. It was 
simply the cry of a suffering soul tast- 
ing the extremity of torture — a cry to 
the Infinite, the Unknown, the Jugger- 
naut that had crushed it until the 
power, the capacity, for suffering was 
almost gone. She looked at the sor- 
rowful face before her, then turned her 
head aside. 

"I am so sorry for you — so sorry!" 
said the gentle voice. "And I have 
tried so hard. It is almost the first 
time that I have ever tried to interfere. 
And it is not that he — my husband — 
does not feel it. He has never been 
the same since the day I persuaded 
him to come and talk to you. He has 
changed in some vague way — even to 

The face of the woman before her 
altered suddenly. She was still touch- 
ing the faded frock caressingly. 

"He hasn't been good to me — Zack 
hasn't," she said simply. " I have seen 
a sight of trouble with him. He beat 
me nearly to death once — Zack did — 
when he was drunk and I had money 
and wouldn't let him have it. But, 
Lord! he didn't know what he was 
doing. If only I could remember him 
though — that a'way. But, oh, I can't! 
Somehow, it seems like I can't see him 
only as my little baby, so funny and 
cute with his peart little ways — Lord, 
honey, I do wish to God I had died that 
time that the doctors were so sure I 
was going to! " 

Differences of caste, of education, 
had gone down in the flood of feeling 
that engulfed her. She huddled at the 
other woman's feet with her face hidden 
against Edith Leonard's knees. 

"I am going to leave here soon," 
she continued. " My brother in Fort 
Worth has sent me some money and I 

am going to him. I want you to tell 
your husband that I don't blame him 
either — not a bit. I don't blame any- 
body. He sent me word that I could 
have Zack — afterwards. I am getting 
ready for him and the burying now. 
And I have a heap to be thankful for. 
You see, Zack professed last night." 

Edith Leonard looked at her un- 
comprehendingly. "Professed!" she re- 
peated a little blankly. 

"Yes, last night. Professed a hope, 
you know. He never would listen to 
a preacher before — not even when he 
was little. And he never would pretend 
— Zack wouldn't. He was like me 
about that. I guess I have been bad 
enough, but I never told a lie in my 

She waited a moment, then wrung 
her toil-hardened hands. " I have seen 
so much trouble!" She went over the 
familiar phrase dully — stupidly. " May- 
be that is why I have always set 
so much store by heaven. And my old 
mother always told me that no liar or 
thief could ever go there! It says so in 
the Bible somewhere, don't it?" 

Edith Leonard nodded. 

" Will you read it to me?" asked the 
woman feverishly. She took the book 
from a trunk and laid it reverently in 
her visitor's hands. 

"Dogs and sorcerers — and whatso- 
ever loveth and maketh a lie," she said 
slowly, a little later. "There it is, you 
see. I don't know what the other 
words mean, and it don't much matter, 
I guess. Maybe they're for the rich, 
educated people. And I don't see why 
dogs or any other dumb brutes — . But 
He knows best, I reckon, and there 
it is in black and white to show for 

" I remember that once when Zack 
was little I left him in the house one 
day and went out in the field to hoe 
cotton. He couldn't walk then and I 
had tied him to the bedstead and 
locked the door. And I turned back 
once and looked behind me and every- 
thing was all right. And then I hoed 
to the end of the row and turned and 
looked again and there was the whole 
house in a blaze and me a quarter of a 



mile away and not a soul within five 
miles of me and the baby! 

" I don't know how I ever got to the 
house. Seems like the only thing that 
come to me was the knowing that my 
baby was locked up in that hell, and I 
heard him crying and calHng for his 
mammy — I'd lost the key, too, in my 
hurry, and I wasn't strong then like I 
am now. But I tore that door ofl its 
hinges like a bit of pasteboard. The 
baby's dress was blazing when I got to 
him. There is a little scar on his neck 
now where " 

She broke down in a passion of dry, 
tearless sobs that shook her hke a tem- 
pest. The other woman was crying as 
helplessly as she. 

" Seems like it wouldn't hurt me none 
now for Zack to die a natural death. 
It's the thought of the other that's 
kiUing me. I would face any kind of 
suffering for him noWf and face it 
gladly, God knows. But he sent for 
me yesterday. He has got some sort 
of a wild idea in his head that I could 
help him " 

' ' You help him ? You poor woman ! ' ' 

Mary Lou Hensley's face grew hard 
again. "Do you beheve in a hell, 
Mrs. Leonard?" she asked. "A sure- 
enough hell — like we used to hear the 
preachers talk about when we were 
children ? ' ' 

Edith Leonard shook her head. "I 
don't believe in a literal hell of fire and 
brimstone — no," she said decisively. 
" Modern thought " 

Mary Lou Hensley looked at her a 
little disappointedly. " I have heard of 
that, too," she said sharply. "Well, I 
do. I beheve in a place where sinners 
are roasted in terrible fires forever and 
forever. And that all Hars go there, 
sure. If it wasn't for that " 

Edith Leonard drew back a little. 

"Oh, I know just what you are 
thinking, and I don't know that I blame 
you — much. You don't know, though, 
what terrible fancies I have some- 
times " 

" I must go now," said the governor's 
wife gently. " I will see you tomorrow. 
Mrs. Hensley — after it is all over. 
And you must look on me — as a sister. 

you know. A sister who is more rich — 
more fortunate — than you are, poor 
thing, but a sister who loves you and is 
longing to help you " 

The woman had turned back again to 
the bed. 

" I guess there can't anybody do 
that," she said sullenly. "Not even 
God! " 

So the visitor went lingeringly away. 

The day lengthened and the night 
came again, warm and brooding and 
restful like a great, shadowy Presence 
from the Unseen. Once, — she lived 
not very far from the jail, — Mary Lou 
Hensley heard the sound of ham- 
mering and knew what the men were 
building. "Hell!" she whispered to 
herself. "Hell and a soul that burns 
in torment forever and forever! 
Lord, I just can't do it! Seems like I 
am so tired I am just bound to rest! 
Lord, I just can't do it — ! Not even 
for Zack!" 

After that, she folded the little frock 
and laid it away in the trunk again. 
And then, the night still young, she 
walked up and down the floor for a long 
time — tearless. 

The night deepened — ^wore on. The 
wide, black void above the cottage was 
thick-sown with countless stars. Once 
the woman stood in the doorway a long 
time and stared out in the darkness. ' ' I 
thought that I heard a baby crying," 
she said to herself under her breath. 
"It's crying like it was hurt or lonesome. 
Maybe Mrs. McGhee has let Benny fall 
against the stove again. There ain't 
no hurt in the world like a bum, some- 
how ' ' 

She shuddered a little and went inside 
and closed the door again. 

It was after that that she began talk- 
ing to herself before the dying fire. 

"Seems like I could stand just any- 
thing for him — Zack. Anything but 

"Wonder if he suspicioned any 
thing yesterday when he cursed me and 
said that he knew that I could help 
him — if I wanted to. Could Frank 
have said anything to him, I won- 



"Lord, how long ago it has been 
since then. Of course, Frank Leonard 
was a fool and I was another, just as 
my mother told me I was. And they 
said so much about Texas and the good 
times they was going to have that it 
just about turned my head, I guess. 

" I haven't got anything against him, 
God knows! And I can see well enough 
just what it would mean for him and 
for her, too " 

It was then that she noticed the 
knock at the door — noticed it with the 
dull consciousness that she had heard 
it more than once without noticing it. 
She had sent the woman who lived with 
her away that she might be alone. 
Had she come back? 

She opened the door a little reluc- 
tantly. A half -grown lad stood out- 

"Here is a note that Mrs. Leonard 
sent you, Mrs. Hensley," he said, "and 
here's a box that goes with it," 

She took them both and closed the 
door again in his face. She tore the 
note open feverishly. 

"My husband is ill," wrote Edith 
Leonard. " For the first time in our 
married life he has shut me out of his 
confidence. I am not complaining of 
this, you understand. I trust him and 
I trust you. I have only one thing to 
say to you. If there is anything that 
you can say that will save that 
wretched boy tomorrow, for God's sake 
say it! Do not allow any personal 
solicitude for yourself — for my hus- 
band — for me — to influence you for a 
moment. I would have laughed an 
hour ago if any one had told me that 
the fate of Zack Hensley could touch 
either me or mine. Now I am full of 
doubts. My husband sends you this 
message. 'Tell her,' he said, 'for the 
sake of the man whose life she wrecked 
so long ago, to tell the truth now.'" 

Mary Lou Hensley was not an edu- 
cated woman. Jt took her a long time 
to spell through the brief note which 
Edith Leonard had written, and when 
she had finished it and laid it aside, she 
knew that the battle she had fancied 
she had fought to a finish was hardly 
yet begun. 

The candle beside her, guttering in 
the melted tallow, wavered a little 
drunkenly and the smoking wick fell 
upon her hand. She uttered a feeble 

The fire grew low and the woman 
replenished it from a pile of broken 
boards just outside the door. And 
again the restless walking began — up 
and down — up and down^-over the 
rough, uneven floor that creaked even 
under her light tread. 

Midnight came and went and the 
stars that ushered in the early hours of 
the morning paled in the gray shadows 
that crept toward the zenith. Mary 
Lou Hensley had lingered in the Garden 
of her Gethsemane until the sun-rising. 

There came a time at length when 
the slender thread of strength that had 
survived her cramped and narrow 
girlhood and the later hardships of her 
married life snapped under the strain. 
She cared nothing, less than nothing 
now, for the man whose life she had 
ruined — whose heart she had broken. 
She cared less than nothing for the 
woman who had tried so hard to help 
her bear her cross. Zack — her baby — 
filled her narrowing horizon. 

A fever of unrest claimed her. Even 
yet it was not too late. A word to 
Governor Leonard, and her boy would 
be free. If only she could give up the 
dreams that had been her solace more 
than once when her hard life had 
grown unbearable. If only, after all, 
there was not a judgment and an ever- 
lasting hell! 

After a long time had passed she 
opened the box that the boy had 
brought. It was filled with spicy, 
white carnations. She fell upon them 
in a sort of a fury. What had she 
meant, to send them with their mes- 
sage of a swift-coming spring when she 
should — be worse than childless? She 
laid them one by one on the glowing 
coals and shivered a little as she 
watched them, pale and moist and 
fragrant and full of life, shrivel into 

The sun came up and the light creep- 
ing through the broken shutters fell 
upon the woman's haggard face. Some 



one knocked on the crazy, ill-hung 
door; knocked again, then went away. 
The bell from a passing milkwagon 
rattled and jangled in the narrow street 
outside and she heard a door open and 
close and the insistent crying of a little 

Suddenly the woman who had so 
feared death and hell and the judgment 
did a very curious thing. She knelt 
beside the fire, and taking a bit of flam- 
ing board from it, laid it upon her naked 

It sputtered there for a moment 
and a little smell of scorched flesh 
filled the room. "What is hell?" said 
the woman suddenly, in a strangled, 
awful voice. "What do I care for the 
pains of hell? Oh, my baby — my Httle 

She shook aside the bit of burning 
board presently. Then with a terrible 
look still on her face she took the 
cleaned and mended garments from 
the bed and laid them away. 

She opened the door wide. " John! ' ' 
she called. "Oh, John — John!" 

A woman looked at her curiously 
from across the street, then went inside 
the house and closed the door. A 
man was chopping wood in the next 
yard. He paused in his work and 
stared at her rudely, with his mouth 
open. "That is his mother," she 
heard him say to another man who 
was passing. 

She called again in a sudden terror. 
" Oh, John! " she screamed. A sudden 
panic lest she be too late after all — 
lest something should have happened — 
chilled her. Was it ten o'clock ?" 

John, a freckle-faced boy with kindly 
eyes came running breathlessly from 
across the street. The sun shone in 
her face and blinded her a little. She 
did not see him at first. 

" I want you to go to Governor 
Leonard's for me, John," she said. " I 
haven't any pencil or paper or I would 
write a note. Tell him that I said — 
No, get a pencil for n'le. I must write \" 

He came back after a little and she 
felt rather than saw that the woman 
with a wailing baby tugging at her 
skirts across the street was staring at 

her again and that her eyes were red 
and swollen. 

" I have done my very best for you." 
she wrote, "and it's no use. You'll 
have to sign the pardon!" 

" You must give it to the governor 
or the governor's wife yourself," she 
said. "Do you understand?" 

The boy nodded and vanished down 
the street. 

She watched him out of sight, then 
laughed a little drearily. "What do 
I care?" she whispered. " He was the 
peartest baby — I ever saw! And me 
in hell forever and ever! Lord, I wish 
that I had died that time when I was 
sick! I wish to God I had!" 

"Mrs. Hensley " 

She turned sharply. "Did you 
speak to me?" she asked. 

The man bowed courteously. "I 
am Governor Leonard's private secre- 
tary," he said. "He is sick and he 
asked me to bring you a message. I 
hardly know, under the circumstances, 
whether the news will be good or bad. 
Your son died with a hemorrhage of 
the lungs two hours ago. He was ill 
early in the night but would not allow 
us to send for you, and they hardly 
expected that it would prove so 
serious " 

His words, unintelligible, seemingly, 
in themselves, came apparently from 
a measureless distance. "I must stop 
John," she said stupidly. " Will some- 
body try to stop him — please!" 

"There was some talk of a pardon 
earlier in the evening," went on the 
secretary. "Governor Leonard is ill 
and I understand that his wife made a 
personal appeal so strong that he could 
hardly have resisted it. Even had 
your son been pardoned, however, his 
life would, of course, have been ruined. 
Under the shadow of the law " 

She pushed" him away from her 
roughly and tore the soiled piece of 
paper which John had given timidly 
back to her to bits in her stiff fingers. 
"It's too late!" she said to nobody in 
particular. "Too late for Zack — too 
late for me — too late for everybody!" 

She went inside the house again and 
closed the door behind her. 

y\K3. BOrmOJE 




Note: For a complete acquaintance with 
Mrs. Bonticue and her clan, we beg to refer 
readers to "Ructions," by Charles Fort, in 
the May number of Watson's Magazine. — 

A ROW of tenements with fire- 
escapes painted white! Pretty 
attractive, those white fire- 
escapes. Certainly are! See the red 
house trimmed with Hmestone? But 
you're fooled there; the stone trim- 
ming effect is only white paint. And 
in another house, see the white key- 
stone of the arch over the door? But 
the "keystone" is only painted on the 
bricks. One landlord painted a lime- 
stone border on his house and other 
landlords imitated him, so that, up and 
down the street, you can see similar 
effect without expense. 

And the httle Dutch-brick house — 
yellow, light-brown, and dark-brown 
bricks, in parquet-flooring designs! 
But, stand at the side of the house and 
look up its edge. You see nicks where 
bricks are set one upon another, but 
the nicks are between pairs of the 
little Dutch bricks, you'll notice. 
Little Dutch bricks only painted on 
the big red kind from Haverstraw! 

Three floors, and two families to a 
floor; that's the house. Here's the 
landlord, one Dunphy, standing on the 
crooked stoop. 

Hair smoothed and even polished, 
one would think, down to his ears, and 
parted in the middle. A burly man of 
fifty. Face spattered with red spots, 
as if every one-thousandth drink had 
rung up and registered itself there. 
Very black mustache, with ends cut off, 
smoothed and polished down so that 
it was just like the cut of his hair, 
in miniature. The irregular features 
seem made to express good nature. 

And he is a good-natured man! Listen 
to him. 

Second-floor woman standing on the 
stoop, talking with him. "If you put 
me out, Mr. Dunphy, there's no place 
for me to go." 

A joke and a laugh, for that was Dun- 
phy 's way of turning off every appeal to 
him. " A fine, likely woman like your- 
self?" — a poor, dull, emaciated crea- 
ture. "Don't be laughing at us! Why 
you'd have no trouble; any good man'd 
marry you." 

A feeble, flickering smile reflecting 
from his own wide, good-natured grin. 
Dull pleading. Dull pleading eliciting 
nothing but: 

"Sure, woman dear, it must be your 
own obstinacy has brought you to this 
condition! I'd take me oath you could 
have as fine a home as any in the land 
if you'd but consent to make some good 
man happy!" Landlord hanging up 
a sign of rooms to let. 

"Then I must go, Mr. Dunphy?" 

"Why, anyway, a woman like your- 
self is lowering herself consenting to 
live in this old tenement." 

A fine fellow, this landlord! Grind 
you down and laugh and flatter you; 
push you to the wall and enjoy it 
hugely and do his good-natured best to 
make you enjoy it; put you out in the 
street and make you feel it was for 
your own good, and you deserved bet- 
ter than to live in his ugly old tenement. 

Rooms to rent in second floor, east. 
Here are the remaining tenants: The 
Pagloni sisters, in second floor, west; 
skirt binders. Bare rooms; bologna, 
weak tea, and stale bread; it means 
that to be skirt binders. A tall, thin 
sister, with neither enjoyment nor 
interest in anything. A younger sister 
with interest in life still flickering in 



her. An imitation gold tooth that 
showed when she smiled at any male 
tenant — elder sister clutching her, for 
life is for skirt binding, bare rooms, and 
weak tea only. Top floor! The Ham- 
mers, a young couple, who could 
quarrel and sing and be as lively as 
anybody. Beside them lived old Han- 
nah, scrubwoman and street preacher, 
who never sinned and would tell 
you she had a strong pull with 

The first-floor tenants are standing 
in the front hall. Mrs. Flack! A 
young woman who had always looked 
old. Premature wrinkles. Chin rest- 
ing forward on her collar bone. She 
had a child of five. Flack had flown; 
he had married her in haste, but had 
repented more hastily. 

Mrs. Flack exclaiming to a drag- 
gled beldame, first floor, east: 

"I'm sure it was Flack I saw, last 
night!" gesticulating excitedly, as ex- 
citedly as she would gesticulate if re- 
marking only upon the weather. "I'd 
recognize him anywheres. It was your 
father, Josie; I'm sure almost I remem- 
ber what he looks like." 

Beldame, mouthing and muttering, 
raising a scrawny arm and shaking it at 
a rear window. All the rear windows 
of the house were darkened. 

" My nine man childs! " mouthed the 
beldame. " If they were alive, they'd 
tear that down and give us light! I'd 
have light and air and food if my nine 
man children was spared me!" Strid- 
ing back and forth in the hall. A curi- 
ous creaking sound accompanying her 
in her striding. Striding and mouth- 
ing. And with her went a twittering 
as if from a very big cricket. 

A fulisade of oaths! Beldame 
stooping and snatching, from the floor, 
a wee Easter chick that had been flut- 
tering along with her. Chick chirping 
affrightedly. A muttering of oaths. 
Then tenderly: 

"Ah, chick, chick! It's mother! 
Little chick, chick!" Opening her 
dress, gently placing the chick against 
her bosom. Little chick closing its 
eyes contentedly. Beldame stagger- 
ing to her rooms. The grumbling and 

mumbling of oaths. Then, "Sleep, 
little chick, chick!" 

Look out the rear window at 
which the forlorn creature had shaken 
her scrawny fist. You'll not look far, 
A foot from the window you see a 
structure of galvanized iron upon a 
strong wooden framework — the fence 
that clouded the house! Look down 
at the foot of the structure. Garbage, 
ashes, rags; an old mattress, old hats, 
shoes, tin cans, boxes, decaying mat- 
ting and moldy oilcloth! And you 
wonder that Dunphy had built this 
fence? If you go around, by the way 
of the alley, you will see, on the other 
side of it, a well-paved courtyard and 
the rear wall of a very respectable flat 
house. And this had been the way 
with dwellers in the Dutch-brick tene- 

Oh, standing at a window with a 
pailful of ashes, you know, and who 
could be bothered going all the way 
to the barrels? Why, just sling 'em 
down in the courtyard, of course! 
May land on clothes on lines there— oh, 
someone else's clothes! Peeling a 
quart of potatoes. Don't quite see 
where to put the peelings — why, to be 
sure, let 'em go out the window! 

To shield his flathouse, Dunphy 
built the fence that darkened his 

There were rebellions sometimes. 
Everybody out in the halls, excitedly 
discussing the fence. Old Hannah cry- 
ing, "Oh, it would be sinful to tear it 
down, and I won't take any part in it — 
but you go ahead and I'll make it all 
right for you! Pull down the fence, 
and I'll use my influence to have you 
forgiven!" Rest of the house, arming 
with flat-irons and hatchets, rushing 
boldly to the fence — making a tiny 
dent in the iron of it or cutting off a 
chip from the wood of it . "See that ! ' ' 
proudly exhibiting a speck of rust or a 
chip of wood. "Tore it off bodily! 
There ain't nobody going to coop me 

So the fence stood and was useful to 
the tenants of the very respectable flat- 
house, for their clotheslines went from 
their windows to hooks in it. 



But now! Oh, just wait till Mrs. 
Bonticue appears in this situation! 
Oh, ho, but will Mrs. Bonticue stand 
any of a landlord's nonsense! I 
wouldn't bet four cents on that fence's 
longevity, for here comes Mrs. Bonticue! 

A rainy day — surely the gloomiest of 
days to move into a darkened house- 
but wait! There were unusual cir- 
cumstances in this moving of Mrs. 
Bonticue's — she was not put out this 
time. A letter had come. It^ told 
that Cousin Polly was dead. Then 
what would become of Cousin Polly's 
childer? A month or two months they 
might stay with other cousins in 
Dublin, but then? 

" Be the Laird!" from Mrs. Bonticue, 
" but no one of me own flesh and blood 
shall ever go to any stranger! Let us, 
then, Aleck and Willie and Mary Ann 
and Mary Ellen, move into cheaper 
rooms and all of us save up to bring the 
childer out to us!" 

A rainy day! The hollow plunk, 
plunk of horses' hoofs on puddle- 
strewn asphalt. Street filled with 
smoke sagging down from factory chim- 
neys. Keepers of small stores looking 
drearily out at whoever was passing : a 
little, trudging boy delivering saturated 
newspapers; a wee child under an un- 
usually large umbrella, hands holding 
the iron framework, tiny feet tripping 
over the handle — windows up and down 
the street filled with unhappy, listless 
children, whose despair seemed to make 
the day even more depressing; one 
lolling on a window sill, beating her own 
eye with her fist, just to do something; 
others tearing bits of paper and stick- 
ing them on window panes, or blowing 
on panes and tracing designs in con- 
densed vapor, or, with chins in hands, 
blankly, hopelessly staring. 

The Bonticues ! Just coming around 
the corner. Can't afford a moving van. 
Hadn't seen Cousin Polly in twenty 
years. Had never seen her husband. 
Didn't even know the children's names. 
But, oh — abhorrent thought — any 
creature of Bonticue blood eating the 
bread of strangers ! 

Cousin Willie and William, the Ba- 
varian gentleman, bearing the stove 

between them. Mary Ann Thornton 
capering ahead of them in the rain, 
waving the mysterious dictionary- 
holder as a baton. Mrs. Bonticue's 
voice, Mrs. Bonticue herself not yet 
having turned the corner : 

"Come back here, Mary Ann Thorn- 
ton, and have none of your fooling, and, 
be the Laird, I'll not put up with your 
nonsense!" Behold Mrs. Bonticue! 
Sturdiness, I tell you! Long roll of 
oil-cloth under one arm, and dragging 
pictures under the other arm, and stove- 
pipe for a musket, musket setting a be- 
draggled hat wobbling from one eye to 
the other. 

Animated children at windows clap- 
ping their hands, pointing gleefully at 
the Bonticues' moving! Cousin Mary 
Ellen coming up on the other side of the 
street, carrying a clothes-basket full of 
kitchen utensils, an umbrella lashed to 
the handle ; trying to look as if she were 
not of the disorderly procession. Up 
the stoop of the Dutch-brick tenement. 

Young Hammer, home from work on 
rainy days, greeting the new tenants 

"And who do you think you are?" 
from Cousin Willie. " Out of the w^ay 
of a college-bred man when you meet 
one!" And then to Mrs. Flack, com- 
ing to call across the street to her small 
daughter: "Aw, shut up, you with 
your mouthful of busted teeth ! Out of 
me sight ! I can't bear looking at ugly 
women! You're a lot of ill-bred ama- 
dons, and who you staring at ? " 

"Don't mind him!" from Mary Ann 
Thornton to the startled tenants. 
"All he needs is a good licking! It's 
going on two weeks now since he had a 
jolly good hidii^." She led the way 
upstairs, climbing backward, waving 
the dictionary -holder as if keeping time 
for an imagined band with it. 

Mrs. Bonticue coming blindly up the 
stoop, dripping hat away down over 
her forehead: "Be the Laird, I'm that 
beat out ! Me poor heart is faint for a 
bit of a drop, but we'll wait till the 
moving is over." 

Back for another load! And such a 
scurrying out in the halls. Such indig- 
nation. These new people had better 



be careful or — just wouldn't young 
Hammer show them ! 

Back with another load! Mary Ann 
Thornton, little, old, bedraggled elf, 
capering up the stoop, carrying a tea- 
spoon. Mrs. Bonticue, half a block 
behind, roaring that she should put up 
with no such shirking nonsense ; taking 
up the whole sidewalk ; hat down to the 
tip of her nose so that she was guessing 
her way; arms full of pillows, hassocks 
and mirrors. Cousin Mary Ellen cross- 
ing over, looking worried, looking about 
casually, as if saying, "Don't think for 
a moment that I belong to this dis- 
reputable procession!" 

"Be the Powers above ! " Mrs. Bon- 
ticue had discovered the fence. 
"Praises be to the Laird, William and 
Willie, do you see that obstruction? 
And bad luck to me and where was my 
sense, hiring these rooms at night and 
never seeing it! And I'll put up with 
that defiance to me birthright of free- 
dom?" Forcing her way to the head 
of the procession and running up the 
stairs. Whole procession following, 
running to the rear window of second 
floor, east. 

"Who dared build that fence?" 
roar from Willie. "Who dares shut 
me out from the sunlight?" Willie 
running back to the stairs, running up 
and down the stairs, running amuck, 
head turned with rage, pounding on 
doors and kicking on doors. "Show 
me the man put that fence up! Who 
thinks they can coop up a man of 
seminary breeding?" 

Mrs. Bonticue sitting limply on the 
stove. "William! William, what do 
you think of it? Ah, thank the Laird 
I always have poor, good, honest Wil- 
liam to advise me! Sensible and 
sound as the day is long! What do 
you think of it, William?" 

Bavarian gentleman thoughtfully 
squeezing his beard. 

"Take your time, William!" 

"I think it's a fence!" from the 
sound, sensible gentleman. 

"Ah, sensible and sound as the day 
is long! And what shall we do about 
it, WilHam? Thank the Laird, I al- 
ways have poor, honest, good William 

July, 1906 — s 

to advise me for the best ! What shall 
we do, William?" 

Bavarian gentleman squeezing his 
pointed beard harder. Weighing the 
matter seriously, thinking very care- 
fully before speakmg. 

"Speak up! what shall we do, Wil- 

"Get a pint of beer!" said William. 

"Oh, the good, poor, honest fellow!" 
Kissing him full on the lips, so delighted 
with his good sound sense was she. 
"What would I do without William 
to advise me?" 

And, from the drooping, jeering 
corner of her mouth, Mary Ellen 

"Mrs. Bonticue is so good to the 
men ! She's so fond of poor William ! " 

Mrs. Bonticue wheeling around. 
"Be the Laird, if you mean to torment 
me, Mary Ellen!" But a benevolent 
smile on the other corner of Mary 
Ellen's mouth quite denied that she 
meant jeering. 

"Oh, me poor cousin, to be shut up 
in darkness!" from Mary Ann Thorn- 
ton, dancing behind Mrs. Bonticue's 
back, keeping behind the broad back, 
as Mrs. Bonticue tried to turn to her. 

"What's that you say, Mary Ann?" 

"Oh, me unhappy cousin, who's 
persecuted!" Fingers to Mary Ann's 
nose. Fingers wriggling at the broad 
back derisively. 

"Ah, you have a kind heart, Mary 
Ann, and your sympathy consoles me. 
You're full of knavery, but the kind 
heart is in you." 

"To persecute me poor, unhappy 
cousin, who's so good to everybody!" 
darting around so that Mrs. Bonticue 
could not see her, grimacing, mocking, 
and mimicking. 

"Ah, yes, you have a good heart, 
Mary Ann— but, Willie!" 

"Is there a man amongst you?" 
Cousin Willie running in from the 
stairs. "Are you a man like meself, 
William, or are you only a Dutchman? 
Sure, he's only a Dutchman and's not 
got the fiery soul of a true-bom Irish- 
man. Are you with me, William? 
Are you a man or only a Dutchman? 

"Where's the oil-can, Mrs. Bon- 



ticue? Pour kerosene on his wood 
framework! Burn it down and, be 
the heavens above, we'll have light for 
true-bom Irishmen who can't never 
be shut up in darkness ! Give me that 
can, blast you, Mary Ann Thornton! 
Bum it!" Seemingly somewhat ex- 
cited, the gentleman seized a strip of 
matting and tore it in his teeth, but- 
ting his head against the wall, wildly. 

"Willie," with austerity, "'tis in- 
congruous with cultivated instincts 
to adopt such incendiary methods." 
Very severely, "It may be permissible 
to tear down the fence and jump on it 
and throw it out in the street. We 
may show our independence and con- 
tempt for landlords by battering and 
pounding and ramming it, but — oil 
and fire? You are hasty, Willie ! " Wil- 
lie tearing off strips of matting with 
his teeth, chewing them violently. 

"Then speak up, William! It shall 
be what William suggests!" Bava- 
rian gentleman feeling his responsibility. 
Squeezing his beard so as to concen- 
trate his faculties. 

"Then speak! What do you sug- 
gest, William? " 

"Have a dash of mulligan in it." 

"My own good, honest, poor, sound, 
sensible William ! " Even Willie paused 
in chewing matting to glance approval. 

"Then go out for a pint, Mary Ann 
Thornton, and have a dash of mulligan 
in it, would you?" For, you may be 
sure, Mrs. Bonticue would not permit 
a man to go out in the rain when there 
were women to run his errands. He 
might catch cold. And to both men: 
"Now, do what the old mother tells 
you! Go in the front room and put 
dry clothes on yourselves. William, 
you will find a coat of Aleck's! The 
old mother! You must obey the old 

"So motherly!" bitterly from the 
jeering comer of Mary Ellen's mouth. 
Other comer smiling, smiling pleasure 
in the beautiful virtue of motherli- 
ness, as Mrs. Bonticue turned com- 
batively. Mary Ann Thornton, behind 
the broad back, mimicking motherli- 
ness, then going out for a pint of beer 
and a dash of mulligan in it. 

Mrs. Bonticue went calling. Oh, 
no, not while the pint lasted — what do 
you think? — but after the third or, per- 
haps, the fourth, pint, when the faint- 
ness in her poor heart was relieved 
somewhat. And, oh, dear me, but 
Mrs. Bonticue was not looking her 
best! One cheek smeared with stove- 
polish, bedraggled bonnet over on one 
ear, short old black skirt patched with 
yellow, her son Aleck's boots on. 

Rapping on the door of ground floor, 

A droning: 

"Come in, come in! Or stay out, 
or stay out! " 

Beldame in a rocking-chair, leaning 
forward with arms on knees, body 
swinging from side to side. Staring 
at the floor, as Mrs. Bonticue entered. 

"I beg your pardon, but I desire a 
little information relative to this ob- 

Mutterings and curses. Head down, 
eyes staring at the floor, body mo- 
notonously swinging. 

" It seems to me, madam, that by a 
little concerted action " 

"Nine man childs! All gone!" A 
mouthing of profanity. Little chick 
pecking at bits of com meal on the 
floor and pecking where there were no 
grains, chirping incessantly. 

"A little concerted action " 

"I'd have light and air if they was 
spared me — so brave and so strong 
and nine of them — what do I care? 
Gawd Almighty, sorrow comes to ev- 
erybody!" Swinging and staring and 
blasphemy and obscenity so that the 
chick fluttered afifrightedly. A swoop- 
ing, scrawny hand, and: "Come in 
my bosom, little chick, chick! " Little 
chick fast asleep almost instantly. 
Swaying, staring and cursing. 

"Well, I'm glad you agree with me!" 
said Mrs. Bonticue. She went to the 
other first-floor rooms. 

"Oh!" said Mrs. Flack, excitedly, 
"you are the lady just moved in? 
Won't you come in?" running ahead 
to take out a chair, pulling two chairs 
from the corner, excitedly offering a 
stool as well. 

Ragged, dripping, smeared, Mrs. 



Bonticue sailing into the room mag- 
nificently. A little girl sitting in a 
chair, pretending to read a book, fore- 
finger going along the printed lines, 

"Oh, this is your little daughter, 
ma'am? How much she resembles 

"Arrah, girl, not at all! She do be 
the dead image of her father, only his 
hair was — yellow? 'Twas the love- 
liest — brown? — the loveliest brown 
hair he had. I'm sure I'd know him 
if I see him this blessed moment. You 
can't forget! " raising her hands, push- 
ing out with them for emphasis. 
" 'Twould not be natural to forget what 
the father of your child looks like, 
though I can't say he stayed long 
enough for us to be acquainted." 

"Ah, sure not! I'm a mother me- 
self , and one is always more or less ac- 
quainted with one's husband. You 
haven't seen him in some time, ma'am?' 

"Not since he went out to have his 
shoes shined have I laid eyes on him — 
but he'll come back, and I'm raising 
Josie in the meantime, and the two of 
us trudging the city, looking for work. 
He'll come back to me some time, and 
I think he was a very agreeable man 
to get along with — it seems to me he 
was ' ' 

"This fence, ma'am!" Mrs. Bon- 
ticue had come upon business. " Can't 
the lot of us do something about it?" 

" With old Dunphy ? What ails you, 
girl! Sure, nobody can do anything 
with old Dunphy! " 

"No one?" Mrs. Bonticue had 
made more than one favorable impres- 
sion upon old gentlemen. " He's the 
gentleman I rented the rooms off of? 
He seems a most agreeable gentleman." 

"Agreeable! Lord preserve us from 
such agreeableness! If you call his 
way agreeable, of coursehe's agreeable." 

"Then," said Mrs. Bonticue, con- 
fidently, "it will be all right. "I'm 
glad he's an agreeable gentleman." 

Next morning. And Mrs. Bonticue! 
Oh, dear me, there was a feather a yard 
long in her hat. Real ostrich feather, 
too. And a long tiny-hnked gold 
chain down the front of a pink silk 

waist. Yes, indeed! Silk skirt, too! 
Oh, dear me, such magnificence! 

Calm majesty and silken manifi- 
cence out on the front stoop, waiting 
for the landlord. And then Dunphy 
coming along. 

" Hello! " said Dunphy. " Moved in 
all right?" Didn't look impressed. 
Didn't tremble with awe, not Dunphy. 

"I beg your pardon, Mr. Dunphy, 
but may I have a word with you? " A 
curtsy to him and then again state- 

Oh, sure! Anybody could have a 
word with Dunphy. "Out with it! 
What's biting you, Mrs. Bonnycue, or 
whatever your name is?" 

" Vox populi, vox Dei, Mr. Dunphy!" 

"Yeh? That's good. How you 
making out this morning?" 

With severity: "I beg your pardon, 
but I remarked Vox populi, vox Dei, 
Mr. Dunphy!" 

Dunphy sitting on the railing of the 
stoop, an amused twinkle in his shrewd 

" It is customary for me to exchange 
references with new acquaintances, 
sir." holding out to him a bit of parch- 
ment with " King Edward the Fourth" 
faintly discernible on it. Explaining: 
"Me pedigree!" 

And a number of ancient letters: 

"These will show you who I am, sir. 
Letters from the Lord Mayor of Dub- 
lin!" Chin away up, letters and "pedi- 
gree" held out, eyes too far aloft to see 
them. Eyes coming down, for Dunphy 
was paying no attention. Astonished 
eyes seeing Dunphy examining his little 
Dutch bricks, caring nothing for ancient 

"I beg your pardon, Mr. Dunphy, 
but these will show you who I am," 

"Sure, woman, dear, anybody can 
see who you are, and a credit you are 
to any man's property and a good rec- 
ommendation for the house to be seen 
on its front stoop, you are! " 

''Vox populi, vox Dei!" repeated 
Mrs. Bonticue falteringly. It was new 
to her not to impress and awe old and 
middle-aged gentlemen. 

"Well, what's the kick?" asked 



Oh, dear me, and Mrs. Bonticue had 
spent hours arraying herself! How 
hard she had thought for something 
effective to say to him! And here " Vox 
populi, vox Dei'' had not stunned him. 
Back into their leather bag went letters 
and bit of parchment. 

''Hie jacct!" said Mrs. Bonticue, 
trying again. ''Hie jacet!" she re- 
peated, feelingly, fluttering her hands 
toward him. Oh, wouldn't he under- 
stand that she was a very superior 
person and that, if she did live in tene- 
ments, she had not always lived in 
tenements? Why, Dunphy, like a 
good fellow, be impressed! Can't you 
open your eyes just a Httle when a 
lady is trying so hard to impress you? 

" Geezers leaning against this door- 
way has got the paint all wore off!" 
grumbled Dunphy. 

Then Mrs. Bonticue came to the 
main issue and abandoned ornaments. 

"I wish to speak to you about that 
fence," said disheartened Mrs. Bonti- 
cue. " 'Tis a menace to our health, 
sir. Can't it be invalidated?" 

"Tore down? Sure, woman, dear, 
'tis there for my own protection. 
Did any of them old bachelors I got in 
the fiats see you, at your window, I'd 
lose a tenant." 

" Be the Laird, sir, you'll not baffle 
me that way!" spirit flaring. 

"Baffle you? Ah, Mrs. Bonnycue, 
I can see 3^ou have too much native 
cleverness for me to attempt such a 

"But the fence, sir!" 

"Ah, blame only me own jealous 
disposition, ma'am. I'd not have any 
of them old bachelors seeing you." 
Nodding carelessly to her. Going on 
his way. 

" Veni, vidi, vicif" murmured the 
defeated Mrs. Bonticue. 

But, oh, be the Powers, when Willie 
heard of it. Show him Dunphy! Out 
the way, ye lot of amadons, and let 
Willie get at Dunphy! Who's Dun- 
phy, anyhow, to deprive a theological- 
seminary graduate of light and air? 
Let a true man and a real man and no 
Dutchman get at this Dunphy ! 


But from mournful, discouraged Mrs. 
Bonticue : 

"Willie, let William speak. Thank 
the Laird, I always have poor, good 
honest William to advise me. Speak, 
William! What is your suggestion?" 

"Have a little ale in it!" was poor, 
good, honest William's prompt sugges- 
tion. "And snatch a handful of pret- 
zels as you go by!" 

And Willie was so pleased with this 
readiness that he seized the poor, good 
Bavarian gentleman's hand, exclaim- 

"You're a real man and a true man, 
after all!" 

" Me unfortunate cousin's been treat- 
ed with scorn! " Mary Ann Thornton, 
safely behind the broad back, fingers 
to her nose, wriggling derisively. 

"Ah, I have me friends around me. 
You have loyalty, Mary Ann. You're 
full of knavery, but I can forgive any- 
thing in them's loyal to me." 

" Oh, me unhappy and scorned 
cousin!" mocking and mimicking. 

"Thank 3'ou, Mary Ann!" said Mrs. 
Bonticue, emotionally. "You're me 
true friend. Then let the hand of 
scorn and contumely weigh heavy 
upon me as it may. Me tried and true 
friends is with me ! With all me heart, 
thank you for your loyalty again, 
Mary Ann Thornton!" 

Mary Ann Thornton w^iping one eye 
and W'inking the other. " Me poor 
cousin who's so good to everybody!" 
Handkerchief before her face so that 
Mrs. Bonticue should not see the winks 
and grimaces to the others. 

"Ah, well!" sighed Mrs. Bonticue, 
"we'll drop the matter and say no 
more about it. We must live here so 
we can lay by a bit and bring out the 
childer. Did anything overtake me 
this night, I'd not rest easy in me 
grave and think of anybody of me own 
eating the bread of strangers." 

Even dry, sour, old Mary Ellen was 
affected. "I'm sure," she whined, 
"while I have me two hands no one 
belonging to me will ever go to 

Same clannish feeling in Mary Ann 
Thornton. But she had her own wav 



of expressing everything. Dancing 
up to poor, good William, seizing 
him by his pointed beard and 
singing : 

"Boys, won't you marry me, marry me, 
marry me? Boys, won't you marry me? 
What the divil ails you?" 

Dancing to Willie, seizing him by his 
hawk-beak nose, singing: 

"No, I won't marry you! Why shotild I 
marry you? How can I marry you? You're 
nothing but a stranger." 

"Blast you!" Willie wheezed through 
his pinched nose, drawing back his arm 
as if to strike her. The others repeat- 
ing, with loathing: 

"With strangers!" 

" Here's every cent I have, Mrs. 
Bonticue!" cried Willie. "Count on 
me for every cent I can earn. Let no 
black strangers have the childer — " 
But show him Dunphy ! Whoop ! Out 
the way and let a college-bred man at 
old Dunphy! 

But, really, no one helped Mrs. 
Bonticue with the fund she was raising. 
For hard times came to the second floor 
east, in the house of little yellow bricks 
from Holland that were big red bricks 
from Haverstraw. It was in April, and 
almost every day was a rainy day, so 
Willie, with his half days and his quar- 
ter days and the divil a day at all, 
could only intermittently practice his 
profession, which was hod-carrying. 
Mary Ann Thornton, who was a second 
cook, never lasted more than a week 
at any job. Mary Ellen, cranky and 
insulting, never lasted long anywhere, 
either. Then Aleck Bonticue, steady, 
serious fellow of thirty, lost his job of 
elevator running, for the office building 
in which he worked Avas to be torn 
town. And then fate pounced upon 
the Bavarian gentleman, who did 
general housework in a brownstone- 
front boarding-house. Sure, 'tis no 
harm to slip a bit of chicken into one's 
shirt bosom when one's cronies are in 
need of a bit of chicken! But the 
Bavarian gentleman v.-as so incautious 
as to go about his duties with a drum- 
stick protruding. So it was that a 
poor, good. Bavarian gentleman was 
seen to leap into space from a boarding- 

house window — and a very pretty leap 
it was, too! 

Gloomy, darkened rooms, and Mrs. 
Bonticue sewing all day in them. Fine 
sewing, too, for Mrs. Bonticue was none 
of your botchy dressmakers — but she 
was slow. Eyes were not what they 
had been, and, though at seventy, one 
may be as fiery and as sure to battle 
with oppression as ever, at least a little 
difference must be seen in the supple- 
ness of one's fingers. So Mrs. Bonticue 
worked very hard, but for not very 
much, on account of her slowness. 
Gloom and depression and disease- 
breeding of the fence! Several times 
Mrs. Bonticue tried to prevail upon the 
landlord to remove it. A joke and a 
laugh and firmness unassailable! 

One morning. In the front haU. 
I\Irs. Bonticue meeting the landlord. 

"Good morning to you!" heartily 
from the hearty, genial landlord. " And 
how spry you're looking, and let me 
throw open wide the front door, for 
you're looking a credit to any man's 

"Be the Laird, I want none of your 
soft-soaping!" But how could she be 
very stern with such an appreciative, 
middle-aged gentleman? 

"But who gave you permission to 
sublet your rooms the way you do, Mrs. 

Better look out for j^ourself, Mr. 
Dunphy! Good deal of steel hardening 
into that gray eye upon you. 

"Sublet, is it? Is it sublet, is it? 
And me with only me own around me, 
with the exception of one very esti- 
mable foreign gentleman, who is at 
liberty at present, through no fault 
of his own, but the big human heart 
he has!" 

"Oh, that's all right, Mrs. Bonny- 
cue!" carelessly, genially. "I was 
just thinking that if any of your men 
aren't working, they might come 
around and see me tomorrow " 

And how Mrs. Bonticue melted! 
How she always melted at the slightest 
sign or fancied sign of kindness! 

"Oh, I'm sure that's very good of 
you, Mr. Dunphy!" 

"Not at all, woman, dear! I gener- 



ally have work on some of my houses — 
yes, I have a job for them " 

"Oh, thank you, thank you, sir! 
Sure, the poor lads have been a bit un- 
fortunate, what with the rain and the 
big human hearts they have." Mrs. 
Bonticue almost weeping, thrilled with 

"Well, send them around to me, to- 
morrow." And Mrs. Bonticue could 
not answer, so emotional was she in her 

Ah, but her peculiarities! Back in 
her room. Sewing on a skirt. And 
money for this work would make 
it possible to save Polly's childer 
from the awful threatening of black 

"Ah, WilHam, and you, Mary Ann 
and Mary Ellen, never a word from you 
again about that fine gentleman, Mr. 
Dunphy! That grand gentleman, Mr. 
Dunphy ! I'd lay down me life for him, 
this moment, and would go to the ends 
of the world to nurse him back to 
health, did sickness overtake him, and 
my last shilling would be his did he ever 
need it. Kindness itself he was! 'Send 
the lads around to me! ' he says, so 
hearty and cordial. 'Twould do your 
heart good to hear him! Grand, fine 
gentleman! " 

But her peculiarities! Only a few 
minutes later, Mrs. Bonticue was mum- 
bling to herself. Sewing, but losing all 
interest in her sewing. Trying to 
force herself to sew, but face becoming 
harder and harder. Suddenly: 

"He needn't think he can slick me 
over that way!" 

Some minutes later: 

"He can't take advantage of our 
circumstances to slick us over that way! 
Oh, well, I'll say no more." Morning 
wearing on. Afternoon passing. More 
and more worried was Mrs. Bonticue. 
In a burst of wrath: 

"He thinks he can shut us up like 
little mice by giving us work when we 
need it? Ah, but me spirit is too high 
and untrammeled for that! I'm as firm 
as the Rock of Cassian! Me own 
father could do nothing with me: no 
one could ever control me proud and 
independent nature! I'd be long sorry 

to think any landlord, with his smooth, 
slick ways could win me over. ' I have 
work for you!' he says most insolently 
to me. 'Then keep your work! ' is the 
answer I should have made him." 

It was evening, and Aleck Bonticue 
was home. His manner was languid 
and his words mild, but, as if feeling a 
futility in himself, he grimaced fero- 
ciously when speaking, as if that would 
cause a seeming of force he had not. 

"Mother!" said Aleck. "Can't you 
be quiet, mother?" grimacing as if ut- 
tering a murderous threat. 

"Quiet! Is it quiet, is it? Willie, 
would you be quiet? Willie, what are 
you going to do to this hand of op- 
pression hovering over us? What'll be 
done by our bold Willie?" 

Willie nervously drawing his knees 
together. Drawing back from the 
light of the lamp. No answer from 

"Are you with me to combat the 
tyrant's power? Are you, Willie?" 

" Oh, don't, please, go causing any 
ructions! " Willie pleaded, timidly. " I 
don't like having any trouble." 

"You! me own cousin and a true- 
bom man, talking that way?" 

Willie trembled and drew his chair 
into a shadowed comer. 

"Are you with me to tear down the 
oppressor's structure?" 

"Can't you — just speak to him 
about it?" suggested trembling, timid 

" Speak, is it? And me speaking the 
tip off my tongue to him about it, and 
only palavering and blarney from him? 
Where is your spirit, Willie?" 

Willie drawing his shoulders together 
and crouching back in the shadow. 
For that was his way after every jolly 
good licking. The night before he had 
run amuck in Grogan's. And Grogan 
was a scrapping man of renown. Willie 
would remain highly civilized until, in 
a week or two, the remembrance of 
Grogan's coarse, red fist should wear 

"Then I have no one but WilHam! 
Ah, when others are far away, I shall 
always have poor, good WilHam to 



advise me. Speak, William! What 
shall we do? " 

' ' Rise the house and pull his damn 
fence down! " the poor, good, honest 
fellow suggested. 

"Oh, Mrs. Bonticue, be careful!" 
quavered Willie. 

"William!" from delighted Mrs. 
Bonticue. "He always advises me 
for the best! Sound and sensible as 
the day is long! Poor William's 
advice is always for the best! Then 
this night's work will bring the sun- 
shine to us!" 

She ran to the hall and rapped on the 
door of the next-door rooms. 

"Who's that? Who's there?" Maiden 
ladies, having no one to protect 
them, hesitating to open the door. 
"Who's there?" 

"Be the Laird, who would it be? a 
man to eat you ? 'Tis not so fortunate 
you are, and no man, but only meself 
calling on you. Open the door! 'Tis 
only a poor, lorn widow woman, who 
will not eat you! " 

Door reluctantly opened. 

" How scared you are with your pad- 
locks! " from resentful Mrs. Bonticue. 
" Or are they to lock him in once you 
catch him? How scared you are!" 
Maiden ladies moving toward each 
other for mutual support. " But I have 
business this night. Have you boldness 
and independence in you? Prove your- 
selves this night! Come! " Running 
to the rear window. Darting back to 
seize one maiden lady ; then seizing the 
other maiden lady; dragging both to 
the fence. 

"You're to stand here! You see? 
The whole house is to stand at its win- 
dows and all hammer and push to- 

" But why ? " asked the dazed maiden 

" Why ? You can ask why when you 
feel the hand of oppression upon your 
brows? You're to push! All of us 
push this fence down! " 

"Oh! push like this?" asked the 
maiden ladies. Each daintily extended 
a slim forefinger and gently tapped the 

Oh, be the Powers, such work! Up- 

stairs with Mrs. Bonticue to enlist the 
top floor! Old Hannah summoned to 
her door and coming to peer over her 
spectacles. Old Hannah exclaiming: 

"Oh, it would be wicked to destroy 
property — but I'll make it all right for 
you if you do it! I couldn't be so sin- 
ful, but the fence ought to comedown, 
and you go ahead and count on me to 
see you be forgave in heaven for it " 

Oh, tut, tut with such talk! To top- 
floor, west, with Mrs. Bonticue! " 'Tis 
only the old mother come to you, Mrs. 
Hammer, dear! 'Tis only the old 
mother come with the best of advice to 
you! We're to tear down this mur- 
dering fence this night!" wheedling, 
her hands fluttering in motherliness. 
" Heed what the poor, old mother bids 
you, which is ruin and destruction, like 
you was me own children, and me old 
heart, me poor, old heart, warming to 
you! " 

Then a quandary. For young Mrs. 
Hammer had good sporting blood, but, 
also, she had biscuits in the oven. 
Yes, she would join in an attack upon 
the fence! Seizing a flatiron and run- 
ning to the rear window. But bis- 
cuits in the oven! You can't be bold 
and fiery and fight a tyrant's sway, and 
bake biscuits, too. 

Mrs. Bonticue down in the front hall, 
calling upon the muttering beldame to 
rise in rebellion. Beldame shrieking 
curses, little chirping chick hopping 
along at her heels. But, by the walls 
of Jericho, mere curses will never pull 
a fence down. Mrs. Bonticue in first 
floor, west! Oh, yes, Mrs. Flack would 
help, but she only pecked at the fence 
from her own window. It was a mur- 
dering fence, and bad luck to it! But 
she didn't care much about operating 
from her own window, where her own 
handiwork might be traced. 

But how she flew up the stairs after 
Mrs. Bonticue! And how she flew to 
Mrs. Bonticue's window! And, there, 
of what marvels of destructiveness was 
she capable! 

"Out with the lot of you!" cried 
Mrs. Bonticue, sweeping Mary Ann, 
Willie, William, all of them from the 
room, arming them with hatchets and 



Willie's spades, driving them to the 
basement and setting them at work 
chopping down and tmearthing the 
fence's framework. 

And a torrent of blows echoing up- 
stairs! A demon of destructiveness 
was little Mrs. Flack — in someone else's 
room! Mrs. Hammer joining her. 
The younger maiden lady coming in to 
push with a slim forefinger. Oh, how 
fiery and awful you and I and every- 
body can be — at someone else's window! 

But a condition developed that 
might save the fence after all — a con- 
dition that has saved many a thing 
from doom — too much work! The 
beams in the fence were strong and 
thick. The Bavarian gentleman could 
make beds and wait on table with any- 
body — couldn't beat the Bavarian 
gentleman in his own line, but this was 
not his specialty, and he gave out first, 
discovering that he had pains in his 

And timid Cousin Willie, skulking 
and self-effacing, was only too willing 
to throw down his spade when he saw 
someone else throw down a hatchet. 

Mrs. Bonticue crying: "Chop it 
down! Do like the old mother bids 
you! " 

Old Hannah crying: " Oh, it's wicked 
to destroy property — but I'll use my 
influence for you! " 

"Ah, but you're the weak-livered 
crowd! " from disgusted Mrs. Bonticue. 
" Had I the strength of arm that I have 
of spirit, there'd be no murdering fence 
there now! Then over to the Riley s 
with me! From one end of the city to 
the other I'll hunt up me own flesh and 
blood and bring it here. And then how 
long will the fence last, with the Rileys 
and the Tooles and Josephine Eliza- 
beth's family and the Boyles and the 
McGraths and me first cousins and me 
second cousins and me third cousins and 
all the rest of me own flesh and blood to 
baffle the oppressor's tyranny?" 

Aleck Bonticue crawling back from 
the thin strip of space between house 
and fence. Scowling terrifically. Ap- 
pealing, weakly: 

"Mother! now don't go bringing all 
that crowd here. Now, don't go out 

this night, mother, for 'tis going to 

"Then pull down that fence for me 
and show you're the boy after his 
mother's heart and not taking alto- 
gether after his father's people! " 

"Oh, mother!" pleading feebly, 
" can't we all go up and have a nice cup 
of tea, and have a quiet evening?" 

"A quiet evening?" echoed Willie, 

"Be the Laird, you want me to go 
out and bring me flesh and blood back 
with me?" 

"I'll have to do it, then!" unhappy 
Aleck sighed, wearily. It was the re- 
curring of his problem, "How to keep 
mother home nights?" He went de- 
jectedly to the basement door and to 
the street. 

"Ah, if I was only me own son, and 
had meself for a mother!" from valor- 
ous Mrs. Bonticue. "I'd have that 
fence down and prone while the rest of 
you were looking at it, if I was only me 
own offspring and had a man's arm to 
back up me own proud and independ- 
ent spirit!" 

A scraping at the other side of the 
fence. Evidently a ladder placed 
against the fence. Up and down the 
fence, on the other side of it, Aleck 
Bonticue could be heard doing some- 
thing. What it was, no one could 
divine, but it took him a long time. 

Chopping is too much work. Willie, 
creeping away, shuddering with the 
lawlessness of property-destroying. 
The Bavarian gentleman's lame elbow 
needed attention, so all returned to 
second, east. And, there, Mrs. Ham- 
mer and Mrs. Flack, demons of de- 
structiveness, were still pounding 
holes in rusted iron. Oh, such spirit! 
Couldn't call them off! "What, are 
you afraid? We ain't!" Such bold- 
ness and such a torrent of blows ! And 
the elder maiden lady coming in, look- 
ing for the younger maiden lady. Cross- 
ing herself when she saw horrid men 
in the room. Clutching the younger 
maiden lady, and taking her away, for 
life is for bare rooms, skirt-binding, 
and bologna only. Younger maiden 
lady flashing an imitation gold tooth 



at Willie, whom she thought real nice 
and quiet. Chastened Willie politely 
opening the door for her, and then 
creeping to his favorite shadow. Mary 
Ann Thornton mocking them, clutch- 
ing Mary Ellen's arm to protect Mary 
Ellen from possible designs of the Ba- 
varian gentleman. 

And then Aleck Bonticue returned. 

"'Twill be done, mother!" he said, 
languidly, scowling piratically. "It is 
starting to rain. It won't take long, 
once the rain starts. Do sit down. Do 
make me a cup of tea and do stay home 
nights, mother." 

"Rain! Is it rain, is it? And what 
can rain do that your hatchets 

"Call them off, mother!" said Aleck, 
weakly, pointing to the demons of de- 
structiveness. "They make my head 
ache with their noise." 

Oh, yes, call them off! 'Tis easy 
said. The only way those demons 
could have been stopped would be to 
place them at their own windows, and, 
there, tell them to go on destroying. 

"Oh, Aleck, Aleck, 'tis your father's 
spirit — Gawd rest his soul ! — you 
have, and not mine. To tear down a 
fence with a bit of rain! You can't 
baffle me and pull the wool over my 
eyes, that way ! Be the Laird ! " rolling 
up her sleeves, grasping for a hatchet, 
but seizing a frying-pan, "I'll do the 
work meself !" Brandishing the frying- 
pan, rolling sleeves up higher. 

"Mother! Don't you know when I 
say a thing, I mean it! You promised 
me you'd stay home if the fence fell. 
'Twill fall, if you but give it a few 

"Sit down! Sit down!" Mary Ann 
Thornton forcing everybody into a 
chair, then, with hand to her ear, 
derisively pretending to listen for signs 
of the fence's falling. " Of course it 
will fall, if Aleck says so! It's raining 

hard. He says the rain " 

The fence began to creak. And 
Mary Ann Thornton was really listen- 
ing. Everybody except listless Aleck 
listening. The demons scampering 
from the window, crying, "The fence 
is falling ! " A creaking and a groaning ! 

"But, sure, how could a bit of 
rain " 

A rending of wooden supports. A 
loose sheet of iron crashing down upon 
the courtyard pavement. 

"Aleck, what is it you've done! 
Sure as I'm living, the fence is falling! " 

Listlessly: "Yes, I done it, mother. 
I don't know what the consequences 
will be, but I must do anything to keep 
you home nights." 

An avalanche of a crash. "The 
fence is down! Oh, me own!" Mrs. 
Mrs. Bonticue running to her son, em- 
bracing him. " He's proved himself 
me own flesh and blood this mortal 
night! Aleck!" holding him from her, 
proudly surveying him. " 'Tis not 
your father — Gawd rest his soul ! — I 
see, but me own bold and soaring spirit 
I see reflected." All the others crowd- 
ing at the window, seeing a mass of 
fallen wood and iron, by the light of 
lamps held in the flathouse windows. 

" Me head aches, mother," said Aleck 
wearily. " No, don't give me any beer, 
but a cup of tea." 

"Ah, a cup of tea, how are you! 
'Tis his father — but no ! 'tis me own 
free and valorous spirit was this night 

"But how?" Everybody running 
back to the kitchen, after a little very 
gratifying jeering at protests from the 
indignant flathouse. "And how could 
you pull down the fence with a bit of 
rain? 'Tis like the days of miracles 
over again ! ' ' 


" Oh, we had the supports weakened 
a good bit, didn't we? I knew of the 
ladder, didn't I? Then all I done was 
climb up and tighten all the clothes- 
lines on the other side of the fence. 
You make my head ache, Mary Ann 

" But what of that if you did? " 

" Oh, the rain wet the lines, didn't it ? 
They swelled and drew and pulled the 
fence down." And, fretfully, "Don't 
make the tea too strong, mother." 

Tea, how are you, indeed! Out 
with the can and celebrate the triumph 
of Aleck Bonticue, who was not alto- 
gether of his father's people! But can. 



how are you! Out with the boiler! 
Where's the boiler! Some one find the 
boiler! Bavarian gentleman and Mary 
Ann Thornton going out with the 
wash boiler between them, Mary Ann 
Thornton wildly drumming on it with a 
potato masher. 

But the next morning that seems to 
have a way of following last night! 
When one pulls a fence down, one may 
have to explain a little. 

Mrs. Bonticue was arrayed and wait- 
ing for the landlord. The lily in all its 
glory was never arrayed like Mrs. Bon- 
ticue. with shabby old Solomon away 
down in third place. But Mrs. Bonti- 
cue was troubled. Oh, that troubled 
feeling when it is next morning! Mrs. 
Bonticue looked down at the wrecked 
fence. Couldn't bear to look at it. 
Looked again and wondered how much 
a fence costs when the same material 
may be used over again. One might 
brazen it out, deny it, or move 
hurriedly — common, ordinary persons 
might have this choice of courses, but, 
for the direct descendant of the Knight 
of Kerry, there was only one thing to 
do. Only one sentiment! This: 

"I have had me bit of a ruction. 
Now let me pay for it." 

Troubled Mrs. Bonticue fingered 
ten five-dollar bills, all she had in the 
world. How magnificently she could 
say and stifle coarse evidences of land- 
lordly feeling: 

"Why, take this, my good man, and 
buy yourself a new fence. It's been 
raining considerably lately, hasn't it?" 
The temptation of it! How Mrs. 
Bonticue was tempted to be magnifi- 
cent! But strangers! Black strangers! 
If, in the lordly way her heart was 
set on, the fence should be paid 
for, childer of Bonticue blood would 
eat the bread of strangers — black 

Then awful fear of the landlord pos- 
sessed Mrs. Bonticue. For she could 
not be magnificent. She could not 
say contemptuously, "Take this, my 
good man, and we shall consider the 
incident terminated." To be sure, 
she could, and she wanted to, and, if 

you are magnificent yourself, you will 
realize just what a temptation it is to 
be magnificent — but Mrs. Bonticue 
went to a branch post-office and sent a 
registered letter to Dublin. 

Mrs. Bonticue returning to the little 
Dutch-brick tenement. And exclaim- 
ing to herself, "Gawd be with us!" 
For on the front stoop was the land- 
lord. Mrs. Bonticue's head high and 
back straight. Marching to battle 
with ostrich feather flying and gold 
chain swinging bravely. Up the stoop 
with her. And now what about 

"Mrs. Bonticue!" exclaimed the land- 
lord. "Mrs. Bonticue, I am informed 
you can explain this matter to me," 
pointing back at bright, sxmshiny rear 

"I can, sir!" faintly, but ostrich 
feather waving bravely. 


"What can I say, sir, but that we 
tore down the fence on you ? ' ' 

"What I want to know," said the 
landlord, "is, how long did it take 

"About half an hour, I should say, 

"Half an hour?" said Dunphy, re- 
flectively. "Now, I should figure that 
half an hour's work at what you want 
to do is about equal to two days' work 
at what you'll be paid for. I'm sorry 
you've lost anything, Mrs. Bonticue, 
but your lads seem to have lost two 
days' pay b}^ this." 

"But i don't understand, Mr. Dtm- 
phy! " 

"Why, I've sold the flats across the 
way," said Dunphy. "Then why 

should I darken my own house to pro- 
tect another man's courtyard? 'Twas 
to pull down the fence I wanted to hire 
your lads. It seems I got it done for 

Oh, the bitterness of it! Mrs. Bon- 
ticue could not repress her distress. 
"I've lived to see a landlord get the 
better of me!" Still— " Still, it's a 
Dublin man done it." 

Crushed and defeated. *But — "'Twas 
a Dublin man done it!" And Mrs. 
Bonticue was comforted. 

Phases of the Liquor Question 


AT one time or other during the 
past thirty years, the hquor 
question has been a hve issue 
in nearly every hamlet in the United 
States. Politicians, great and small, 
have lain awake at nights trying 
to solve the "whisky question," or at 
least trying to guess the popular side of 
it, and inability to guess rightly has 
brought thousands of aspiring states- 
men to their Waterloo. 

National prohibition, state prohibi- 
tion, local option, high license, and the 
dispensary have all received con- 
sideration, and, with the exception of 
national prohibition, all have been 

Kansas, Maine, and North Dakota 
have state prohibition. In Iowa and 
New Hampshire prohibition nominally 
prevails, but statutory modifications 
the last few years have given these two 
states what is practically local option. 
In Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, 
Wyoming and New Mexico, the law 
fixes no limitations except a license 
fee; there are no statutory provisions 
for local prohibition. In South Caro- 
lina the liquor traffic is under govern- 
mental control, through the dispen- 
sary. County dispensaries created 
either by special or general laws also 
prevail in certain counties in Virginia, 
North Carolina, Georgia and Alabama. 
In other parts of the last four states 
named and in all the other states in 
the Union, local option, in some of 
its numerous forms, exists. 

The United States, through the In- 
ternal Revenue Department, issues 
what is designated as a "special tax 
stamp" to persons who deal in dis- 
tilled spirits, wines or malt liquors. 

The law providing for this tax, and 
authorizing the collection of it, is a 
revenue measure strictly. It exacts 
$25 a year of a person who deals at 
retail in the beverages named. The 
Government issues, upon the payment 
of the tax due it, simply a receipt for 
money; it grants no licenses. The 
question of licensing or not licensing 
the sale of whisky is left to the several 
states. In localities whejre the state 
laws prohibit the sale of whisky, the 
Internal Revenue Department goes in 
and demands of the person who sells 
whisky, its tax, and, if that tax is 
paid, the interest of the Department 
ends. Collecting, as it does, from 
both the illegal and legal sellers of 
whisky, its records are, to an extent, a 
measure of the quantity of , whisky 
consumed in each state. 

The anntial report of the Commis- 
sioner of Internal Revenue shows that, 
for the year ending June 30, 1905, 241,- 
239 retail liquor and 14,976 retail malt 
liquor dealers' stamps were issued in 
the United States (including Alaska), 
total, 256,215 stamps. On a basis of 
an estimated population of 85,568,759 
in continental United States, a special 
retail liquor dealer's stamp was issued 
for every 345 persons. For purposes 
of comparison, the following state- 
ment, showing the number of dealers 
in the several states, etc., will be useful 
and interesting. 

It will be noted that Nevada heads 
the list with a special taxpayer for 
every 49 inhabitants and that Missis- 
sippi is the last with a dealer in liquor 
for every 3,240 persons. Nevada has 
something like 66 times as many liquor 
sellers as Mississippi. 



E 3 9 ^ '-5 S 

■s . as- a5 g.a 

» ^"O o <„ •" o o 

"5 S.^ tag "S &" 

■i r Is fc 

3 m 3— O •" 

Z W 2 fco 

Nevada 1.313 65,000 49 238 

California 15.455 1.750.000 113 247 

Montana 2,247 265,000 n8 275 

Arizona 1,271 175,000 137 197 

Wyoming 635 101,816 160 182 

Wisconsin 1 1.943 2.228,949 186 249 

New Jersey 10,679 2,171,500 204 229 

Colorado 3.426 700,000 204 169 

Illinois 24,009 5,000,000 208 200 

Ohio 19.259 4.427.545 229 11° 

Idaho 1.072 250,000 233 152 

New York 34,080 8,160,000 239 261 

Oregon -!,229 550,000 246 159 

Alaska 403 100,000 248 198 

Maryland 5.010 1,250,000 249 79 

Washington 3.467 874.310 252 215 

Rhode Island 1.916 485,000 253 314 

Minnesota 7.461 1,979,912 265 288 

Michigan 9.230 2.670,000 266 223 

Connecticut 3.376 1,000,000 296 262 

Utah 989 300,000 303 194 

Indiana 9,818 3,000,000 305 56 

Missouri 10,196 3,324,131 326 69 

Louisiana 4.679 i.SSO. 33° 330 38 

Pennsylvania 22,269 7.562,538 339 156 

North Dakota. 1.322 450,000 340 354 

Dist. of Columbia. .. . 974 324,000 350 72 

New Me.xico 865 325,000 375 70 

New Hampshire 1,070 432,622 404 214 

Iowa 5. 186 2,210,389 426 137 

Delaware 439 188,000 428 74 

Nebraska 2,866 1,250,000 436 166 

Kansas 3.041 i. 575. 000 517 85 

Kentucky 4.346 2,361,891 543 23 

West Virginia 2,164 1,200,000 554 23 

Massachusetts 5.025 3.003,635 599 301 

Florida 934 625,000 669 45 

Texas 5.442 3,650,000 670 58 

Maine 1,051 736.131 7oo 134 

Oklahoma 1,136 800,000 704 39 

Virginia 2,332 1,854,000 795 10 

South Dakota 525 464,288 884 215 

\ermont 354 347. 5°° 980 130 

Tennessee 2,180 2,200,000 1,009 8 

Alabama 1,862 2,030,000 1,090 8 

Arkansas 1.425 1.750,000 1,226 11 

Georgia i,744 2,600,000 1,490 6 

North Carolina 840 2,000,000 2,380 2 

South Carolina 535 1,500,000 2,803 4 

Mississippi 611 i,979.?i2 3.240 5 

But in order that no misleading in- 
ferences may be drawn it is best that 
explanations be made. A retail liquor 
dealer's stamp in some states means 

considerably more liquor consumed 

than in others. In high license states 

and municipalities, the percentage of 
saloons is less proportionately than in 
low license states and municipalities, 
and, in order to do business, the high 

license saloon sells more liquor than 
the low license saloon. 

The average dispensary sells at least 

five times as much whisky as an or- 
dinary saloon, hence, in dispensary 
states the number of special tax stamps 

issued is not a fair measure of the 
whisky consumed, for there is but one 
Government tax stamp issued each 
for a dispensary or a saloon. The 
following statement shows the number 
of dispensaries in the several states 
where dispensaries exist: 

Virginia 11 

Alabama 49 

Georgia 21 

North Carolina 31 

South Carolina 143 

The holding of a Government special 
tax stamp as retail liquor dealer does 
not necessarily imply liability on the 
part of the holder to a state tax. The 
druggist who sells alcohol, no matter 
for what purpose it may be bought, 
must pay the Government $25 a year. 
A large percentage of drug stores carry 
the Government tax stamp, and yet in 
the conduct of their business very few 
of them violate any state law. 

The number of Government special 
tax stamps issued in a state therefore 
represents, in the "wet" sections, the 
number of saloons and drug stores 
which find it necessary to carry the 
stamp, and, in the "dry" localities, 
the number of "blind tigers" and 
drug stores. The percentage of special 
tax stamps issued to drug stores that 
do not violate the state laws is prob- 
ably uniform throughout the United 
States. It is not possible to estimate 
what the percentage of stamps so used 
is, but, being uniform, it is fair to as- 
sume that for purposes of comparison 
the total number of special tax stamps 
issued fixes the relative status of the 
state as to its number of dealers in 
alcoholic drinks as a beverage. The 
number of such dealers cannot always 
be accepted as a fair test of the quan- 
tity of whisky consumed. But when 
two states are practically prohibition 
of one variety or the other, the num- 
ber of special tax stamps issued in 
each is, relatively, a fair measure of 
the quantity of alcoholic liquor con- 
sumed in each. 

By reference to the above statement, 
it will be noted that in Kansas the gov- 
ernment sold 3,041 special retail liquor 



dealer's stamps — one stamp for ev- 
ery 517 persons. In Mississippi the 
number of stamps sold was 611, or one 
for every 3,240 persons. In Kansas 
there were over six times as many 
dealers in alcoholic drinks as there were 
in Mississippi. 

State prohibition prevails in Kansas ; 
alcoholic drinks cannot be legally sold 
as a beverage anywhere in the state. 
In Mississippi, local option prevails. 
Of the 76 counties in the state, 66 are 
"dry," 6 others are dry in part and but 
4 are "wet." In at least eleven-twelfths 
of the state, prohibition prevails. Of 
the 611 special tax stamps issued in 
that state in 1904-1905, probably 250 
were issued to licensed saloons, 50 oth- 
ers to drug stores and the other 300 to 
illegal dealers. Of the 3,041 special- 
tax stamps issued in Kansas, not ex- 
ceeding 200 were to dealers who did not 
violate the state law. The other 2,841 
were to illegal dealers. 

There are many points of resemblance 
between Mississippi and Kansas. They 
are nearly equal in population, both are 
agricultural states and have a compar- 
atively small urban population. Mis- 
sissippi has practically no foreign popu- 
lation, 5 to 1,000. Kansas has but 85 
to 1,000. Mississippi unquestionably 
consumes less liquor per capita than 
any other state in the Union. A liquor 
dealer for every 3,240 people — 250 
licensed and 300 unlicensed booze sel- 
lers cannot do the business of the some 
2,800 unlicensed "joints" in Kansas. 
And this proves that local option ac- 
complishes more than does state pro- 
hibition. In Mississippi the legal sale 
of liquor is confined almost altogether 
to the "black" counties along the Mis- 
sissippi river and to the Gulf Coast 
towns. Away- from the thin strips in 
the western and southern borders of the 
state, local option has given as nearly 
absolute prohibition as can be found 
anywhere on the globe. 

Any one who has seen an unlicensed 
liquor establishment in action, no mat- 
ter whether it is a Mississippi "blind 
tiger" or a Kansas "joint," will agree 
that of all the instrumentalities for evil 
outside of Sulphurville, the illegal liquor 

dealer is his Satanic Majesty's most 
powerful ally. The licensed saloon- 
keeper does not wish to offend public 
sentiment and observes some of the 
laws regulating his business. The un- 
licensed dealer defies all law. 

Oklahoma, supposed by some to be 
the wildest and woolliest of wild and 
woolly western communities, has fewer 
liquor dealers than its prohibition 
neighbor. Kansas has one dealer to 
every 517 persons; Oklahoma has one 
to every 704 persons. And Kentucky, 
the land of bourbon whisky, the state 
wherein one tenth of the whisky con- 
sumed in the United States is produced, 
the "dark and bloody ground," whose 
citizens are said to "go forth in the 
morning half shot and to come back at 
night on a shutter shot," even Ken- 
tucky falls below Kansas in the num- 
ber of dealers in her own product. 

In the three prohibition states of 
Maine, Kansas and North Dakota the 
government sold a stamp for every 510 
inhabitants. In Texas, Oklahoma and 
Kentucky, one stamp was issued for 
every 614 persons. I have taken these 
three states because their inhabitants 
are supposed by a great many unen- 
lightened people to be unusually lawless 
and uncivilized. 

It is not insisted that because Kan- 
sas, Maine and North Dakota have 
more grog shops in proportion to the 
population than Oklahoma, Texas and 
Kentucky there is more liquor con- 
sumed per capita in the first than in the 
last three states, for all the grog shops 
in the first three are illegal, while only 
a part of those in the second three are 
illegal, and an unlicensed liquor dealer 
usually sells less liquor than a licensed 
one. But when the quantity shipped 
in Kansas, Maine and North Dakota 
direct to consumers is added to that 
sold by the unlicensed dealers it is prob- 
able that, in the consumption of booze, 
prohibition Kansas, Maine and North 
Dakota are not far behind local option 
Oklahoma, Texas and Kentucky. 

A look at the situation in one or two 
other southern states will be instruc- 
tive. In Arkansas nearly every kind 
of local option is provided by law. A 



statute enables the people to vote at 
every general state election upon the 
question of issuing licenses. If a ma- 
jority of the votes cast in a county are 
in favor of license then a license may 
be issued ; otherwise it is not lawful for 
the county court to grant a license in 
the county. Another law provides 
that a majority of the adult inhabi- 
tants, including men and women, may 
petition the county court to refuse li- 
cense within three miles of any church 
or school house. By invoking this statute 
the sale of whisky is prohibited in 
many sections of " wet " counties. Then 
there are many special statutes prohibit- 
ing the sale of whisky within certain 
territory, some church or institution of 
learning being taken as a central point. 

Under these various general and 
special laws 52 counties of the 76 in the 
state are "dry," and at least half of the 
territory in the other 24 is "dry." 
There are 436 saloons in the state. Of 
these, 165 are in ten counties in the 
"black belt," 223 are in the cities of' 
the state, and the other 48 are in eight 
"white" counties. 

The liquor laws in Georgia are very 
similar to those in Arkansas. The 
Georgia Cracker, always sensible, has 
dealt with the whisky question in the 
way that he deals with every question 
considered by him. With a population 
of 2,600,000, the United States Govern- 
ment sold in the state last year but 
1,744 special retail tax-stamps. Of 
these, some 800 were sold to saloons and 
dispensaries, the others to drug stores 
and to "blind tigers" in the "dry" 
territory. Where are the saloons? 
Practically all of them are in a dozen 
cities. In the entire mountain section 
of the state there is but one saloon. 
Local option has driven the saloon from 
county after county, until, with the ex- 
ception of Atlanta and Augusta, three 
dispensaries and one rural saloon, pro- 
hibition prevails in the entire northern 
half of the state. In the cities and 
towns and "black" territory in the 
southern half of the state there are in 
some 20 counties 18 dispensaries and 
500 saloons. 

The tabulated statement heretofore 

given contains information along sev- 
eral lines. Among the things noted 
will be the striking fact that in the 
states of Louisiana, Kentucky, West 
Virginia, Florida, Texas, Oklahoma, 
Virginia, Tennessee, Alabama, Arkan- 
sas, Georgia, North Carolina, South 
Carolina and Mississippi, with a popula- 
tionof 26,051 ,133, there were but 30,230 
special tax stamps issued last year, or 
one stamp for every 861 persons. 
Louisiana is the only state in the list 
whose average of one dealer to every 
330 persons is anywhere near the aver- 
age in the United States of one dealer 
to every 345 persons. South Dakota, 
with a dealer for every 884 persons, 
and Vermont, with one for every 980 
persons, are the only states whose 
percentage of dealers to the population 
falls below this average of one to 861 
in the South, taken as a whole. 

In the single state of New York there 
are something like 3,500 more liquor 
dealers than there are in the entire 
South. The six states of California, 
Wisconsin, Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania 
and New York, with a population of 29,- 
128,072, have 127,005 liquor dealers, — 
over half of the special-tax payers of 
the United States. Local option, to an 
extent, prevails in all of these six 
states, but it is not doing for them 
what it is doing for the South. 

Taken as a whole, at least seven- 
eighths of the territory embraced in 
the fourteen southern states named is 
" dry," and a large majority of the vot- 
ing population is in favor of prohibi- 
tion.- They would probably not vote 
for state prohibition if the question 
should be submitted, but when it is a 
question of saloon or no saloon in the 
particular locality in which the voter 
lives, two out of every three voters the 
South over will cast their ballots against 
the saloon. If put to the test today 
the South would vote for national pro- 
hibition. No well-posted man doubts 
this. Local option prevails in that 
section simply because the people be- 
lieve that, as against state prohibition, 
local option means less whisky and 
more temperance. They believe that 
state prohibition is impracticable, and 



national prohibition, without other 
issues to compHcate and becloud the 
situation, has never been presented to 

At each national election, when pro- 
hibition candidates for President and 
Vice-president have offered for votes, 
other overshadowing issues have 
crowded out the prohibition question, 
and when the final test has come, the 
Democratic prohibitionist has dropped 
into his party's ranks and the Repub- 
lican prohibitionist has gone to the 
polls and voted for his party's candi- 
dates. Multiplicity of issues has kept 
the anti-saloon people within their 
party alignments: the saloon people 
have always stood together. As long 
as there is a tariff, a currency, a rail- 
road rate, a municipal ownership, or a 
trust question to divide the ranks of 
the Prohibitionists there is no proba- 
bility of Old King Alcohol being given 
the knock-out blow that would be 
surely coming his way if the people were 
short on issues. 

How does Prohibition happen to be 
stronger in the South than in other 
sections of the country? Go back to 
the tabulated statement for the an- 
swer. In the fourteen Southern states 
named there are sixteen foreign-born 
persons to every thousand inhabitants. 
In Ohio, California, Pennsylvania, New 
York, Illinois, and Wisconsin, where 
there is a government special tax stamp 
for every 229 persons, there is a foreign- 
born population of 5,194,367, or 178 
foreign-born persons to every 1,000 in- 
habitants. Saloons are less numerous 
and prohibition is strongest where gen- 
uine Americanism is strongest. 

Going a step further, it will be noted 
that in the mountain sections of the 
South, where there is practically no 
negro population, where the percentage 
of foreign population is exceedingly 
small, and where there is more old- 
fashioned Americanism than there is 
anywhere on earth, prohibition is 
almost universal. There are saloons 
in such places as Asheville, North Caro- 
lina; Knoxville, Tenn.; Middlesboro, 
Ky., and Eureka Springs, Ark., but 
there are not twenty open saloons in 

all the rural sections in the moimtains 
of Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, 
Tennessee, North Carolina, Georgia, 
and Arkansas. In the city of Atlanta, 
Ga., there is one saloon to every 1,000 
population; in New York there is a 
saloon to every 324 persons. Atlanta 
is one of the most American cities of 
the most American section of the 
United States. 

"But," it will probably be asked, 
"how does it happen that in the sec- 
tions where saloons are least numerous 
moonshine stills are most numerous?" 
Last year over 300 stills were raided in 
that part of Georgia north of Atlanta. 
This was nearly a third of the total 
number raided in the United States. 
" Blind tigers" are one result of prohi- 
bition ; " moonshine " stills are another. 
While there are many blockade stills in 
the mountains, there are few "blind 
tigers " operated independently of these 
stills. A blockade still usually oper- 
ates but a short time and the output is 
insignificant. ' ' Moonshining" has really 
furnished more material for story writ- 
ing than it has whisky for consump- 
tion. There is unquestionably less 
whisky sold illegally in the mountain 
sections of the southern states, where 
moonshining prevails, than is put upon 
the market in sections of these states 
quite remote from illicit stills. 

A curious fact in connection with the 
whisky question is the effect that 
v/oman suffrage has had. Without 
doubt women are more strongly in- 
clined than men are to prohibition. 
Unrestricted woman suffrage prevails 
in but four states, Wyoming, Utah, 
Idaho and Colorado. In three of these 
states, .Idaho, Utah and Wyoming, 
there is no provision for even local pro- 
hibition. The towns and villages are 
all "wide open." It is simply a ques- 
tion of the amount of license. Going 
back to the statement, it will be ob- 
served that, in number of drink shops 
to the population, Wyoming is fifth in 
the list of states, Colorado is eighth, 
Idaho is eleventh and Utah is twenty- 
first. The drink shop is scarcest in the 
South where there is no woman 
suffrage and where suffrage is most re- 



stricted. It would seem, therefore, 
that woman suffrage has done nothing 
toward advancing the cause of prohi- 

Another interesting feature of the 
whisky question is the estabHshment of 
an institution that is pecuUar to the 
South — the dispensary. The dispen- 
sary has passed the experimental stage, 
and it is now possible to pass judgment 
upon it. From an economic stand- 
point, it can be stated as a fact that the 
dispensary is a success. If the affairs 
of the dispensary are administered 
honestly, and the county or munici- 
pality gets the profits of the business, 
these profits amount to more than what 
saloons would yield in licenses. The 
expenses of the county are often paid 
by the dispensary and no county tax is 
levied. In Terrell County, Ga., no 
county tax has been levied for four 

Viewed from a moral standpoint, 
however, it is doubtful if the dispensary 
is an improvement over the saloon. It 
is as easy for a man to get enough 
whisky to kill himself in a dispensary 
town as it is in a town full of saloons, the 
only advantage being, that bought from 
a dispensary the whisky does not come 
so high and the cost of killing is not so 
dear. The chances are that a larger 
estate will be left to the widow and 
orphans where the dispensary does the 
job. Probably the only argument that 
can be urged for the dispensary is that 
it abolishes to a large extent social 
drinking and has none of the attrac- 
tions of the saloon. The dispensary 
takes the business that comes its way ; 
the saloon goes out after business. 

Unquestionably, however, there are 
some strong arguments against dispen- 
saries. They stand in the way of pro- 
hibition. Few towns having dispen- 
saries would have saloons if they did 
not have dispensaries. The dispensary 
pays a man's taxes and appeals to his 
selfishness. Many a man who would 
not under any circumstances vote for 
saloons can persuade himself that it is 
all right for whisky to be sold by a dis- 
pensary, for the dispensary pays his 
taxes and saves him money. 

Again, the dispensary offers many 
opportunities for graft. The recent 
developments in South Carolina proved 
how fruitful of fraud and dishonesty 
the dispensary has been in that state. 

A pertinent inquiry would be : What 
is the situation in the matter of tem- 
perance? Are the people of the United 
States more or less temperate than 
formerly? In 1892, domestic distilled 
spirits withdrawn from government 
warehouses for consumption aggregated 
97,148,447 gallons. The population 
was then 65,000,000 persons. The 
average annual per capita consumption 
of domestic distilled spirits then was 
1.49 gallons, or, 149 gallons for every 
100 persons. Last year 85,000,000 
people consumed 116,808,974 gallons 
of the same class of spirits, an average 
of 1.38 gallons to the person, or 138 
gallons to every 100 persons. In 13 
years the quantity of distilled spirits 
consumed annually by 100 persons has 
decreased 11 gallons. The quantity 
of imported distilled spirits consumed 
in the United States is insignificant. 
The annual per capita consumption 
of wine and fermented liquors has re- 
mained about the same. It is in the 
liquor strong in alcohol (distilled 
spirits) in which there has been a de- 
crease in consumption. But while it 
is true that there are as many gallo)is of 
the weaker beverages — wine and beer — 
sold as formerly, a large percentage of 
these drinks put upon the market to- 
day is weak in alcohol, manufactured 
for consumption as "temperance 
drinks" in "dry" localities. As a 
matter of fact, there has been as great 
a decrease in alcohol consumed in the 
weaker beverages as there has been in 
the consumption of distilled spirits. 

The Anti-Saloon League is probably 
accomplishing more in the work of 
driving saloons out of business today 
than all other organizations combined. 
In some states where the saloons are 
strongest the work of this organization 
has been most aggressive and effective. 
Local option is its method of fighting 
saloons, and that, without doubt, is the 
sane, practical manner of handling the 
whisky question. 

Japan: " How mach yoa take for 'im, Sam?" 

"Oh, he's such a gentle critter I'd hate to part with him!' 
Donahev, in Cleveland Plain Dea er 

Mr. Smallcatch: " Let's pat oar fish together and go halves. 
Maybell, in Brooklyn Eagle 


ij^/i^ Herdman . 

ALL day long the round-up outfit 
had reveled in luxury. After 
a night of cold wind and rain 
the morning had broken bright, cloud- 
less and warm. Spring, all the more 
welcome for her tardiness, had burst 
upon us. We could hear it, smell it, 
see it. The rolling hills seemed to turn 
from a sodden dull to a sparkHng green 
before our eyes; the air, laden with the 
new life, fanned our faces and turned 
our thoughts youthward; and the sun 
smiled down with rejuvenating bland- 
ness. It had been one of those days 
when a man would rather muse of the 
past than hve in the present, when the 
days of his boyhood return to him and 
claim him with the sadness of a de- 
parted joy, when everything appears 
idealized because his blood runs free 
and bold and his heart is tender. 

That night, after supper, as we sat in 
a circle about the campfire, an u^x- 
wonted quiet pervaded the group. No 
one suggested poker or seven-up; no 
one chaffed Gunny, the elongated, 
cracked-voiced cook. Each seemed 
perfectly content to smoke and dream. 
Only Dick, the foreman, appeared not 
to be completely under the spell. He 
made one or two remarks, which nobody 
heeded, and then relapsed into silence. 

Finally, after half an hour of un- 
broken quiet, he straightened himself 
up and looked slowly from one to the 
another round the circle. When he 
had completed his tour of inspection, 
he sank back and sighed deeply. 

"Gunny," he whispered across the 
fire to where our artful cook sprawled 
his huge length, "you needn't cook any 
breakfast in the mornin'. The boys 
have all got wind on their stomicks, and 
it wont do to feed them too soon." 

But Gunny, with his feet almost in 

the fire, was absorbed in a reverie of his 
own and did not hear the instruction. 

"Great bob-tailed wolves!" Dick 
exclaimed aloud. "Gunny's got it, 

"Eh? What's that?" Gunny 
squeaked. "Got what?" 

"Why, what all the rest of these 
brave buckaroos have got — a bad at- 
tack of the first-girl-I-left-behind-me- 

"Oh, no, not me," Gunny replied, 
"chilblains is all I've got. Get 'em 
every year jest before spring comes." 

"Well, I'm glad to know that there's 
one other man in this outfit besides me 
who hasn't clean lost himself. Gunny, 
get up and look at 'em." 

" I can see without gettin' up. What 
done it, do you reckon ? " 

"I told you. They're all thinkin' of 
their happy boyhood days. They're 
all young again, Gunny, goin' to 
school on week days and Sunday-school 
on Sundays, and choppin' wood and 
spadin' the garden, and plantin' red- 
ishes and onions and lettuce on Satur- 
days. But most of the time they're 
laid up with bad cases of puppy-love 
and can't do nothin' but write notes to 
the girls they're stuck on. They're 
playin' drop-the-han 'kerchief, or post- 
office, or London bridge, or some other 
kissin' game. They're thinkin' of their 
first kiss. Gunny, from the first girl 
they ever loved." 

"By jimminy, I remember the first 
prl I ever loved, Dick," Gunny said, 
sitting up and showing interest. 

"No!" Dick exclaimed. 

" You bet I do. Um-m, but she was 
purty ! " 

' ' Did she love you ? ' ' 

"Well, if she did she was too proud 
to show it. You see, I was only four- 



teen and she was 'bout thirty, but 
awful purty." 

"What happened? It didn't 'kill 
you, I see." 

"No, I got over it. One day she 
licked me for not havin' my lesson, 
and " 

"Aw, uh cinch!" Dick interrupted. 
"That kind don't count. We all have 
that. It's the kind that old Bill Sim- 
mons is thinkin' about over there, the 
kind that makes you go hot and cold 
all the time, the kind where there's a 
sweet, pretty little girl who is just your 
age, but 'bout ten times wiser than you 
in playin' that game and who keeps 
you guessin' every minute — that's the 
kind they're thinkin' 'bout. Look at 
Bill now. He's just about to get his 
first kiss. His mouth's all puckered 
up ready for it." 

"Seems to me," old Bill growled, 
" you made fool enough of yourself last 
night tellin' all you knowed and more 
too. I'd think you'd keep the jhobbles 
on that tongue of yours for a week and 
let serious-minded folks do the talkin'." 

"Well, you know what happens to 
sheep herders, don't you. Bill, when 
they've been away from the sound of 
human voices for a long time? They 
go plumb locoed. I'm boss of this out- 
fit, and I'm responsible for what hap- 
pens to it. If you think I'm goin' to 
let a deep and abidin' solitude light on 
this camp waitin' for serious-minded 
folks to do the talkin', you're twistin' 
the wrong steer by the tail. I'm havin' 
a hard enough time as it is, without 
tryin' to run an outfit of locoed cow 

"Well, go ahead with your story, 
then," snapped Bill, who silently en- 
joyed Dick's yarns, provided they 
didn't concern him. "I know you're 
achin' to tell one." 

" This is a story 'bout a girl that used 
to live at Splayfoot Thompson's," said 
Dick, who understood Bill and accepted 
the invitation in the way it was meant. 

" She was a niece of Splayfoot's wife, 
and, bein' an orphan, had come to live 
with her aunt and uncle. She wasn't 
one of these Eastern, city-bred, stall- 
fed girls. I don't recollect jest where 

she did hail from, but wherever it was, 
it was the kind of a place where she 
could see nature, both human and the 
other kind, with jest its everyday 
clothes on, and where she could live 
like a real, flesh and bone girl and grow 
up into a healthy young woman with 
strength enough to stand up straight 
without the help of a corset and things. 

"She was as pretty as the first real 
spring day. She knowed it, too, but 
she was too square to take advantage 
of it. Now, I don't mean she was a 
saint, 'cause I've lived a few years my- 
self and I've met some women in my 
time and the only signs of wings I've 
ever seen are shoulder blades stickin' 
out of backs that have been bendin' too 
long over wash-tubs and cooking- 
stoves. What I mean is that she wasn't 
always workin' her face for compli- 
ments and dances and horseback rides 
and tryin' to make the boys shine up to 
her. Course, if they got soft on her 
and hung 'round like sick kittens, she 
couldn't help that, and bein' good-na- 
tured and kind-hearted, she tried to 
doctor them. But it seemed that the 
more she nursed them, the worse they 
got. And by the time she had been at 
Splayfoot's 'bout three months, this 
part of Montana didn't have a sound 
cowboy in it anywhere. The fact is, 
they were all kind of corralled 'bout 
Splayfoot's or somewhere within easy 
ridin' distance. 

It happened that Splayfoot had to 
have a lot of hands that summer and 
he started out by hirin' all that came 
along. It wasn't long before his place 
looked more like a hospital than a ranch. 
Everywhere you went or looked, you'd 
likely see a love-sick cow-puncher 
mopin' round, rollin' the whites of his 
eyes about and smokin' a cigarette a 
minute. Well, Splayfoot was drove 
pretty nigh out of his head and didn't 
know what to do. He was too wise to 
cut into a game when he wasn't invited, 
and I reckon he kind of thought he 
might start something 'mong the boys 
if he did. So he jest tried to content 
himself with growlin' at his wife 'bout 
the mess he was in and set 'round 
growin' paler and thinner every day. 



■'There were four of the boys leadin' 
the bunch, Honey Timmons, Bricktop 
Shorts, Silk Smith and Babe Showers. 
As I say, they were runnin' first in the 
pack, but the rest of us weren't so 
awful far behind, leastwise we thought 
we weren't. Every feller was jest 
hangin' round waitin' for a chance to 
talk to her or to do something for her, or 
maybe jest to let her see him. We 
shaved twice a week, too, and wore out 
a lot of good clothes. But when the 
dust kicked up by the start cleared 
away, it became plain to our befuddled 
understandings that Honey, Bricktop, 
Silk and Babe had the lead on us. 
'Course we didn't give up, 'cause you 
never can tell when the leaders are 
goin' to step into a prairie-dog hole and 
go down. So we kept trailin' 'long 
behind and hopin' for the hole to show 
up. And every once in a while one of 
us would step in a hole and go down 
and be out of the runnin'. 

"Well, we were all workin' night and 
day hatchin' up schemes to please her. 
We tried dances, but dances don't go 
very well when every durn buck wants 
to dance with the same squaw at the 
same time and all the time. The last 
dance we had turned -poor old Splay- 
foot's hair white. Course the rules of 
the game say that no guns must be 
carried in the dance hall, and you bet 
old Splayfoot went slappity-slap round 
there, seein' that the rules weren't 
broke. And what's more, he appointed 
himself custodian of all shootin'-irons. 
The dance was held in Splayfoot's 
front parlor, and he cached all the guns 
in the bedroom leadin' off the parlor. 
All the patients were there, 'cept Texas 
Tom, and he wasn't much expected, 
'cause the day before he had got des- 
perate and, roundin' Maggie up, told 
her he'd been lookin' the bunch over 
and had come to the conclusion that 
she couldn't do better than to let him 
put his brand on her. She allowed 
that she could choose a brand for her- 
self, and what was more that she could 
tell him right then and there that it 
wouldn't be the T-bar-T. That was 
the dog-hole Texas Tom stepped in ; so 
he wasn't much expected at the dance. 

"Well, the dance went along till 
'bout eleven o'clock, though things 
weren't runnin' any too smooth, 'cause 
all of us fellers were wantin' to dance 
with Maggie all the time, and of course 
were mad at each other 'cause we 
couldn't, and all the other girls were 
mad at Maggie and us 'cause they were 
second choice. Pretty soon, between 
dances, we heard a war-whoop outside 
and then a lot of shots. We all recog- 
nized Texas Tom's wild yell andknowed 
he was drunk. Course we made a 
break for our guns. But old Splayfoot 
was still on guard and wouldn't let us 
get them. He knowed someone be- 
sides Texas Tom would get killed if we 
ever got started shootin'. So he stood 
there with a gun in each hand and kept 
us back. Outside Texas Tom was 
ridin' round and round the house a- 
whoopin' and a-shootin'. It wouldn't 
have been long before he would have 
been ridin' in the house a-whoopin' and 
a-shootin', and we didn't dare go out 
and try to stop him. 

"But Maggie did. Jest as Texas 
Tom was ridin' by the door, a-yellin' 
Hke a Sioux with the war paint on, she 
opens the door and steps out. Texas 
Tom gets the drop on her quick as a 
flash. Then he sees who it is, and 
lowers his gun. 

"'Good evening!' Maggie says, calm 
and sweet as you please. 'Won't you 
come in and dance ? ' 

"Texas Tom was sure upset. He 
had come out there to shoot up the 
place, but her first shot stretched him 
out cold. He stuck his gun in the hol- 
ster, took off his hat, stammered and 
stuttered and finally said, 'No, I guess 
I'd better be hurry in' back.' 

"But Maggie, she wouldn't have it 
that way. She knowed he was drunk 
and would likely come back and raise 
the roof. 'Oh, please do,' she says. 
'I've got jest one more dance left and 
I'd Hke to have that with you.' 

"Well, sir, would you think it? She 
got him to come in, give his guns to 
Splayfoot, who eyed them like a cougar 
does a deer till he had them in his hands 
and got the rest of the dance off with- 
out anybody gettin' killed. But we 



didn't have any more dances for Mag- 
gie, at Splayfoot 's or an}' where else, 
'cause Splayfoot set his foot down 
on her goin' and that busted up the 

" Well, things run along that way for 
another month. We were all up against 
it hard. Naturally, we hadn't been 
earnin' any money and had been settin' 
in poker games more than was good for 
our piles. Splayfoot wasn't anybody's 
fool, and when he saw the way things 
was goin', he jest started in to rustle 
our piles and get rid of us by makin' 
us go to work. Course, we weren't in 
condition to play much of a game and 
it wasn't long before he had corralled 
nearly all our money. So something 
had to be done. We either all had to 
throw down our hands and vamoose 
the ranch, or else we had to withdraw 
in favor of someone of the crowd and 
let him play it alone, with Maggie as 
the jackpot. But the trouble was that 
every durn one of us wanted the other 
fellers to pull out and leave him clear 

"Babe Showers finally hit on a 
scheme, and we all agreed to it. He 
proposed that we get up a broncho- 
bustin' tournament and that every 
feller that was tryin' to win the heart 
and hand of Maggie enter. The feller 
that turned out to be the best buster 
was to have Maggie. Well, you know, 
each one of us thought he was the best 
rider in the country, and begun right 
away to figure on how he was goin' to 
spend his honeymoon. 

"We told Splayfoot about it and 
made him promise not to tell Maggie, 
'cause she might balk at bein' rafifled 
off that way. The contest was set for 
two weeks later, and in the meantime 
we were to scatter and round up all the 
vicious bronchos and outlaws we could 
find. There was some trouble 'bout 
choosin' a judge, but we agreed at last 
to let Splayfoot do the decidin'. I 
reckon the reason we agreed on him 
was because each feller thought he had 
a pull with him. Anyway, we settled 
on him and struck out for the broncs. 

"Well, by the time the two weeks 
rolled round we had the toughest lookin* 

lot of horses corralled at Splayfoot's 
that a man ever set eyes on. Every- 
body had brought in the meanest string 
he could find, because one of the con- 
ditions was that no one was to ride a 
horse that he had fetched. Course the 
news that there was to be a bustin' con- 
test went all over the country and folks 
came a hundred and fifty miles to see it. 
Only they didn't know what the prize 
was. Some of the buckaroos were sore 
when they found they couldn't enter, 
but Splayfoot kind of calmed them 
down by tellin' them that this was jest 
a little contest for his own hands and 
that after it was over they could have 
one for themselves if they wanted to. 

"These were the conditions: we 
were to draw lots for turns ; each man 
was to rope, saddle and ride any horse 
in the bunch except one he had brought ; 
he was to ride him twice around the bar 
pasture; and he was to ride 'slick*, 
which means he couldn't tie his stirrups 
together under the horse's belly, he 
couldn't hook his spur in the cinch, and 
he couldn't bite leather. If he did any 
of these things, he lost. 

"Silk Smith drew number one. 
After lookin' the bunch over, he roped a 
big red roan that I had got over near 
Square Butte. That kind of pleased 
me some, 'cause I knowed how that 
son-of-a-gun could pitch and buck. 
He stood like a cow while Silk was 
cinchin' him up. But the moment 
Silk struck the saddle things got sort of 
tangled up. The roan stuck his head 
down between his feet, jumped 'bout 
ten feet in the air, swapped ends, and 
come down stiflf. But that didn't 
phase Silk — he jest begun to throw his 
quirt into the roan's flanks and tickle 
his ribs with the spurs. 'Bout two 
more flip-flops and Silk had the blood 
flowin' nice and steady. Then the roan 
went after him in earnest. He bucked 
straight and in a circle. He stood up 
on his hind legs pretendin' he was goin' 
over backwards; he run a hundred 
yards and stopped stone still; then he 
begun his famous, long weavin' pitch. 
By this time Silk's nose was bleedin' 
and he was gettin' seasick. Then the 
roan played his high card. He give a 



big, long lunge and come down crooked, 
his front legs seemed to give way, and 
it looked as if he was goin' to fall and 
roll on Silk. But jest as his elbows 
struck the ground, he recovered quick 
as a flash, and lunged off at right 
angles. Course that landed Silk. He 
thought the horse was goin' down and 
was ready to jump clear; so when the 
horse made his last move Silk was 
bound to go. 

"Honey Timmons picked out a 
cammy-eyed, bald-faced sorrel, and 
had to throw him before he could get 
his saddle on. I don't know where 
that horse come from, but he sure was 
an educated bucker. Honey managed 
to ride him out, but what between 
bumpin' his head against the floor- 
beams of heaven and the seat of his 
pants on the saddle, his backbone was 
'bout six inches shorter when he got off 
than when he got on. We could see 
the svm rise between Honey and the 
saddle all the time. He didn't ride 
foul, but he did everything else 'cept 
fall off. 

"Then come Babe Showers. I was a 
little bit scared of Babe, 'cause I 
thought he was a better rider than me. 
He was 'bout five-foot -ten and weighed 
a hundred and ninety. He was stout 
as a four-year-old bull, and most 
of his strength was in his legs. I've 
seen him tie his stirrups together and 
make a horse quit buckin', by squeezin' 
him between his legs. Still I had hopes 
that Babe would get a bad one and get 
showed up, if not throwed off. I 
thought that if that happened, I could 
beat him, 'cause there was a horse in 
the bunch I knowed I could ride, havin' 
rode him before. And he did git one 
that was some vicious. He begun to 
bawl and bite and kick as soon as Babe 
roped him, and kept it up while he was 
bein' saddled. The first thing he did 
after Babe swung up was to make for 
the fence and scrape Babe's leg 'long it 
for 'bout a hundred yards and then 
turn round and scrape the other leg. 
And when he begun to buck he had a 
sort of a grape-vine double shuffle with 
a kink in it that sent one ripple after 
another up Babe's backbone and pretty 

nigh snapped Babe's head off each 
time it reached the top. Babe com- 
menced to go farther and farther to 
each side till it soon looked as if he 
would sure fall off the next jump. But 
he managed to stay with the brute, 
though he went clear of the saddle at 
every pitch, and once or twice he come 
awful near reachin' for his last friend, 
the horn. And when the horse finally 
stopped, I felt better, 'cause I thought 
I still had a good show to win. Al- 
ready I saw myself bein' declared the 
winner and had a vision of pretty Mag- 
gie givin' me her hand and confidin' 
her future happiness to me. 

" But I had something more pressin' 
than visions jest then, for I was up 
next. As I said before, there was one 
horse in the bunch that I knowed, and 
it didn't take me long to get my rope 
fast on him. He was an old gray, 
Open-A-Dot horse, called Marquis, and 
was said to be a regular wolf at buckin'. 
But I had rode him once without much 
trouble and thought I could do it again 
unless he had learned more 'bout the 
game since. So I cinches him up tight, 
grabs the check-strap and swings up. 
For a second or two he don't move, but 
I can feel him gatherin' himself. Then 
all at once hell begins to pop. Every- 
thing gets all tangled up, and pretty 
soon I don't know whether I am a-foot 
or a-horseback. Say, the first time I 
rode that horse, he just loped a little 
high with me. Now he is gettin' even 
for what I had said 'bout him. I go 
way up in the air and come down first 
on the horn, then on the cantle and then 
on the seat of the saddle. I go forward ; 
then I go back. I spin round and 
round ; then I go straight ahead like I 
am shot out of a gun, and all at once I 
decides to stop and go back. Did you 
ever go straight up in the air fifteen 
thousand feet and when you were 
comin' down full speed meet something 
goin' up forty times faster than you 
were fallin'? Well, I have. Old Mar- 
quis, he shoots me up and then comes 
after me and meets me half way. He 
plays 'The Arkansaw Traveler' on my 
spinal cord in the key of gee whizz. 
Pretty soon I begins to try to fall off 



instead of trying to stick on. But that 
game don't go with old Marquis. I go 
to the right, come down and find him 
waitin' for me; I go to the left, come 
down and find him waitin' there. Then 
when I makes up my mind again to 
stay on, he changes his. He rears up 
straight on his hind legs, throws me 
back in the saddle ; then up-ends and 
comes down head first. That throws 
me forward when he lands. Now, 
what do you suppose he does ? Instead 
of buckin' forward, he bucks backward, 
and with me thrown up on the horn, he 
jest naturally disappears back between 
my legs and plunks me down kerwallop 
on my head. 

"That's all I know till late that 

"The rest of the tournament 
comes off, but I don't see it. I'm 
layin' in the house, while Maggie and 
Splayfoot 's wife put cold towels on my 

"But who won the tournament.'"' 
Hen asked eagerly. 

"Oh, the ugliest feller in the outfit, 
of course — Bricktop Shorts," Dick re- 

" And so he married Maggie, did he? " 
Hen asked. 

"No, course he didn't, you bullet- 
head," Bill Simmons interrupted with a 
growl. " Don't you ever read nothin'? 
Here's Dick hurt in the head and layed 
up in the house, and Maggie is nursin' 
him. Dick marries her, of course." 

" It might have turned out that way, 
Bill," Dick replied, musing, "only it 
didn't. The next day a young feller 
from her old home drove up to the 
ranch, and the next Sunday they were 

" Humph! " Bill snorted, as he pulled 
off his boots and crawled into his blank- 
ets. " I reckon Dick's heart was 
hurt worse than his head, and that's 
still cracked." 

The Toad^ According to Bobby Jonks 

n^HE toad is an innocent insect that looks like a pocket-book full of hops, but 
-^ a fat man playing a guitar is a more repulsive spectacle. And there 
you are! 

A horned toad resembles a good many people, and also a bluff. He makes 
you think he is dangerous just to look at him, but in reality he is as harmless as 
cold tea. It is said that the oil of tobacco is so poisonous that a drop on a dog's 
tail will kill a man, but 'most all venerable men drink whisky and chop cords of 
wood all their lives. Old age is honorable, but it makes a man boast about how 
much smarter he used to be than the young men of today are. A reminiscence 
is a lie that has been told so often that it's got to believing itself. 

Once there was a man who had a wooden leg, and he was sort o' modest 
about it. So he went to the slaughter-house and got the tail of a cow that had 
lately given up the ghost and took it home with him and carefully peeled it. 
Next day the inhabitants were surprised to see a triumphant man strolling down 
the street with a wooden limb with red hair on it, and one unfortunate citizen 
who was walking backwards while he wondered at the sight stubbed his heels 
and fell full-length into a mortar-bed ; and the Irishman who was sooperintend- 
ing it said begorra that was the time the other fellow got in his work. 

I am only a little boy, and of course you could scarcely expect one of mv age, 
but I honestly believe that nobody can fall slap-dab backwards into a jag of 
soft mortar and at the same time sing a hymn. This is all I know about the toad. 

Tom p. Morg.-vn. 

The Common Roads 


IT has been said that the true index 
of a nation's progress or civiHzation 
is found in the character of its com- 
mon highways. Be this strictly true or 
not , it needs no argument to prove that 
good common roads, available at all 
seasons of the year, are of prime im- 
portance everywhere. As are artery 
and vein in the animal organism, so are 
the highways and byways to the body 
politic. They are the media through 
which flows the life-blood of commerce 
and association. Their presence is 
needed wherever organized society 

Now, since the United States have 
become a nation with unquestioned 
power to do many things for the com- 
mon good, and since good common 
roads are needed in every state and 
territory, why should not the general 
government exercise its admitted 
power in providing means for road im- 
provement ? Has it not indeed become 
its duty to do so, since most of the com- 
mon roads have become "post roads" 
for carrying rural mail? These roads 
should be made available at all seasons 
of the year. Whem the " four reasons " 
given by Postmaster-General Wana- 
maker for the failure of Congress to 
adopt "The Parcels Post" shall find 
their proper place in the infamous junk 
heap of selfish class-rule, the rural mail 
route will become doubly important 
as an artery of commerce. 

To secure good roads labor and ma- 
terial, with skill to apply them, are at- 
tainable, but there is still lacking one 
indispensable factor — money to em- 
ploy these forces. We have at least 
one million men constantly idle, who, 
as such, are a burden and menace to 

society. These, employed in road-mak- 
ing, would be a public blessing and be- 
come self-respecting, useful citizens. 
John D. Rockefeller, before going into 
"retirement," told us that by 1907 or 
1908 ten million men will be out of em- 
ployment . Cause , ' ' Overproduction ' ' ! 
The distinguished philanthropist, to 
avoid a catastrophe, said, "Put them 
at making good roads." It did not 
occur to him to suggest an "income 
tax" on millionaires for means to em- 
ploy the idle, but through his henchman 
in Congress, Fowler, he urges the issue 
to the banks of an "elastic emergency 
currency" secured by wind. Would 
the banks then supply funds for road- 
making? Possibly, in exchange for 
long-time interest-bearing bonds, pro- 
vided "emergencies" in Wall Street 
did not have precedence. 

But returning to our premise. Good 
roads are a national necessity. Con- 
gress has the right to aid in making 
them good. Congress has the exclusive 
power to coin "money and regulate its 
value." The court says: "Congress 
may stamp the money function on gold, 
silver, paper or any material it may 
deem best." Hence the authority to 
create mone3^ The money function 
being in the legal stamp and not in the 
material stamped, Congress is the 
rightful judge to decide how much 
money the common welfare requires, 
and, having decided, it is its solemn 
duty to supply it, but not by indirec- 
tion, through banks of issue, the gov- 
ernment paying perpetual interest on 
bonds and the people perpetual inter- 
est to banks for currency which their 
fool agents donate to these intelligent 
middlemen. Since Congress has ere- 



ated every dollar of American money 
in existence, why not go to headquar- 
ters, to the creative power for national 
currency, to make national improve- 
ments? For the general purpose of 
business the nation could lend and re- 
ceive revenue instead of borrowing and 
paving interest on bonds it need never 
issue for any purpose. 

By the exercise of its lawful author- 
itv Congress could give employment to 
all able-bodied men out of a job. If 
indeed there be "overproduction" of 
trust -made goods, there is none of good 
roads. Here is an opportunity to 
solve the labor problem. Private en- 
terprise and public improvements both 
calling for labor, the law of "supply 
and demand" would give working men 
a "square deal" without the aid of 
"walking delegates." What else be- 
sides good roads would follow? In- 
creased earnings from constant em- 
ployment would increase consumption, 
making a better market for the farmers' 
produce, the manufacturers' wares and 
the merchants' goods, bring early pay- 

ment of doctors' bills, of ministers' 
salaries and easier payment of taxes 

Should Congress create and appro- 
priate the road currency, it should be 
made receivable for taxes, but not re- 
deemable in any other kind of money. 
"Redeemable" currency was invented 
by Shylock not only to get the contract 
pound of flesh but the whole man with 
all his working powers — and he's got 
him, in spite of all his squirming and 

What better opportunity to break 
the usurer's unholy mastery of all 
of business and industry than now, 
when good-roads conventions are called 
to carry out a cut-and-dried program 
for more bonds, more bonds or more 
taxes with less means to pay them? 
God give us men with sympathies broad 
as humanity, men with noble courage 
and lofty purpose, men who will not 
lie, will not steal, men who will not 
compromise with wrong, but stand by 
truth and justice "though the heavens 

High Treason 

'^ NTOW, these 'ere congressmen and senators," ominously but somewhat in- 
-'•^ volvedly said Eli Ramsbottom, during a recent session of the Gold Brick 
Club, "slaves of the railroads, alHes of the trusts and bootlicks of the Money 
Power; these slimy-tongued demagogues who prate of the rights of the people, 
instead of which they are continually passing laws to hold the noses of the toiling 
masses harder and harder down on the grindstone of financial degradation, till I 
ask you, my feller-citizens, why is it, in this enlightened day and time, why is it? 
— That's the question! " 

"That's a fact, Eli! " soothingly returned the Old Codger. " I appreciate just 
how you feel about the matter. Sometimes when I have taken a leetle too much 
quinine for my malaria, I get to thinking some mighty queer things — seem 
sensible enough to me at the time, but I suppose they would sound like blamed 
foolishness if I was to tell 'em to anybody else. Once, I recollect, I got to conning 
over the question whether anybody really ever saw such a look of lofty placidity, 
unwrinkled greatness and philosophical superiority to carking care on any human 
face as we behold in the portraits of George Washington, And then I sorter 
answered myself — it was the meanest thought I ever entertained and one for 
which I can find no excuse except that there must be a personal devil — I followed 
it up by thinking that there never was such a look in real Hfe except on the 
countenance of a pet Jersey cow." 


Each Bryan (to the other): " Well, howdy — but say, Bill, 

I certainly wouldn't have known you!" Secretary Taft Is Going to Take a Seat on the Supreme Bench 

Warren, in Boston Herald AlcCutclieon, in Chicago Tribune 

If We Must Have Theodore I, We Have the Crown Ready 
Taylor, in Jacksonville (Fla.) Sun 





O'ROURKE was laboring heavily 
over mental arithmetic. He 
was a large man and his mind 
moved slowly. 

" Eleven's into a hundred and fifty," 
he muttered, and his tongue slid into 
his cheek. 

The men of the night shift crowded 
the locker room. Clad and half clad 
they brushed their blue uniforms or 
thrust themselves into them. Stamp 
of heavy feet and growl of heavy 
voices filled the place. 

None of these things came to 
O'Rourke's ears. With unseeing eyes 
he stared straight ahead into his open 
locker. Mechanically he took his uni- 
form from its hooks, and turned to lay 
it on the long table in the center of the 
room. Still intent on the sum, he 
doffed his citizen's clothes and began 
to make his change. He paused with 
one foot half-way down a blue trousers' 

" Eleven goes into " 

His name, shouted in his ear, brought 
down the foot with a jerk that sent the 
owner's huge bulk lurching heavily 
forward. He saved himself by the 
table's edge and looked over his shoul- 
der at Pratt, who with him held in 
check the city's worst beat. Pratt 
was too full of something even to smile 
at the expression of bewilderment he 
had roused. 

"Jump into that harness quick," he 
said sharply, "an' come out into the 
squad room. I got somethin' to tell 

"They sprung Viola on us," he said 
when O'Rourke had joined him. 

The big man tilted forward his hel- 
met and scratched his bristling crown. 

"How the hell could they?" he 

The earnestness of his voice irritated 
Pratt, who snapped: 

" How do I know they could? They 
done it. That's enough. She's marked 
released by order o' the old man. 
They sprung her this mornin' first 
thing, before he left the station." 

"I'll pinch her again tonight," said 
O'Rourke evenly. 

The clang of the gong interrupted 
him. A rush of men, making for the 
line already beginning to form at the 
room's end, came between them. 

He sought his own place, muttering: 
"An' every other night I find her on 
my beat." 

Two hours later Pratt came on 
O'Rourke in an alley. The big patrol- 
man was standing beneath the incan- 
descent light marking a saloon's side 
entrance. One foot was on the railing 
and on the bent knee he held his vest- 
pocket note-book. His thick fingers 
were cramped about a pencil stub. He 
sucked its point, occasionally taking it 
from between his lips to scrawl a figure 
on the page. Pratt looked at him 

"What're you up to now?" he 

O'Rourke carefully wiped the pencil- 
point on his trousers' leg and set down 
another figure. 

"Thirteen an' some to carry," he 
said; then straightened wearily. His 
knit brow smoothed itself. "It's go- 
ing to take fourteen months to pay that 
doctor's bill, Mark," he went on. "I 
been figurin' it out." 

" Ye mean it'll take ye that if ye ain't 



canned," said the other. "I'm sick o' 
this, I think I'll quit." 

"I'm goin' to jump myself," said 
O'Rourke. " I got a good chance to 
take up a farm an' I been talkin' it 
over with the old woman. She's game. 
But we got to pay this bill first. 
Seem's like a man ought to save more'n 
eleven dollars a month, but we figured 
it out that was all we could count on." 
He shoved the note back into his vest 
pocket, buttoned his coat and shifted 
his night-stick to his right hand, 

"Seen Viola?" he asked, 

"No, I ain't seen Viola," said Pratt, 
"an' what's more I ain't a-goin' to see 
her if I run right onto her. I'm sick o' 
pinchin' thieves and havin' Cap Brad- 
ley graft off'n 'em. What're ye both- 
erin' yer head over Viola fer, anyhow? " 

"I'm goin' to find her now." 
O'Rourke carried no trace of feeling in 
his voice, and Pratt knew he meant 
business, " She can't stay on my beat, 
nor no other thief." 

O'Rourke walked slowly down the 
middle of the sidewalk. Crowds filled 
the pavement from buildings to curb. 
They jostled one another beneath the 
transparent signs, where men went in 
droves down the steps leading to cellar 
music halls, or flocked in and out from 
saloons whose doors breathed the odor 
of stale liquor as from the mouths of 
drunken men. 

He passed among them, and as he 
came they made way before his enor- 
mous frame and bulk and muscle. He 
had walked this beat four years, and 
during three years of that time had 
ruled it undisputed. 

He walked with that peculiar, slow 
sway — almost a swagger — that marks 
a policeman plainer than does his uni- 
form. As he went he nodded to a few 
who passed. He twirled his leather- 
covered night stick by its thong, and 
something in the manner of his carry- 
ing it suggested a scepter. His look 
was grave. His steady gaze, while it 
carried no menace, showed no sign 
of compromise. Pasty-faced, neatly 
dressed young fellows cast shifty eyes 
toward him and tried to smile as they 
bade him 

"Good evening, Mr. O'Rourke." 
To some of these he gave answer. 
Others he snubbed as he had done 
many times before. But all of them 
spoke to him as he passed. His was a 
heavy hand, and some of them had felt 
its weight in days gone by. To them 
he was a something merciless, slow in- 
deed but inexorable. Those who hated 
him, also feared him. And he knew it. 

He knew he ruled the place. He 
knew that he had made himself its 
despot; had done it by dint of hard 
blows and relentless purpose ; by know- 
ing no compromise. It had been a 
hard, long fight — but he had won. 
And he knew that his power must be 
guarded by careful thought and prompt 
act every moment he walked that pave- 

In a way, he loved the place. His 
kingdom, ready to rebel at any symp- 
tom of weakness on its ruler's part, was 
dear to him. He loved the transparent 
signs, with their many colored electric 
globes. He loved its very smells: the 
evil odor from beneath the piles a block 
away; the smell of boiling grease and 
frying onions in the sandwich wagons; 
the whiff of stale beer from the cheap 
saloons. The sound of the thumping 
pianos was music in his ears. He 
harkened gladly to the roaring altos 
from the music halls, and the occasional 
peals of shrill laughter that floated 
down stairways. 

And yet he had nothing in common 
with these people. He was a man of 
simple ways. Often in early morning, 
when the street was growing quiet, he 
found a seat in some corner and lost 
himself for the time; bringing before 
him the faces of his wife and little boy. 

He walked this night, paying no heed 
save when heed was demanded by 
something untoward about him. He 
pushed his way into one saloon and 
leaped into the middle of a seething 
crowd, blue-clad sailor-men. fighting as 
only men-of-warsmen can fight when 
liquor is in their blood. He scattered 
them like chaff. He hauled one great 
burly giant by the slack of his blouse 
from the man he had been holding to 
the floor. In a minute he had the 



cause of the trouble, and by pure in- 
tuition had picked the ringleaders. 
These he drove from the place with the 
injunction that if they showed them- 
selves on the street again that evening 
he would place them under arrest. 
During the whole proceeding his face 
was calm. 

He walked back to the saloon and 
got the bartender to one side. 

"Seen Viola?" he asked. 

"She ain't been about tonight," said 
the man. 

O'Rourke looked into the speaker's 
face, and the latter hastened to aver: 

"Honest, I ain't seen nothin' of her 
all the evenin', Mr. O'Rourke." 

He found the same answer in other 
places. He did not know that Viola 
was hunting him. She was a wise little 
woman, Viola, and she cherished no 
animosities, where animosities did not 

They met on a quiet corner, well 
away from the transparent signs and 
sandwich wagons. 

A little woman and chic, though 
shrewdness and age had put lines on 
her face. She smiled into the face 
above her. 

" I've been looking for you all the 
evening, Mr. O'Rourke," she said, 
sweetly. " I want to see you a minute." 

" An' I want to see you," said 
O'Rourke, quietly. "Come on." 

She gave him a quick look — part sur- 
prise and part amusement. 

"For heaven's sake! You ain't 
going to pinch me again?" she asked. 

"Ye guessed right," said O'Rourke. 
"Come on." 

"But — -oh, now, look here, Mr. 
O'Rourke, you can't pinch me. You 
know it ain't going to do you any good. 
I ain't grafting here, and, what's more, 
I know I can stay here. What's the 
use of trying to hand it to me? Why, 
I haven't took a crooked dollar since I 
came to town this time." 

She looked into his imxmovable face; 
then stamped her foot. 

"Why can't you get wise?" she cried. 
"You're only hurting yourself with 
them that's been your friends." 

He knew whom she meant, and felt 

the truth of the words, but he said 
quietly : 

" If you ain't going to come, I'll have 
to take ye." 

They started together up the street. 
Viola stole a look at him ; then laughed 

"See here," said she; "I ain't bearing 
any ill-will to you. You ain't wise, 
that's all that's wrong with you. Now, 
I've been looking for you all the 
evening to tell you something. I been 
on the square here, Mr. O'Rourke; 
honest, I have. If you don't beheve it, 
ask them that knows. You ain't heard 
any kicks coming from this block; not a 
one. AH I want is for you to let me 
alone. I'll make it worth five a night 
to you if you will, and that seven 
nights in the week." 

They were at the box now. O'Rourke 
looked down at her quickly as she said 
it; then swung open the little iron door. 
She checked her smile. 

" Well, what charge are you goin' to 
make it?" she asked. 

"Attemptin' to bribe an officer," he 
said placidly, and pulled down the 
lever. "I'll learn you to try an' hand 
me a piece o' money." 

Viola laughed aloud. 

Climbing up the wagon's steps, she 
flashed a smile over her shoulder. 

" We'll see, old sport, who'll do the 
learnin'," she called; then vanished 
into the cavernous interior. 

O'Rourke dispersed the crowd 
calmly. He had come to like these 
surly, semi -hostile crowds that gath- 
ered round his box; just as they had 
come to shrink before his uplifted 
hand. He showed no sign as he 
walked his beat of the uneasiness he 
felt at these last words of Viola. 

O'Rourke's wife, a plain-faced little 
woman, had long since learned that his 
beat was another world. She never 
asked him of its happenings. Even 
when his name appeared in police para- 
graphs, as it did every day, or occasion- 
ally in some flash-head article, the sub- 
ject was not brought up in the house- 
hold. But when he went about the 
house after his noon-time breakfast, 



she could not forbear asking him what 
it was that worried him. 

"I got to get down to court this after- 
noon," he said, "and I didn't get good 
sleep." Which failed to satisfy her, 
though she knew it was true as far as it 

He went into the garden and worked 
among the beds of flowers. They 
were his greatest pleasure — save Tom. 
Tom's four years had been full of pain, 
and his thin little body, whose back 
bore ugly scars where the surgeon's 
knives had done their kindly work, was 
held straight by a plaster cast. The 
boy loved to follow his father through 
the flower beds, and the father loved to 
stop his weeding and sit talking to him. 
So they were sitting when O'Rourke's 
wife came and warned him that he 
must hurry to catch his car. He took 
the coat she had carried out to him, 
and kissed her plain face; then the 
pinched, white face of the boy. He 
ran heavily to the street corner. 

In the court room he put them out of 
his mind altogether. It was all busi- 
ness with him here, and for some reason 
he feared it was going to be ugly busi- 
ness this time. 

He was right. Viola had been re- 
leased on bonds. And she did not ap- 
pear. Nor did she have reason to. 
The deputy from the prosecuting at- 
torney's office shifted his black cigar 
to the side of his mouth when O'Rourke 
entered the judge's chambers. Other- 
wise the deputy did not make an effort 
to stir. He kept his feet on the table 
among the law books. 

" What's this about the McCall 
woman?" he queried sharply. 
■ " I want to sign a complaint for at- 
temptin' bribery," said O'Rourke. 

"Yes? What's your evidence?" 
Jenson took down his feet and as- 
sumed the questioner's attitude. 

O'Rourke told his story. 

" You can't make out a case on that. 
I should think you'd been on a beat 
long enough to know that some of you 
bulls seem to know nothing only grab, 
grab, and come into court and raise 
your right hand. I'm getting sick o' 
this and so's the court. If you want to 

do anything here you got to make some 
sort of a case. What you got, Flana- 
gan?" and Jenson turned to one of the 
plain-clothes men. 

O'Rourke walked slowly into the 
court room. He stayed there during 
the afternoon from force of habit, and 
kept his place in the long line of officers 
waiting to give testimony. Once he 
saw Captain Bradley and Jenson with 
their heads close together in the door- 
way across the room. They were 
laughing, and he saw the captain's 
beady eyes turn toward him. 

That night he ate supper in silence 
and smiled a little sadly when Tom 
tried to amuse him. He kissed the boy 
good-night and talked quietly with his 
wife at the front gate. 

" I do wish we were away from here," 
she said at length. " It seems kind o' 
hard, don't it? We can't do only so 
little for ourselves. Now there's the 
Andrewses managed to build a nice 
new home an' he's walkin' a beat same 
as you be." 

"Yes," he said quietly, "but I don't 
get my money like Andrews gets his. 
Now, we'll just plug along an' it's going 
to come out all right." 

She raised her weary face and kissed 

"I didn't mean to be complainin'," 
she said. "I know we'll get through 
it all right." 

" I got Viola this time," he told Pratt 
in the squad room. " I'm goin' to send 
a man to her with marked money." 

His companion looked worried. 
"Jim," he said, "there's something 
on tonight I don't like. I seen Johnny 
Williamson go into the inspector's 
room with Cap Bradley a little while 
ago; an' I took a quiet pipe-off in the 
desk sergeant's office. When they 
come out. Cap says: ' All right, Johnny . 
I'll do it tonight.' Somehow it didn't 
sound good to me, an' the old man 
give me a hell of a look when he see me. 
They're goin' to job you. An' if 
Johnny Williamson's framin' it, he's 
goin' strong." 

After roll-call Captain Bradley 
looked down the line and said: 



"O'Rourke, you take Second down 
from Madison to James, an' the alleys. 
Andrews, take Washington with Pratt 

It was a new world to O'Rourke, this 
business district. He knew little of the 
beat, save that it was sleepily dull, 
except at intervals. When something 
did break it was usually ugly. It was 
a district of big retail stores, among 
them several jewelry establishments. 
To guard its alleys was work for one 
man. He had these and the street, 
where open transoms made it necessary 
to keep fairly good watch after mid- 

O'Rourke had less nerves than many 
men, but he felt ill at ease. The 
thought of his own beat wrested from 
him, because Johnny Williamson had 
asked it, made him wild with rage. He 
knew why Williamson had made that 
visit. He knew that the news of his 
change — by orders of the ward heeler — 
had gone out among his subjects, long 
before he had heard it announced. It 
was a clever move to shear him of his 
power — to protect the woman he knew 
to be a thief. And he had no recourse. 

The thing kept him ugly all the even- 
ing. And at the same time he had a 
feeling — he didn't know what it was 
himself — that something else lay be- 
hind it, something that boded ill to 
him. He fell to thinking of home and 
the wife he had kissed at the gate. He 
cursed his hard luck; how easily he 
could have paid that doctor's bill, had 
he chosen for one night to adopt the 
tactics some of them used! And then 
he could have left this work — work 
from which he might be carried home 
any night on a stretcher, or be taken to 
the morgue. Who would care for the 
wife and Tom then ? He tried to shake 
it off, and swore at himself. 

A shot broke the early morning still- 
ness. He unbuttoned his coat and 
ran down a side street. In the semi- 
darkness of an alleyway he caught 
sight of two figures. As he came 
toward them they fled silently. 

The asphalt pavement made it easy 
running. On either side yawned deep 
doorways. He was passing one of 

these, his hand on his revolver butt, 
when a man leaped in front of him. 
The old instinct, gained in conquering 
a tenderloin with his bare hands, leaped 
up. He loosed his hold on the weapon 
and struck out, a sweeping blow that 
would have dropped a horse. 

The man slipped beneath the sledge- 
like fist, and grasped him about the 
waist. They fought heavily over the 

O'Rourke saw the flash of a knife. 
He caught the outswinging hand and 
twisted the arm until he could hear 
the shoulder cracking. The weapon 
tinkled on the paving. He raised his 
great fist and beat down on the head. 
He was holding it close to his own 
breast now. And as he struck he 
felt a presence behind him. 

Whirling he faced two of them. 
They had slipped out from the dark- 
ness — bent, crouching shadows. They 
were upon him like a pair of cats 
before he had fairly thrown their 
companion to the alley's other side. 
He shook himself free and plunged 
toward one. The man gave ground. 
O'Rourke leaped after him. The 
other stepped swiftly to one side and 
back. As the made his 
leap the thug raised his arm its full 
height; then brought it down. 

O'Rourke fell, an inert lump. 

The man thrust the blackjack in his 
pocket. All three leaped on the great 
helpless body and trampled it. Their 
boots cut ugly gashes in the white face. 
Footsteps sounded down the alley. 
They spread and disappeared in the 

At the station Captain Bradley 
chewed his heavy moustache. When 
they had taken away O'Rourke in the 
ambulance he retired into the inspect- 
or's room and cursed Johnny Wil- 
liamson in whispers. His thoughts 
turned to the victim. 

"The damn fool," he murmured. 
' 'Well, this ought to learn him some- 
thing — if he don't die." 

O'Rourke didn't die. He mended 
slowly; but the concussion kept his 



brain wandering many days. When 
they took him home from the hospital 
his face was flabby and his eyes 
strangely large. 

The weeks that followed were 
hard weeks for the plain-faced 
woman, in spite of the fund from 
the PoUce Relief Association. The 
doctor's bill was larger now instead 
of smaller, and meals were none too 

When he was able to walk, O'Rourke 
spent his time in the little garden with 

" We're both of us down an' out 
fer a while now, son," he said 
one day, smoothing the boy's curly 

Two months after the assault he 
went on duty. His wife kissed him 
good-bye at the gate. 

"It'll be two years now, before we 
can get to the country," she said, just 
a little wistfully. It was the nearest 

to complaint she had uttered since the 
night they brought the news to her. 

"I'm afraid to let you go, Jim," she 
whispered when he bent a second time 
to touch her lips. " Don't let them get 
you into any more trouble, will you?" 

He smiled slowly into her face and 
said nothing. 

He was still pale. His face looked 
very white beside those of his com- 
panions at the station. But he loomed 
up big among the crowd who sur- 
rounded him in the locker-room. 

He looked straight ahead, placid, 
unsmiling, when Bradley detailed him 
to his old beat. His kingdom was his 
own again. When he reached its 
bounds, he turned to Pratt. 

"Mark," he said, "where's Viola?" 

The other looked at him, astonished, 
then grinned. 

" You'll not pinch her, Jim," he said. 
" She flew the coop this afternoon when 
she heard you was comin' back." 

Their Obfuscation 

'*' T ONG'bout two yeahs ago, dar was a po'tly pahty over at Timpkinsviile dat 
■L-* was High Ram, or whichever dey calls it, of de CuUud Knights and Ladies 
of Suthin'-or-nudder — I fuhgits what. Well-uh, he done embezzled de lodge 
funds and died and had a most puhdigious fine fun'al befo' anybody found it 
out," said old Brother Utterback. "De Bishop, hisse'f, was dar, and puhnounced de 
edification, while de Puhsidin' Elder held his hat. De choir was disenfo'ced 
by a couple of elegant gen'lemen dat had dess come uh-towerin' home fum a 
minstrel show, and dar was some specially good gin for de mou'ners. Alto- 
gedder, de whole auspices was monst'ous genteel. 

" But, — uck! — when dey done diskivered de late gen'leman's heenyusness, 
muh suzz, de people dunnuh what in de mischief to do — whudder to dig de 
scoun'rel up and bury him ag'in wid contempt an retrogression, or leave 
him stay dar wropped in de pomposity of his ambiguity. And, as a mattuh 
o' fact, dey are uh-squabblin' about it till plumb yit! " 

The Reason 

CITY NEPHEW— Good gracious. Uncle Timrod! Why did you fire your 
double-barreled shotgun at that automobilist? 
Country Uncle — Aw, just to sorter express my disapproval! Did ye think 
I was doin' it for applause? 





W0' v4% 

T ORD, ma, pa's done married 
I again, and there ain't been 

■^ — ' no monument put to yer 
grave yet." 

The boy dropped prostrate on the 
ground in a paroxysm of grief, and his 
dirty brown hands grasped spasmod- 
ically the tufts of grass that were just 
shooting up from the warm earth. 
Scalding tears ran down his dirt-be- 
smeared face and trickled on a flat- 
tened grave. 

The spring before a few picks broke 
the mountain earth, and the ignorant 
and unsophisticated wife of Alec Spratt 
was laid to rest. The funeral obse- 
quies were simple and commonplace. 
Sol Bennett, being somewhat eminent 
for his "laming," was selected to offer 
the prayer and read the Scripture. 
The slate-colored dirt was heaped upon 
the pine coffin; a few kind-hearted 
dames drew their handkerchiefs across 
their eyes, bestowed sympathetic 
glances upon Alec and Tim, and the 
funeral was over. The small assem-- 
blage, dividing into groups of three or 
four, went their respective ways. 

On the undisciplined heart of the 
wild mountain child, a poignant wound 
was made. Rough and uncultured as 
his mother was, he had lost the only 
one that had ever seemed interested 
in him. 

During the cold winter nights, when 
Alec was in the valley selling his ap- 
ples, Tim, in the cabin far up the moun- 
tain, would sit in front of the blazing 
fire and roast chestnuts, thinking of 
the time when he would be a man and 
could have a team of his own. Some- 
times his mother would startle him 

July, 190&— 577 

from his ambitious dreams of the future 
with the words: "Say, Timmie, do you 
want yer mammie to tell yer the tale o' 
theb'ars what used t' be in these parts?" 
Immediately the child was all attention, 
and expressions of amusement, wonder, 
consternation and fear would pass al- 
ternately across his face as the story 
was related. When it was concluded, 
he would invariably curl himself upon 
a bearskin to dream of hunting bears 
with a sure-enough gun with shiny 
barrels. Sometimes his mother would 
lean over and murmur, as she brushed 
his tangled hair from his face, "Po' 
little Timmie, he ain't a very spry 

So, when his mother died, the boy 
felt that a part of his own being was 
laid in the grave with her, under the 
large poplar tree. And this was not 
the first morning that Tim had visited 
the grave of his mother. He was a con- 
stant visitor to it. But today was as 
sad to him as the day when she was 
laid there. He could not understand 
what right his father had had to marry 
two months before. 

"It's a plumb shame," sobbed the 
child. "Ma never did have no good 
time ; never did go no further than 
Watigo ; never did have no gold watch 
like Bill Brigg's wife. An' now pa's 
done forgot about her, an' there won't 
be no monument put to her grave 
'til I gits to be a man." 

The boy gazed at a large wood- 
thrush in a linden tree near, as though 
he half expected sympathy from the 
wild bird of the forest, but it only 
dipped its head into its brilliant brown 
plumage and thrilled a love song to its 



mate across the way. The shrill caw- 
caw of crows sounded from over a knoll, 
and a phantom echo seemed to answer 
far down the Wenona Valley, as the 
crows settled in a little corn-patch over 
the hill. The boy bounded to his feet 
and dashed ofE in the direction of the en- 
dangered field. A few moments later 
the black birds were again on the 

Just then the blast of a horn rang 
with resonance upon the clear mountain 
air, and a woman in an ill-fitting red 
dress stood in the doorway of a cabin 
and scanned the corn-field. Her vis- 
age was stem, and her cold, gray eyes 
settled upon the little figure clad in 
corduroy trousers and a small shirt in 
the last stages of the shrinking process, 
but across whose bosom neither the 
shrinking process nor the dirt had 
obliterated the words: " 24 lbs. 2d 
Patent Flour." 

"Didn't you hear that 'ere horn?" 
screamed the woman, with a rising in- 
flection in each word. 


"Where you been?" 


"Don't tell me no lie, Tim Spratt; 
you've been whimpering over there at 
your ma's grave. I'm your ma, now, 
and it ain't respectin' to me. I tol' you 
to keep them crows outen that corn- 

The woman turned and began to 
hang the washing on the line that was 
already sagging with its burden. Her 
face relaxed a little, for behind her mas- 
culine features the characteristics of 
her sex existed. She did not intend 
to be harsh with Alec's boy. She did 
not know that any reference to the dead 
mother was like driving a knife into his 
heart; but, like many of the mountain 
women, she entertained the idea that 
to show kindness to a boy, would not 
only unfit him for the duties and respon- 
sibilities of citizenship, but would be 
a flagrant violation of Christian duty. 
The last garment was pinned upon the 
line, and Anna complacently surveyed 
her morning's work, as she wiped the 
perspiration from her forehead. 

Meanwhile Tim had been sitting on 

a tub, with a thoughtful expression 
upon his face. 

"What are you thinkin' about, 
Tim?" asked Anna. 

"What would a tombstone cost?" 
replied the boy, ignoring the question. 

"Land sakes!" exclaimed Anna, 
scrutinizing him. " Is the boy gone 
plumb distracted ? Child, what 's ailing 

Tim never answered, but gazed in- 
tently at a distant poplar tree that 
lifted its branches high in the air, as 
though it were the sentinel of the forest. 

"I don't believe in tombstones," 
returned Anna. "What good does it 
do dead folks to have rocks with writin' 
on 'em set up at their graves? 'Tain't 
no good to them; they don't know 
nothin' 'bout it." 

After delivering herself of this bit of 
philosophy, and endeavoring to discern 
its effect upon Tim, Anna entered the 
cabin to prepare the noonday meal. 

The boy remained seated on the in- 
verted tub. The stepmother's reason- 
ing had failed to convince him. His 
mind went back to a girl from the val- 
ley, who had taught the mountain 
school the winter previous. Tim re- 
garded her as the fountain of all knowl- 
edge; and on Friday afternoons when 
the young teacher devoted the last 
hour of the day to reading to her pupils, 
the child sat with bated breath listen- 
ing to the tales of the great world that 
stretched away from the Smoky Moun- 
tains to unknown boundaries. In his 
imagination he built a thousand great 
stone castles upon his native mountains 
and he extended the boundaries of the 
little village of Watigo until it ap- 
proached the size of a metropolis. In 
his dreams he would be Daniel Boone 
one day, and the next he would be 
Custer, fighting Indians in the bound- 
less West; and again, he would be the 
sole passenger upon a storm-swept ship, 
braving the fury of the tempestuous 

But the problem that was perplexing 
Tim as he sat upon the tub was, how 
could he erect a monument at his 
mother's grave? He wondered what 
Daniel Boone would have done under 



similar circumstances, of whether the 
happy Hiawatha could have solved the 
problem. Suddenly there flashed into 
his brain a new idea. In going over his 
list of books and placing every avail- 
able character in the light of a moun- 
tain boy who wished to place a monu- 
ment to one, "who never did go no 
further than Watigo," he remembered 
the saying of Franklin, that the gods 
of success smile only on those who 
help themselves. The words sang 
themselves over and over again in his 
mind. At length he jumped off the 
tub and vanished round the corner of 
the calDin. 

In the house his stepmother was 
busy with the dinner. The smell of 
cabbage pervaded the room. She lifted 
the tin cover and stirred the pot, say- 
ing : " I do wonder what ails Tim o' late ; 
he acts so queer." She looked out the 
window, but Tim was nowhere to be 
seen. " Hit's just like a boy, alius gone 
when you have need of 'em, and for- 
ever stuck under your foot when you 
don't need 'em." 

She went to the door, and her shrill 
voice echoed the name of the child from 
hill to hill. Then she seized the horn 
and blew an ear-splitting blast, but the 
echo only mocked her in the far dis- 
tance. " If you ain't a mind to come 
to your dinner, you can jist stay away," 
muttered the woman, as she angrily 
hung the horn in its place. 

One o'clock, two o'clock passed, and 
still no sign of Tim. She began to be 
uneasy. She knew Alec would never 
forgive her if anything happened to 
his boy. 

"I'll I'arnthe young'un how to pester 
me," she muttered, as she tied the 
strings of her sun-bonnet and started 
in the direction of the large poplar tree. 

As she neared the place that had 
such a peculiar fascination for the boy, 
she saw him seated on the ground, 
busy with something. She cautiously 
stole closer, Tim was seated on 
the ground, and before him was a 
large soap-stone on which the tyro 
sculptor was working. It was rec- 
tangular in shape, and two of its cor- 
ners had been cut off. The gray- 
stone had been polished as nearly 
smooth as Tim with his clumsy instru- 
ments could make it, and he was now 
engaged in making the letters. The 
stepmother crouched on the ground 
and a deathly paleness came over her 

The boy, unaware that he was 
watched, went on with his work. The 
last irregular letter had been carved 
with the nail, and the stone was set in 
position at the head of the grave, on 
which the blue-tinted wild violets bent 
their heads, as though they were na- 
ture's mourners for the dead. The 
slate-colored dirt was packed tightly 
at the foot of the stone, and the work 
was done, Tim stood back some 
distance and viewed the stone. " It 
ain't as good as I'd like," he said to 

This was the inscription: 






A smothered sob burst from the 
bosom of the stepmother, a pair of 
arms clad in red grasped convulsively 
a small figure, and a trembling voice 
wailed: "0, Timmie, I ain't know'd 
you afore. God forgive me for my 
roughness to Mary's child! " 

H'm, Yes! 

'^OOME rich men's sons" — the Old Codger's rheumatism was hectoring 
*^ him more mercilessly than common — "are bom degenerates, some 

achieve breach-of-promise suits, and others teach Sabbath-school classes 

Greensboro, Ala. 
Hon Tom Watson, New York. N. Y 

Dear Sir: Believing you to be a man fearless 
in expressing your opinion, I write to ask if you 
believe the United States is justifiable in retaining 
the Philippines. 

Anything you write will be greatly appreciated. 


This Republic has no business whatever 
with a Colonial empire; therefore we have 
no business in the Philippines. 

Our record there, ever since Dewey, with 
his first-class ships battered down those old 
rotten Spanish forts and old rotten Spanish 
tubs, has been one long shameful series of 
blunder, extravagance, mismanagement, 
rapine, and brutal slaughter. 

If this Government could prevail upon 
Japan to accept the Philippines as "a gra- 
cious gift," it would be the act of wise states- 
manship to make that disposition of our 
white elephant. 

MiLLSAP, Texas. 
Mr Tom Watson, New York City. 

Dear Sir: Please answer the following ques- 
tions in the Educational Department of your 
Magazine : 

(i) Give reasons whether the Parcels Post 
Bill would or would not benefit the farmer. 

(2) Same with reference to the little retail 

(3) Could and how would the Government get 
the same rate from the railroad companies that 
the express companies enjoy? 

The Parcels Post would hurt no legitimate 
business or profit. It would simply restore 
a public utility to the public and would say 
to the over-fat express companies: "You've 
had enough; let the people now enjoy what 
is theirs." 

(3) By refusing to pay more. The 
Government has the power to compel the 
corporations to give us decent treatment, 
but the trouble is that the corporations run 
the Government. Roosevelt's Cabinet is a 
Corporation Cabinet; the United States 
Senate is a Corporation Senate; the domi- 
nant clique in the Republican House of Rep- 
resentatives is a corporation clique; and 
the Democratic minority therein is led by a 
corporation tool, John Sharp Williams. So, 
you see, the Government lets the corpora- 
tions rob the people because the Govern- 
ment and the corporations are at present 
one and the same. 

Unless the people rouse themselves and 
make a change all the way up from the very 
foundation, the corporations will continue 
to rule and to rob. 

Louisville, Ga. 
Hon. Thos. E. Watson, Thotnson, Ga. 

Dear Sir: I have read with interest every 
copy of your magazine, especially your editorials. 

Will you kindly explain to us, through your 
Educational Department, what Mr Jay W. 
Forrest means by Direct Nomination, the Initia- 
tive and Referendtim, Municipal and Government 

(i) The Parcels Post would benefit 
every farmer, and every other citizen who 
sends or receives packages by express. _ It 
simply cheapens the rate of transportation. 
Instead of paying to the express company 
for carriage one-half of the value of the 
package received or sent, as we now often do, 
we would pay the Government according 
to the real cost of service and therefore save 
millions to the people. 

(2) It would not hurt "the little retail 
merchant." It would help him. He could 
keep in stock hundreds of articles supplied 
by the department stores of the great cities, 
and his customers would buy these articles 
from him, at a moderate profit, rather than 
take the time and trouble to order them 

What Mr. Forrest means is that the reins 
of Government shall be taken out of the 
hands of wire-pullers, back-room caucuses, 
star-chamber conspirators, and convention 
thimble-riggers. He means that the people 
themselves shall take hold of the lines, and 


He means that the public shall not be 
eternally kept waiting the pleasure of the 
Legislature to pass a desired law. He means 
that the power of the corporations to buy 
up members of the Legislatixre and thus 
kill good laws or secure bad ones shall be 
destroyed. He means that when a certain 
percentage of the population of a given 
state, for example, desires a certain law they 
shall have the right to sign a Petition to that 
effect, and this petition shall be mandatory 



to the extent of compelling the Legislature 
to submit the proposed law to a vote of the 
people of that state. This is the initiative. 

The people begin, initiate, their own laws, 
without having to wait till the Legislature 
does it The proposed law having been re- 
ferred back to all the voters of the state, it 
is voted for on its own merits, free from all 
entangling complications. This referring 
of the law to a direct vote of the qualified 
voters, to be accepted or rejected, is the 

The principle of the thing is perfectly 
sound, and no man who favors popular self- 
government can think up a single objection 
to it. 

Direct nominations of candidates for office 
is the application of the same principle to the 
selection of those who shall represent us in 
the carrying on of our Government. 

In theory "we, the people," rule the 
Republic. In practice, "we, the people, " cut 
no ice at all. Two men, Thomas Ryan and 
August Belmont, both of Wall Street, con- 
trol that vast army of our fellow-citizens 
who call themselves the Democratic Party. 
What Ryan and Belmont agree on in secret 
is afterwards shouted for in public by hun- 
dreds of Democratic orators, is afterwards 
written for by hvmdreds of the doodle Demo- 
cratic editors. 

What E. H. Harriman, J. P. Morgan and 
H. H. Rogers, all of Wall Street, agree on in 
private becomes the public slogan of that 
other vast army of our fellow-citizens which 
is known as the Republican Party. 

The men of the rank and file in either 
army have no more to do with the line of 
march, the management of the campaign, 
and the objects aimed at in the struggle, than 
the humblest peasant of the Russian empire 
who was conscripted from his hut, torn from 
his family, pitched into a cattle-car, carried 
off to Manchuria, and made to fight the Japs 
who had never done him any harm. 

Mr. Forrest means to do all in his power 
to give to each citizen of our country that 
share in the control of the Government 
which is his right and which his own inter- 
ests demand that he should have. 

Albany, Ga. 
Hon. Thomas E. Watson, Thomson, Ga. 

Dear Sir: Much was published last year about 
the "massacres" in Russia of the Jews by the 
Gentiles. These reports made people believe that 
Russian Gentiles were massacreing the Russian 
Jews without cause. Were these published re- 
ports true? If they were not, what caused the 
trouble between the two races in Russia? Please 
reply in next issue of your Magazine. 


There seem to be several causes contribut- 
ing to the massacres of the Jews in Russia. 

Race-prejudice is one of these; religious 
fanaticism is another. Political differences 
may likewise be involved. 

The author of the book of travels," Down 

the Danube," says that the antipathy of the 
government to the Jew is that the Jew is a 
money-lending parasite, who feeds on the 
ignorant peasantry and devours their sub- 
stance. Some curious and interesting de- 
tails are given in the book. 

Westfield, N. Y. 
Hon. Thos. E. Watson, Thomson. Ga. 

Dear Sir: Will you please give me your opinion 
on the following subjects through your Magazine? 

What were the methods used in the arrest of the 
leaders of the Western Federation of Miners? 
The Ohio Liberty Belt says, " Damnable were the 
tactics employed in kidnapping ^loyer. Hayward 
and Pettibone." Would like to know how it was 

In your opinion was Samuel J. Tilden elected 
President in 1876? 

Are the English Cabinet officers elected by the 
people, or are they appointed? 


(i) Where a citizen of one state is arrest- 
ed by virtue of a warrant charging him with 
the commission of a felony in another state, 
it is the rule that extradition is applied for 
and granted. That is to say, one state asks 
and obtains the permission of another state 
before taking the citizen out of the one state 
into the other. 

In the case referred to, this rule was not 
observed. The accused men were arrested 
in Colorado, accused of murder in Idaho, and 
immediately taken from Colorado to Idaho 
for trial. Apparently there was collusion 
between the prosecution and the governors 
of the two states, the effect of which was to 
do away with any technical stay of proceed- 
ings in Colorado, and to hurry the accused 
at once to the court, which alone has the 
jurisdiction of the case, for trial on its merits. 

(2) Yes. 

(3) Whenever a majority vote is given 
by the House of Commons against the 
Cabinet (Government, as it is called.) on a 
matter of importance, the Cabinet hands in 
its resignation to the King, and the King 
calls upon the most prominent leader of the 
majority party to "form a Government." 

This leader then selects from the majority 
faction the influential men to fill the various 
Cabinet positions. 

Sometimes when the King has called upon 
a leader to form a new Cabinet, he is unable 
to do so, in which case tlie former Cabinet 
resumes the helm until something more 
decisive occurs. 

Again, the Cabinet may be the result of a 
combination of two or three smaller political 
parties against one which is in itself larger 
than any one party composing the combi- 

Thus the Salisbury administration (A.ris- 
tocratic) was able to maintain itself against 
the Gladstonians (Liberals) by forming a 
combination with the extreme radicals 
of Joseph Chamberlain. 

Thus Great Britain was ruled for many 
years by a Cabinet which in some respects 



was the essence of Toryism and Imperialism, 
while in others it was almost, if not quite, 

In other words, the British Cabinet 
stands or falls upon Parliamentary majori- 
ties. Therefore the Government more near- 
ly represents the people than ours, where a 
Trust-made Cabinet and a Trust-made 
Senate override the House of Representa- 
tives, and override the people. 

Ellaville. Ga. 
Hon. Thomas E. Watson, Thomson-. Ga. 

(i) Do you believe the farmers, through the 
Cotton Association, ever control the price of cotton, 
or the wheat farmers control the price of wheat, 
by simply organizing, under the present monetary 
system ? 

(2) Won't it be necessary for the government 
to issue the money (gold, silver and non-interest 
bearing government notes, as the greenback) 
for supply and demand to control the prices of 
cotton, wheat and other things.? 

(3) Don't the trust control tb.e price of cotton 
and wheat? 

(4) Can't the bankers increa:,e the amount of 
money in circulation and make the money market 
so easy tha4; speculation will become rampant and 
values rise, then contract it or decrease the amount 
of circulation, thereby making it so tight till 
prices take a tumble? 

(5) Is it not useless to try to fight the trust, 
with the present monetary system? 

(i) No matter what the money system 
may be, if the farmers refuse to sell cotton 
and wheat below a certain price they will 
surely get that price, for the reason thai, the 
world cannot go on without food and cloth- 

(2) In order for the law of Supply and 
Demand to control the cotton and wheat 
market absolutely, two things would ''^ 
necessary; First the Trust, which can limit 
the home demand by limiting the output of 
manufactured articles, would have to be 
smashed, and the Speculation in Futures 
would have to be stopped. One_ great 
trouble with the cotton situation is that 
our damnable Tariff shuts out foreign goods, 
thereby limits the purchasing _ capacity of 
our people and the selling capacity of foreign 
people, and thus reduces the demand for 
cotton all over the world. If it were not 
for our high Tariff on foreign goods, manu- 
factured products would be cheaper, a 
greater amount could be bought, a larger 
crop of cotton consumed, and therefore a 
better price obtained. 

The volume of money controls the price 
of products, but has nothing to do with the 
law of Supply and Demand, as applied to 
those products. In other words, when the 
volume of currency is once fixed, be it large 
or small, the law of Supply and Demand 
applies to cotton and wheat just as well 
under the small volume as under the large. 

But, of course, the law of Supply and 
Demand applies also to money, and when 

the volume of money is small the demand for 
it is greater, and therefore the amount of 
cotton and wheat which you must part with 
to get a dollar is greater than when the vol- 
ume of currency is large. 

All other things being equal, a doubling of 
the amount of money in circulation doubles 
the prices of products, and vice versa. 

(3) Only to the extent already indicated 
in No. 2. 

(4) Yes. 

(5) No. The two great levers by which 
the Trust has moved the commercial world 
have been the favoritism shown them by the 
transportation companies, and our Tariff 
system, which shuts out the competition of 
foreign capital, while the open door of immi- 
gration lets in hordes of foreign laborers. 

If the government owned the railroads 
and ran them without favor and discrimina- 
tion; and if we had Free Trade in the neces- 
saries of life, the Trusts would collapse. 

El Reno, O. T. 
Honorable Thomas E. Watson, Thomson, Ga. 

Respected Friend: Referring to your answer 
to your Georgia correspondent in your Magazine 
for March that "the South had a right to withdraw 
from a voluntary compact whose terms had not been 
kept," in regard to which I desire to emphasize 
your later statement, without any intention to add 
to the fierce and unreasonable contentions of that 

For the reason that the future has in store public 
problems needing intelligent solution, identical 
with the question tmder consideration, I desire 
to call your attention to an item that, so far as I 
am aware, has been overlooked. ^ 

I concede as reasonable the view that the Con- 
stitution of that time recognized slavery, although 
the farmers hid that provision behind the words 
persons and service; that the agitators of the North 
were imlawfully demanding the abolition of slavery 
without "just compensation," and that a number 
of Northern states passed laws in violation of the 
Constitution, that m general a spirit was mani- 
fested in the North that was violating the spirit 
and the letter of the supreme law of the land. 

But, was the South justified in going to the 
other extreme by haughtily refusing to consider 
any compensation — in effect denying that thai part 
of the Constitution could ever be changed; when, 
in fact. Article 5 provides for the right to amend 
the whole instrument, with two exceptions then 
in force, but subject also to change by a reason- 
able construction? 

Such spirit in the South was bad enough, but it 
is even worse. One of the pledges of the Treaty 
of Ghent of 18 14 solemnly entered into was that 
both parties to the treaty engaged themselves to 
abolish slavery within their territory as soon as 
possible; and history informs us that even "per- 
fidious Albion" did so do in about 1835 without 
any bloodshed. 

Now, here I arise to inquire were those in au- 
thority from 1 8 14 to the Civil War bo careless as 
to not know this, or were they so vicious that they 
did not want to know; for the Constitution de- 
clares that all treaties in harmony with the former 
shall be as binding as the Constitution itself, and 
yet I have not found any record on the pages of 
history that any national Executive of that time 
had called the attention of Congress to such obli- 
gations, or that Congress has debated the matter 
from that standpoint, nor were any efforts made 
by the proper authorities to abrogate that part of 



the treaty — nay, even the highest representative 
tribunal of the land going so far as to declare that 
the slave "had no rights which white people were 
bound to respect " 

In all candor do I admit that the slave of that 
time and under that law had no other right than 
the right to Life, but such a sweeping decision, 
denying all rights, was an act of partisan insanity. 

Thus did North and South violate a solemn 
pledge to earth and heaven. Such xmreasonable 
positions on both sides would have led to bloody 
strife even after peaceful separation and thus 
widened the gulf between them; wise will be the 
coming generations if they profit by the bitter 
experience of the past to avoid the errors thereof. 

O Columbia, that thou hadst barkened to God's 
commandment! Then "had thy peace been as 
a river, and they righteousness as the waves of the 


It is true that the Treaty of Ghent con- 
tained the provision referred to, but it is also 
true that this provision was never regarded 
as creating a binding obligation upon the 
two nations concerned. It was recommen- 
datory, only. 

First, the Commissioners who were sent 
out by the United States and Great Britain, 
respectively, to arrange terms of peace had 
no authority to deal with the subject of 
slavery at all. That subject had not been 
one of the causes of war, and had in no man- 
ner become an issue between the belliger- 

Consequently the Agents of the two na- 
tions had no more authority to bind their 
Principals on the subject of slavery than they 
did to change the land-laws, or to establish 
free trade, or to declare that the two nations 
should at the earliest practicable moment 
abolish the liquor traffic. 

Second. While it is true that our Senate 
ratified the treaty and thus made it a law, 
this law, like all others, was inferior to the 

In other words, the Constitution is our 
supreme law, and it cannot be changed by 
the senatorial ratification of a treaty. 

Third. Great Britain, the other party to 
the contract, alone had the right to enforce it 
if it was a binding obligation; and Great 
Britain never did pay any more attention to 
that clause of the treaty than the United 
States did. Upon the contrary, when our 
deplorable Civil War broke out. Great Brit- 
ain sympathized with the South, and her 
most enlightened statesman, Gladstone, 
was a pro-Southern sympathizer, although 
personally in favor of Emancipation. 

Fourth. England abolished slavery peace- 
fully, just as we would have done had not 
the aspirants for political power aroused 
sectional hatreds over the question, but 
Great Britain did not abolish slavery because 
of the Treaty of Ghent. If any of the British 
agitators for Emancipation — Wilberforce, 
Macaulay, Clarke, etc. — even so much as 
mentioned the Treaty of Ghent, I never 
heard of it. 

Fifth. Although the legal recognition of, 
and legal protection to, slavery was made a 
condition precedent to the adoption of the 
Constitution, and although it would have been 
rank perfidy to have violated this condition 
precedent, yet the requisite number of states 
could, by Constitutional Amendment, have 
decreed the freedom of the slaves — just com- 
pensation being provided for. 

But, so far as I know, the North never 
proposed to abolish slavery in that way. 
The Abolitionists claimed that Congress had 
the power to do what they wanted. Admit- 
ting that the supreme law of the land was 
against them, they denounced the Constitu- 
tion, and appealed to what they called "the 
higher law. 

It was this attitude of lawlessness, this de- 
termination to have their own way anyhow, 
regardle.:3 of contract or law, which created 
the furious hatreds which germinated the 
Civil War. 

That there were hot-heads on both sides, 
is true. The reckless politician who stakes 
his own fortune upon the game of human 
passion, is not peculiar to the North or to the 
South, to England or to America. History 
knows him well. 

Sixth. It is not true that the "highest 
tribunal of the land" went so far as to de- 
clare that the "slave had no rights which the 
white people were bound to respect." 

That statement is merely an old campaign 
yam which I thought had been cast aside 
decades ago. 

The Dred Scott decision, to which refer- 
ence is made, contains no such language as 
that, and no language from which such a con- 
clusion can be legitimately drawn. 

The Dred Scott case was brought to test 
what is known as the Missouri Compromise. 
_ Stripped of law phrases, the court's deci- 
sion amounted to this: that the slave, Dred 
Scott, did not become a free man (and there- 
fore a citizen) by reason of the fact that he 
had been carried to what was claimed to 
be the "freedom" side of the alleged Com- 
promise line. 

The court having found Dred Scott a slave 
left him a slave : it did not hash up a bit of 
"judge-made" law, as is often done, and 
transform him into a citizen clothed with the 
rights of a free citizen. 

That is all. 

But the extreme Abolitionists were so 
incensed by the decision that they denounced 
in the most savage terms Chief Justice 
Taney, one of the purest men that ever wore 
the ermine, and declared that he had de- 
cided that "a slave had no rights which the 
white man was bound to respect." 

Seventh. It is not true that the slave 
"at that time and under that law" had no 
other right than the right to life. 

Both in practice and in law — especially in 
practice! — he had other very precious rights 
which were universally respected; and the 
statutes of the South as to slave labor will 
not suffer very much when compared coolly 



and carefully with the statutory regulations, 
which New England applied to the white ser- 

The letter which I have thus answered at 
length interested me deeply, for, unless I am 
much in error, it was written by a well posted 
gentleman, who has been honestly misled 
on certain important points, but whose mind 
is open to conviction and whose heart is free 
from sectional hate. 

My sincere respects to him ! 

Under cover with this I am sending a marked 
circular I received from a prominent banking firm 
of New York, Boston and Chicago. It is generally 
supposed that National Bank currency is all 
backed up by United States bonds. I was sur- 
prised to learn that such was not the case, as is 
publicly annovmced by this banking firm. Now 
what I desire to know is : Is there law for this and, 
iif so, when was it passed; what are the restrictions 
or limitations of said law (if any)? Also what 
power or official has authority to say what bonds 
or securities are available for National Bank 
issues? If Chicago Sanitary District bonds are 
good security for National Bank currency, why 
not first-class farm mortgages and other 
unperishable property? Again, if only favorites are 
used in this way and "high financiers" are given 
a monopoly of this queer business, who can say 
how much currency is afloat based on steel, ship 
builders and other Standard Oil, Wall Street 
bonds? Please enlighten me on these points and 
by so doing I feel confident you will at the same 
time enlighten many others as ignorant on these 
points as myself. 


The notes issued by the National Banks 
must be secured by government bonds. No 
other security than the bonds of the Federal 
Government can be used. 

But when the Secretary of the Treasury 
lends money out of the Treasury to his Na- 
tional bank pets, he accepts as security for 
the loan any kind of bonds that are satisfac- . 
tory to him. 

It was thus that the Chicago Sanitary Dis- 
trict bonds got into the clover. 

The Pets now have $66,000,000 of Treas- 
ury money which they borrow from the 
Secretary, paying no interest and secured by 
any sort of collateral that Mr. Shaw thinks 

DoANS, Ind. 

Hon. Thomas E. Watson, Thomson, Ga. 

Dear Sir; I read the Educational Depart- 
ment of the Magazine and get much valuable 
information therefrom. Will you please give a 
few strong points on the affirmative of the fol- 
lowing question; Resolved, That the United 
States will perish as other great nations have done. 
Are there any factors or mfluences which caused 
the downfall of other nations to be seen at work 
now in the United States? 


History teaches us that the ruin of na- 
tions has been caused by misgovemment, 
the concentration of wealth, the abuse of 

Special Privilege, the unequal imposition 
of taxes, the exercise by favored classes of 
the powers of government to oppress and 
plunder other classes, the consequent im- 
poverishment and degradation of the working 
classes, together with the increase of the idle 
rich who become immoral and imbecile. 

If you will read Mommsen's History of 
Rome you will be struck by the similarity of 
social and political conditions which pre- 
ceded the downfall of Rome and the condi- 
tions which now prevail in our own Repub- 

Nothing can be more certain than that we 
are following the beaten track of Class Leg- 
islation and reckless class-rule which en- 
tombed the great nations of antiquity. 

New Castle, Pa. 
Hon. Thomas E. Watson, Neiv York. 

My Dear Sir: I happen to be one of those 
yaps who helped organize the People's Party at 
Omaha, Nebraska, in 1892. I was again sent to 
St. Louis in '96. I was bug-house enough to be 
for Norton and Watson, for which I have never 
had sense enough to offer any apology. At date 
I happen to be a rural mail carrier I would like 
to know how I could get your speech on rural mail 
delivery which you made while in Congress, or I 
would prefer to have you express yourself on the 
subject in your Magazme. 

The speech referred to merely called atten- 
tion to the injustice of delivering the mails 
free of charge to the people of the cities, 
while the inhabitants of rural commtmities 
were deprived of that benefit. 

You will find the debate in the Congres- 
sional Record of February 17, 1S93. 

RoswELL, New Mexico. 
Honorable Thomas E. Watson. 

Can you find out for me the cost of carrying the 
mail from Amarillo to Pecos through Pecos 
Valley? Roswell is the largest town in the Val- 
ley. I have stated, if it could be known, that the 
Government paid the Santa Fd for carrying the 
mails enough to pay cost of the train. Hope you 
can give the information, as it will aid me very 
much in advocating Government ownership, 
which I think is growing here. 

The Government pays $25,548. 72 per an- 
num for the carrying of the mail once a day 
each way, excepting Sunday, over the line 
referred to — a distance of 371.07 miles. 

Vincent, Ala. 
Hon. Thomas E. Watson, Thomson, Ga. 

Dear Sir: Being a subscriber to your Mag- 
azine, and very much interested in the Educa- 
tional Department, I request answers to the fol- 
lowing questions: 

(i) Was King George HI of England any 
more humiliating to the American people in 
1770-1779 than John D. Rockefeller in 1900-1906? 

(2) If any, give the difference between "Gov 
emment ownership" and "Socialism " 

(3) With their present progress how long will 



it take for J D Rockefeller and other financiers 
to own the United States? 

(4) Can a man be a Christian and support a 
system which permits him to charge his fellow-man 
rents ? 

If we had a sufficient legal tender paper cur- 
rency I can see no reason of having free coinage of 
gold, but so long as the whole world accepts gold 
I can see no harm or danger in free coinage as long 
as we do not increase its value or purchasing power 
by the coinage. 

(i) No. 

(2) "Government Ownership" is a term 
applied to the ownership by the state of such 
Public Utilities as railroads, telegraphs, 
telephones, etc. "Socialism" is the term 
applied to the doctrine of collective owner- 
ship of both public and private utilities and 

(3) Couldn't answer this unless you put 
some limit to the "other financiers." If the 
system of big fish eating little fish keeps on 
at its present gait there will come a time 
when there will not be any "others." 

(4) If he tries right hard he can. "Rent" 
is nothing more than the hire which you pay 
for the use of something which belongs to 
somebody else. 

Does a Christian fall from grace because 
he charges his fellow man a reasonable price 
for the use of his mule? If I use your team 
to do my hatding, should I have you re- 
ported to the church because yoxi want me 
to pey you for the use of your team ? 

Suppose I have no horse to plow my land 
and that you have a horse which you are 
willing that I should use to make my crop. 
Don't you think you can charge me reason- 
able hire for the horse and still be a lover of 
the Lord? 

Well, the hire of the horse is but another 
name for Rent. Words ought not to be 
allowed to muddy the water. Rent is hire 
and hire is rent! When you bear this in 
mind you will perhaps realize that no good 
Christian would want to dead-beat his 
neighbor out of the use of his ox, his donkey, 
his mule, his horse, his house or his farm. 

Good luck to you. 

Dublin, G.\. 
Hon. Thomas E. Watson, Thomson, Ga. 

De.\r Sir- I am trying to get at the truth of 
this money question. I see no reason why the 
Government cannot make paper, gold or iron 
money, and, beUeve, with you, that the Govern- 
ment should issue the money. And I can easily see 
that paper would answer every purpose and be 
vastly better and more economical than gold or 
silver. I can understand that, because of the 
demand for gold due to the world-wide use of it as 
money, we can have unlimited coinage. But I 
cannot understand how we can have imlimited 
coinage of silver any more than we could have 
unlimited coinage of iron or of paper. If the Gov- 
ernment is tS take silver from the miner, that is 
worth approximately fifty cents, and by stamping 
it and giving it the legal tender quality and re- 
turn it to him, why not do as well by the men who 
produce copper or nickel? Why not say to the 
copper miner, "Bring us your metal and we will 
stamp it and return it to you with an exchange 
value increased 100 per cent."? 

I am in hearty sympathy with your work, and 
Ihis free coinage is about the only point where I 
cannot agree with you. 

There is no difference, in principle, be- 
tween the free coinage of gold and the free 
coinage of silver, or the free coinage of copper. 

The "custom of nations" gave the pref- 
erence to silver and gold for money uses, the 
use of silver as a medium of exchange pre- 
ceding that of gold. "The money of the 
merchant" was first silver, then gold. 
When our forefathers came to frame our own 
government, after the Revolutionary War, 
they adopted what was then the "custom 
of nations " — the use of both silver and gold 
as money metals tipon equal terms, according 
to the mercantile proportion of value then 
prevailing. All political parties agreed to 
this. Washington, Hamilton, Jefferson, 
Morris worked together in harmony to fix 
the monetary system which gave us the Bi- 
metallic Standard, with the silver dollar as 
"the unit of money." This monetary system, 
embedded in the Constitution, was practiced 
by the United States for nearly one hundred 
years. Then the British financiers secured by 
imderhand methods the omission of the silver 
dollar from the Coinage Acts of 1S73-1874, 
and ever since that time our financial system 
has been more or less unsettled. We cranks 
and fools — us Pops — merely say that the 
money system of the Constitution should 
be restored to the status fixed by our fore- 

As to the value of silver and gold it must 
be evident to all that if Great Britain and 
the United States — to say nothing of other 
nations — -declare by law and custom that an 
ounce of gold shall be coined, freely, into a 
certain sum of legal tender money, the ounce 
of gold will always be worth that amount of 
money as long as the commercial world can 
absorb that amoimt of money. 


Because tlte law creates a Demand for gold 
at that price. Now if the law did precisely 
the same thing for silver the results would be 
precisely the same. And as to copper, or 
any other metal, the same thing would be 
true, for the reason that the situation would 
be controlled by a law which is as undeviat- 
ins and irresistible as that of gravitation. 

Ar.\p.ahoe, Neb. 
Hon. Thomas E. Watson, Thomson, Ga. 

I wish to know what kind of a head this govern- 
ment has, any way. Our Uncle Samuel made an 
exhibit at the Portland, Oregon, Fair He had a 
showcase labeled " Legal tender coins of the 
United States." It contained the copper cent, 
the nickel five cent, the silver dime, quarter and 
half dollar pieces and, of course, the gold coins 
But the silver dollar did not appear to my gaze. 

I understand that the last two administrations 
at Washington have coined about 400,000,000 of 



dollars. These same silver dollars, the present 
administration says by that exhibit, are not a legal 
tender. Will you please find out and tell us why 
the great McKinley and the greatest Teddie have 
coined so many of these worthless coins? What 
kind of a trust-busting, trust-supporting head is 
our Uncle wearing? What authority has this ad- 
ministration or any other for coining silver that 
is not legal tender? 

And lastly, what authority have they for omit- 
ting the silver dollar in the exhibit? 

No exhibit of legal tender coins can be 
complete which omits the silver dollar. 

All standard silver dollars are legal tender 
for all debts, public and private, excepting 
where otherwise stipulated in the contract. 

From the beginning of President McKin- 
ley 's administration down to December 31, 
1904, the number of silver dollars coined by 
the United States mints was $123,954,219. 
These silver dollars are coined from silver 
bullion purchased under what is known as 
the Sherman Act of July 14, 1890. 

The silver dollars take their place as a 
part of the circulating medium of the coun- 

I do not know why the exhibit of legal 
tender coins at Portland Fair does not in- 
clude the standard silver dollar, any more 
than I understand why the Government, in 
scaling the postal expenses, pinched a mil- 
lion dollars off the Rural Free Delivery ser- 
vice and added .three millions to the loot 
which the railroads get. 

Walla Walla, Wash., December 3, 1905. 
Hon. Thomas E. Watson 

Dear Sir: I am a constant reader of your po- 
litical Magazine. Will you kindly answer follow- 
ing questions: If the Trust Monopoly could be 
brought to realize the absurdity of their electing 
U S. Senators to promote their interests, would 
any harm result in having the people themselves 
elect U. S. Senators by a popular direct vote? 

(2) Is it right to purchase home-made material for 
the Panama canal construction if foreign material 
is to be had of equal quality at a far less expense? 

Will the resources of our nation warrant pro- 
curing home-made material ? 

If you have time and space in your political 
Magazine you would indeed oblige undersigned 
by explainmg those two questions. 
Very respectfully, 


(i) Whenever the Trusts realize that it is 
absurd to elect Senators to promote their 
interests they will certainly quit it. But 
while the wickedness of the thing is apparent 
to all, there is no absurdity about it. The 
Trust Senators do just what the Trusts want 
them to do. The Trust method of filling 
the United States with their own lawyers, 
directors, shareholders and corrupt politi- 
cians is very wicked, but it is very successful. 
In that >vay the Trusts govern and rob the 

(2) There would be no harm in having 
the senators elected by popular vote. It 

would be the very best thing that could 
happen. But it isn't going to happen until 
the common people get so thoroughly 
aroused against the despotism of the Trusts 
that the Bosses become alarmed, and grant 
reforms lest Revolution descend upon them. 

(3) In the construction of the Panama 
Canal it is not right to purchase home-made 
material when foreign-made material, equally 
good, can be had much cheaper. But the 
home-made goods will continue to be bought, 
all the same. The Trusts which control the 
manufacturing establishments will see to 
that, for they control the administration. 
Mr. Roosevelt's Letter of Acceptance dis- 
tinctly declared in favor of Tariff Revision; 
but the stand-patters have got control of 
him now, and he is standing very pat, indeed. 

(4) The resources of the nation do not 
warrant the purchase of home-made material 
when we have to pay more for it than for- 
eigners have to pay, and when the system 
under which this is done has already given 
us a pauper list of three millions and a 
millionaire list of five thousand. 

Calhoun, Ga. 

Honorable Thomas Watson. 

Dear Sir: I have been told that in Germany, 
whose government controls the railroads, the 
freight and passenger rates are higher than in the 
United States. Is this true? 

I am delighted with Watson's Magazine. 
It grows better with each number. 

In Germany the service is classified and 
the rates vary accordingly. If you ride 
first class, where it is said that "noblemen, 
Americans and fools" ride, you will pay 
more than the ordinary fare in this country. 
If you ride second class where the accom- 
modations are just as good and where the 
average citizen rides you will pay less. Be- 
sides, you will ride safely. 

German railroads are not in the business 
of human butchery as ours are. During the 
last five years in which our railroads slaugh- 
tered forty thousand men, women and chil- 
dren — not counting those wounded — the 
German roads killed less than a hundred. 

But our roads are run for dividends. The 
Wall Street rascals who operate them find it 
cheaper to murder their passengers by crim- 
inal negligence than to equip their roads 
according to the European standard of 

Magnolia, Lakin County, Ky., 
October 14, 1^05. 
Hon. Thomas E. Watson. 

Dear Sir: Will you be so kind as to answer in 
the Educational Department of Tom Watson's 
Magazine for November, the following question 
or questions? 

In 1848 to 1850 there was a great output of gold 
from the mines of California and Australia, and it 
became so plentiful that many of the European 
governments demonetized it in 1856 and 1857 
because it had depreciated in value. In 1904 the 



Democratic Party, and W. J. Bryan has since, con- 
tended that the gold standard should be continued 
because there is such an enormous output of gold 
at present, particularly from the Klondike mines 
and other places. If it was demonetized in 
1856-57 on account of the great output, why 
should it not be demonetized for the same reason 
at the present time? 

Most respectfully, 


If the output of gold should continue to 
increase, you may be sure that the Masters 
of High Finance will soon take steps to 
counteract the natural consequences of this 
inflation of the currency. 

Already they have partially neutralized 
the effect of the increased gold supply by 
compelling the Government to keep $100,- 
000,000 of idle gold in the Treasury. Thus 
they render it useless and non-competitive. 
The recent Convention of the Bankers Asso- 
ciation suggested that the sum of idle, use- 
less gold in the Treasury be increased to 

In this manner they expect to kill ofl the 
competition of that amount of "real money" 
(see the orthodox Press) with their own 
"rag money." 

Nothing is more certain than that the 
sudden discovery of such an additional 
amount of gold as would increase the cur- 
rency to $50 per capita would again cause the 
financiers to declare war upon gold and 
demonetize it. 

All the arguments which cuckoos, parrots, 
monkeys, idiots and party-fanatics made 
agamst silver would be made against gold. 
The word silver would take the place of the 
word gold as "sound money"; the word gold 
would take the place of the word silver as 
the "dishonest dollar" which was worth 
but fifty-three cents, and the frazzled loafer 
of the one-hoss town would again voice his 
indignant demand for a currency "good in 

And the argument against the gold 
would be just as sound as was the argument 
against silver. 

Shipwrecked Hopes 


SOMETIMES world-weary hearts will turn 
To a land where ghosts of their youth abide, 
A land where sunset memories glow, 
And shipwrecked hopes drift in with the tide. 
Where sad eyes strain through the Straits of Death 

For a Ship that sailed to an Unknown Sea, 
Laden with laughter and love and faith, 
Bringing answer to wistful prayer: 
Joy or Sorrow for days to be. 

But never the brave Hope-Ship comes home, 
Nor ever out of the darkened west, 
Gleam of a far white sail shines fair. 
Alas! We stand on a wide gray beach, 

With empty hearts where a joy has been. 
And outstretched hands that groping reach 

For the shipwrecked hopes that the tide brings in. 

About the Size of It 

T ITTLE ELMER (who has an inquiring turn of mind) — Papa, what is a di- 
-*— ' vorce like? 

Professor Broadhead— Well, my son, it resembles hash to a considerable 
extent, being made principally from scraps around the table. 



Mrs. Louise H. Miller. 

The Home Department welcomes suggestions, recipes, useful hints, brief articles, short accounts of 
•what women have done in their homes and home towns, and brief, true stories of " Heroism at Home." 
We are all working together and we want to put into our Department anything that will make the house- 
wife's life brighter and more useful. We, alt of us, are the editors of " Home " let us make it as good as 
we can. 

Every month there will hea. prize of a year's jree subscription /o Watson's Magazine, sent to any address 
desired, for the best contribution. There will also be, every month, a prize of another such free subscription 
for the best true story of "Heroism at Home," and another such special f>rize for the best contribution to 
"The Interest of Everyday Things" No two of these prizes will be given to the same person. 

The names of those contributing recipes and suggestions will be printed with what they send in, iinless 
they request to have their names omitted. The names of those contributing stories of "Heroism at 
Home" will not be printed unless in exceptional cases. In printing the addresses of contributors only 
the state will be given, so that they may be spared having all kinds of circulars sent them from business 
firms who are on the watch for names and addresses. 

There is no need to worry about "not knowing how to write." What our Department wants is the 
facts If any corrections are really needed, they can easily be made. We are n't trying to be "authors ' 
— we're just women trying to help one another 

The Editors of the Magazine tell me that it will simplify matters very much if we make a few simple 
rules for sending in contributions. Let us see how the following will work out; 

I Make all contributions short and to the point. 

Wehave onlya few pages altogether; there are a lotof us to contribute, and there are many things to 
talk about. 

2 . Address everything carefully and in full to Mrs. Louise H. Miller, Watson's Magazine, 121 West 42d 
street. New York City. 

3. Write on one side of the paper only. 

4. No letters or manuscripts will be returned. 

Make a copy of everything you send if you want to keep it. 

July Number. — What women can do for 
the people of their town, city or district by 
making the community more healthful and 
beautiful to live in — sanitation, smoke-nui- 
sances, advertising nuisances and eye-sores, 
parks, playgrounds, trees, grass, flowers, 
public baths and so on. 

August Number. — What women can do 
for the community in other respects — estab- 
lishing circulating and stationary libraries, 
hospitals, lecture courses, rest rooms, read- 
ing rooms, lunch or dinner clubs for factory 
girls, college settlements and so on, and in 
securing better schools, better laws and ordi- 
nances, needed reforms and desirable im- 

September Number, — Our fruits and fruit 
trees. How varieties and species are cre- 
ated and preserved. (A glance at cross- 
breeding, grafting, budding and selection ) 
A word on our grains and nuts. 

Once again we have more material for 
our Department than our space permits. 
That doesn't mean that we have more con- 
tributions than we want or can \ise. Far 
from it! The trouble was that I didn't ex- 
pect so many as came and wrote more my- 
self than I should have done if 1 had known. 


And our subject last month was such a big 
one that it was really impossible to cover it 
at all without writing a good deal. How- 
ever, it was all set up in type, so it will be 
used later. 

The Department is now pretty well under 
way. I hope still more contributions will 
come in from now on and that the rest of you 
will be writing a larger and larger part of 
each number. Not that I don't enjoy my 
part of it! But it belongs to all of us, and 
all of us should be doing it. 


This would be a very big subject, indeed, 
if we tried to cover all the ground. Instead 
we will just take up the simple side of it, 
getting all the practical, yet, m a way, 
scientific information we can. Volumes 
could be written on the beauty of flowers, 
alone, but anyone ought to be able to appre- 
ciate this beauty without help from our 
Department. Many of you already kno\r 
the elementary facts about plants, and some 
of you knoAv a great deal about them. To 
make sure, we will consider briefly the general 
way m which a plant is made. 



The parts of a plant are root, stem, leaves 
and flowers. 

The root takes up nourishment from the 
chemicals of the soil and the water in the 
soil and transforms these chemical elements 
into matter suitable for plant growth. Be- 
fore the root takes hold of them they belong 
to the mineral kingdom; when the root is 
through with them they belong to the vege- 
table kingdom. If it were not for this woik 
that the roots do, we shouldn't have any- 
thing at all to eat — except salt, which is, I 
think, the only thing in the mineral kingdom 
that serves the human race as food in any 
quantity. And we wouldn't last very long 
on a diet of nothing but salt. Of course 
there wouldn't be any animals to eat, either, 
if it weren't for the roots, for animals, like 
us, depend on the vegetable kingdom for 
their food. Some animals live on other 
animals, but these other animals depend on 
plants and would starve without them 

Some roots are like hairs and some are big 
and fat, like bulbs. These latter, and roots 
like those of trees, store up nourishment for 
the plant to use the next year. Mulleins and 
turnips, for example, live two years, not 
making flowers and seeds the first year but 
merely storing up food to make them the 
second year. When you see a big, fat root 
you can generally be sure that the plant 
lives at least two years. 

Of course, the one object of a plant is to 
bloom and make seeds which will carry on 
the species after it is dead. It will give one 
a good foundation always to remember this, 
and consider the various ways in which 
plants accomplish it. 

Stems are a good deal like roots. They 
don't take up much nourishment and they 
serve also to support the leaves and flowers, 
but they do store and carry nourishment. 
Sometimes it is hard to tell a root from a 
stem. For example, the Irish potato is a 
stem, not a root, and the sweet potato is a 
kind of cross between the two. It is con- 
venient to consider the root as the plant's 
stomach and the stem as its arteries for car- 
rying blood. 

The leaves might be called the lungs. 
Scattered over the surface of a leaf, particu- 
larly over its imder side, are many little 
mouths through which the plant does most 
of its breathing. Let us consider what this 
means. First, we see here the reason for 
washing the leaves of plants kept in the 
house. These little mouths become clogged 
with dirt so that the plant would be smoth- 
ered to death if they were not cleaned out. 
Out of doors N ature atten ds to this by the ram . 
Second, plants don't breath the same part 
of the air that we and animals do. They 
divide it up with us. What we take from 
the air is poisonous to us and what w^e take 
is poisonous to them ; what they throw away 
we seize on, and what we throw away they 
need and take. Thus the whole world is a 
great balance, working silently, but w-ithout 

which both plants and animals would all die 
in time! This is one reason why cities are 
not so good to live in as the covmtry is — 
there are not enough plants in the city 
to keep the air pure for us by taking from it 
what is injurious to us. And this is the rea- 
son why plants are good things to have in 
the house during the winter when the win- 
dows are closed and the air inside not often 
changed. Some say that at night plants do 
not act this way and are even injurious to us, 
but this is not established, and it js cJear 
that on the whole they are not only bene- 
ficial, but absolutely necessary to us. 

Remember this when we come to our sub- 
ject for July and August, and are considering 
the value of plantmg more trees, grass, and 
flowers in our towns and cities. (Of course. 
trees, grass and everything else that grows 
are plants, and are governed by the same 
laws of Nature.) This also explains why 
people put growing plants in aquariums with 
their fish. Water and air both contain 
what plants breathe. A water plant takes 
it from water just as the others do from air. 
And fish take from water what they need, 
just as we and animals do from air That is 
why fish have gills — they take water in at 
their mouths and discard the parts of it they 
don't want through their gills The animal 
kingdom takes oxygen from both air and 
water and throws off carbonic acid gas; the 
vegetable kingdom does just the opposite. 
Food for one is poison for the other. Work- 
ing together they keep each other alive. 

The root does not work all the chemical 
changes. The stem and leaves also do this, 
and one change is particularly to be noted. 
Without sunlight, direct or indirect, plants 
would not be green. They wnll grow without 
it to a certain extent, however, as is wit- 
nessed by a potato in a dark cellar. It will 
send out long, w^hitish shoots with tiny 
leaves, without even a ray of sunlight. Cel- 
ery, too, is "bleached" by keeping the 
tender leafy tips covered up. It takes light 
to make plants green, and the green color is 
the result of chemical changes induced by 
the sun within the stem and leaves. 

Before we consider the flower, it may be as 
well to note that all parts of a plant are com- 
posed of cells. A plant is like a honey-comb 
full of honey, only the cells are so tiny that 
you need a very strong magnifying glass to 
see them, the juice in them passes from one 
cell to another, and all of these cells are alive 
and able, by that wonderful process we call 
life, to create more cells like themselves. 
Cut a plant stem across and you will see 
many very minute fibres and divisions, but 
these are not cells. Each one of them is 
composed of many, many cells ! The reason 
that so many plants "turn to the sun " is that 
the sun shrivels the cells in some places and 
enlarges those in other places, so that the 
whole plant is bent. When flowers are cut for 
vases and begin to wither, you know you can 
freshen them up by cutting off a little more 



from the ends of the stems. You see, the 
tiny cells at the very end have been injured 
or die, and can no longer take nourishment 
from the water. Cut above them and you 
place fresh cells in contact with the water 
and the flowers show renewed life. 

This brings us to the fact that all parts of 
a plant, being made of these cells, are essen- 
tially very much alike. You cut a flower 
and its stem from a plant and put it in water. 
Those cells in the stem had been spending 
their lives almost entirely in merely carry- 
ing nourishment, but as soon as the root is 
no longer there to get notmshment for them 
to send on to the leaves and flower, they at 
once begin to do the work of the roots and 
take up nourishment from the outside. Gen- 
erally they can't do it very long, but in many 
plants they can do it until they manage to 
do something else. You know what the 
little stem cells do in an oleander cutting 
if you put it in a bottle of water, or what they 
do in a bit of geranium stem if you put it in 
wet sand. They set to work to make new 
roots ! 

You may know, too, that if in the early 
spring you bring in some little branches of 
pussy-willow, apple, peach, or other com- 
mon fruit tree, the stem cells will act as 
roots and take nourishment from water 
for the willow to send out a lot of little new 
branches, and for the fruit branches actually 
to burst forth into blossom weeks and weeks 
before those outdoors have shown any sign 
of renewed life. Of course, there is a little 
nourishment already stored up in the stems. 
A twig of lilac, treated in the same way, will 
come into full leaf, and some claim to have 
made them blossom, but I never saw this 
done. If you wiU try some of these experi- 
ments next spring you will not only find it 
a very interesting experience and afford 
friends a surprise, but you will have a most 
charming decoration for your home, and a 
beautifvd promise of the coming spring long 
before there are any signs of it outside. 

Now, let's look at the flower. The real 
purpose of a flower is merely to produce seed 
for next year, but many flowers make them- 
selves very beautiful and bring much pleas- 
vire and gentleness into the world while they 
are working. An admirable example for 
us to follow ! They are also the most impor- 
tant part of a plant in finding the name 
and the family to which a plant belongs. 

Take the apple blossom. At the base of it 
you will find five little green leaves grown 
together in a little cup which holds the rest 
of the flower. These five little green leaves 
are called sepals; taken together, a calyx. 
Then come five colored leaves, called petals; 
taken together, the corolla. Inside the 
petals are many little spikes with bunches of 
yellow on the end. These are stamens and 
the yellow stuff is pollen. In the midst of 
these stamens are two to five other little 
spikes, called pistils. They go down into 
the little ball called the ovary, down inside 
the calyx. In the ovary are what will later 

become seeds. The ovary itself in most 
plants becomes the fruit, but in the apple it 
is the calyx that becomes the edible part. 
You can see the ovary, however, if you cut 
an apple in two — it is the core. 

These are the parts of a flower. They are 
not always all present, but in any perfect 
flower there are always two things — stamens 
and an ovary with at least part of a pistil on 
it. Without these a flower could make no 
seeds. To make a seed the pollen from 
its stamens or those of another flower 
must fall on the pistil or be carried 
there by the wind, a bee or other insect, or 
a bird. (Some plants, like the maple tree, 
have no perfect flowers, flowers with stamens 
being on one tree and flowers with pistils on 
another, or one kind on one part of a plant 
and the other kind on another part.) When 
the pollen sticks to the pistil it works down 
to the ovary and fertilizes the little ovules 
in it. Unless it does this, the ovtiles will 
never turn into seeds. 

Look at a pea, sweet-pea, bean, wistaria 
or locust (all members of the Pvdse Family) . 
Here you will find all the parts, but in dif- 
ferent shapes. Sometimes in this family the 
calyx is wanting or falls away early. Look 
at the common violet (Violet Family) and 
you will find them all. Look at the lily 
(Lily Family). All the parts are here, too, 
but petals and sepals are just alike and form 
one ring together. 

The rest of our discussion of flowers will 
have to be held over till next month, for 
lack of space. Something has to be taken 
out this month and I much prefer taking 
out what I've written myself rather than 
anything of yours. 

In some later number we might, if you 
wish, take up the most interesting subject 
of how new varieties and species are created 
artificially, and how old ones are preserved 
from generation to generation. You know 
that the seeds of highly cultivated plants or 
trees hardly ever produce new plants or 
trees just like the old ones, and that if any 
ordinary garden is deserted most of its culti- 
vated flowers will "revert" to the original 
plants from which they had been artificially 
cultivated through many generations into 
something very different. The sweetpea, 
for example, and practically all the varieties 
of our common fruits and grains have been 
artificially made. You probably already 
know something of these artificial methods — 
selection, grafting, budding and cross-breed- 
ing. The last of these, though discovered 
several centuries ago, has been developed 
only in the last thirty years, and is already 
accomplishing marvelous things. Perhaps 
the most famous cross-breeder is Mr. Luther 
Burbank, the "California Wizard." Fruits 
and fruit-trees have been suggested as our 
subject for September, and it might be a good 
plan to take up at the same time these arti- 
ficial methods of making and preserving 



varieties and species and to have a word 
also on grains and nuts. 


The reading list on the questions we 
talked about last month under "Why 
Women Should be Interested in Politics" 
will be found in the new "Progress of 
Reform" Department in this issue. You 
see, we have already begun to help the men 
in politics! 

Rational Flobuera 

I note in April number of Watson's 
Magazine you have asked the questions: 
"What is the national flower of Scotland? 
Of Ireland? Of our country ?" The thistle 
is Scotland's and the shamrock Ireland's, but 
ovu" country has not yet adopted a flower, 
though several of the states have, 

I wotdd like to suggest that you mention 
this subject in your June article on flowers; 
and I would also like to say that I believe 
the laurel to be pectdiarly appropriate as our 
national emblem. It has for centuries been 
the symbol of recognition of high merits and 
honor. The laurel is hardy and evergreen 
and is native in some one of its many vari- 
eties to almost every part of the world; and 
our nation is made up of many people of as 
many countries, besides the native bom 
American. The different varieties of laurel 
have as many sizes of growth, from the small 
shrub to the lofty and magnificent Magfwlia 
gratidiflora, or Big Laurel, thus typifying the 
flourishing or otherwise growth of these 
diflFerent people. The laurel is hardy, beauti- 
ful and fragrant. Some of the flowers are 
white, denoting purity, while others are 
roseate or yellow, again denoting the differ- 
ent temperaments of our Americans. Per- 
haps the mountain laurel has the most grace- 
ful and delicate sprays of any other variety ; 
therefore would be the most desirable as 
"Our National Flower." 

Mrs. W. P. Laramore. Georgia. 

This is, indeed, a good suggestion. The 
Department would like to know what some 
of the rest of you think about it. 

The three following excellent contribu- 
tions come from "some of your Baltimore 
Friends." The allegory of the flowers is 
particularly charming. 

What Ij Happinejj 

"How hast thou spent the winter?" asked 
the Rose, bending her stately head to the 
form of the stately Lily. 

"Alas, the rays of my glory are not warm- 
ing. Heaven refiised nothing to my spirit. 
But the heart never found the ideal of its 
dreams. I was bom to walk my brilliant 
frozen path — alone. Lovely Rose, I, the 
proud, the admired, have I ever been happy?" 

"I was a court lady!" quoth the dashing 
Tulip, " and my whole life was but one mock- 

ing delusion. I had rank, riches, beauty and 
talent, but the husband I loved, the sainted 
home of my children, were sacrificed for the 
sake of false friends and frivolity. But, 
when my youth had faded and with it the 
power of worldly reign, I had no home to turn 
to. I saw nothing around me but spectres 
of a misspent life. Lovely Rose, I have 
known the brilliant wretchedness of life; 
but, its happiness, never!" 

"My brow bleeds imder the martyr's 
crown of thoms! " quoth the Passion Flower. 
" I have been pierced by a hundred daggers. I 
was champion of truth and charity and offered 
my life for happiness of my brethren. The 
reward has been suffering and martyrdom. 
I died far from those I loved. But the truth 
for which I suffered did not die. It rose out 
of the lonely grave and entered souls which 
had doubted. It conquered, and now those 
who refused every comfort to the living 
erect statues to the dead. Lovely Rose, has 
happiness ever crowned the great saviors of 

"And thou," asked the Rose, bending her 
earnest face to the little Violet's, "what 
sayest thou?" 

"I," replied the little flower in her soft, 
melodious voice, "can tell you no such 
brilliant tales. I can glory in neither fame 
nor conquests. My life flowed on quietly in 
a low little cottage with a husband and 
beautiful children I brought up to be chari- 
table and loving to each other and their 
fellow-beings. Far from the trouble and 
bustle of the world, I sought life's true mean- 
ing in the hearts of those I loved. I was 
happy, lovely Rose, because contentment, 
innocence and love are happiness." 

A "Runch of Ftola/era 

How perfectly beautiful are a group of 
daisies and grasses, gathered by the wayside, 
if arranged with skill and taste ! Far more 
beautiful to most of us, I am sure, than a 
bunch of priceless orchids. 

It is too generally the custom to esteem a 
flower for its monetary value. Often, not 
tmtil the hand of the artist emphasizes and 
reveals it to our duller vision, do we realize 
their worth. 

_A btmch of ox-eyed daisies, interspersed 
with their leaves, which naturally surroimd 
them, is as appropriate to a drawing-room 
as to an attic chamber. It may adom a 
Japanese vase or conceal the ugliness of a 
broken pitcher. Nature plants a parterre 
for us everywhere, so that oiir home may 
never be in need of ornament. 

Hotu 1o Preser-Oe Cut F!otvers 

To keep your flowers vivid, rise early. 
No freshener like the dew of the morning 
whether for blossom or complexion. Pop- 
pies plucked before the svm has dried dew- 
drops in their hearts and quickly placed in 
water will sometimes last for two days. 



The same thing holds good for other tender 
garden flowers, such as nasturtiums and 
heliotropes, which, when plucked at this hour, 
will retain their freshness; whereas, if culled 
when the sun lies upon them, they will droop 
and tiuTi black in the shadiest parlor. 

Flowers and plants wilt because water is 
transpired by the leaves and petals more 
rapidly than it is taken up through the stem. 
It is advisable to cut stems off a second time, 
so that while tmder water all channels may 
be without obstruction. 

Following are a few Japanese customs. 
Rather queer, I admit. But, perhaps, some 
of us will think they are worth giving a trial. 

If wistaria is wanted for decoration, bum 
its stem, then immerse in spirits. Flowers 
which suck up water with difficulty are im- 
proved by treating ends of the stems with 
fire or hot water. Sand plants, fire; water 
plants, boiling water. 

Some of Your Ballimore Friends. 

I have flower and garden seeds for oui 
school now, at Billingsley, Alabama. 

Mrs. Ira Campbell, Alabama. 

This is a beautiful suggestion that ought 
to be carried out. The thought in it is very 
true, as well as beautiful. 

A Word ^or ihe Children' j Flotver and 
Ve^elabte Garden 

Yes, let them have a small place to plant 
their seeds and teach them how to cultivate 
same. This will be the happiest part of their 
life. When the buds and blossoms open , watch 
their supreme delight. Angels will smile on 
this industry, for it is a God-given inspira- 
tion to lead the little ones on up to pleasure 
and the duties of future life. 

Now, all who have the honored name of 
parent, hasten to assist in this long-neglected 
blessing. Yes, the ownership of the little 
garden will bless and strengthen every nerve 
and inspire confidence in their ability to per- 
form such fine work, so much like father and 
mother's garden. Their first flower will 
have the richest colors and the sweetest per- 
fumes of any far more beautiful. It is a dis- 
grace to deprive the sweet children of such 
privileges. The children of today are soon 
to take our place in church and state. It 
now behooves us to give them the benefit of 
our knowledge so that they may possibly 
and happily climb higher in profitable pur- 
suits to bless all around them more than we 
have. Give the children music and flowers, 
and they are safe from vice and illness. 
Jehovah' blesses our efforts in uplifting our 
little pledges of love that they may make the 
world better by their having lived in it. 
Now, as we pass this way but the one time, 
may we watch every step. Then we can tell 
the little ones where the rough places are. 

This subject widens so rapidly I hasten to 
a close. 

May choice blessings surround Mrs. Miller 
and may every effort she makes in her holy 
calling be crowned with pleasure and profit, 
blessing all the families in her jurisdiction . 

The following is a letter that comes from 
the heart and should reach the heart! No 
stronger reasons than the ones here set forth 
ought to be needed to prove that every 
good woman should be interested in politics. 

Woman and "Politic j 

My few lines may be too late for the May 
issue of the Magazine, but I can't refrain 
from writing a few lines in regard to 
"Woman in Politics." But those questions 
Mrs. Miller has asked — does she expect them 
all answered in one issue ? 

Some give as a reason why women should 
not be in politics, that politics are "dirty." 
And, pray, who made them so? The men, 
of course. But why should a woman be 
interested in or understand politics, when 
her home ought to consume so much of her 
time? Why? Because today she goes side 
by side with brother, father or husband, as 
the case may be, and takes her place in the 
mill and the shop ! All day, and sometimes 
far into the night, she must toil with aching 
limbs and throbbing head, and why? If 
home is woman's sphere, who dragged her from 
that sphere and forced her into the sweatshops 
of our nation ? Conditions brought about 
by rascally politicians who work only for the 
interest of the few. 

Sisters, did you read "The Miner's Story" 
in the April issue? My God, must we con- 
tinue to see our husbands, fathers and sons 
crushed? Must we continue on without a 
word of protest? Most assuredly the five 
million women wage workers of our nation 
should be in politics ! If politics are "dirty," 
purify them! "The hand that rocks the 
cradle," does it rule the world? Yes, but 
today it is more of a misrule. The ignorance 
of the masses today can be traced to ignorant 
mothers. Mothers, if you never cast a vote, 
if you are ashamed to discuss politics, get 
busy and understand for the sake of those 
who must soon take our places. Endow your 
children with a love for something better 
than trashy literature, ten cent monthlies 
and dime novels. 

Reason after reason might be given why 
we should understand economics, but I will 
let someone who knows more than I give the 
others. But, remember this, every sugges- 
tion by any or all of you will be welcomed by 
me, but I have so little spare time for reading 
except at night. After toiling nearly thir- 
teen hours, sometimes more, I find myself 
almost too tired to read with a brain dead- 
ened by the incessant roaring of machinery. 
Let us get busy, and may God help us . 

"George Martin," Georgia. 

Here is a good strong one on our subject 
for last month. 



Should Women be Interested in "Potiticj 

Yes, certainly. Why? There are thou- 
sands of reasons, I am sure. But for the 
lack of space we shall only endeavor to give 
some of the important ones, which alone 
would settle the question beyond a reason- 
able doubt, (i) Because "Tha hand that 
rocks the cradle rules the world." (2) The 
characters of the women of a nation mold the 
character of the nation. (3) The condition 
of your wives' and mothers' political educa- 
tion makes the political situation of your 
country. If your wives and mothers are 
Ignorant and disinterested along this line, 
you have a majority of voters of the "hit- 
and-miss " type, who are as ignorant of their 
own interest as it is possible for men to be. 
(4) "God said it was not good for man to 
be alone," and He gave him woman for a 
helpmeet. (5) She has the most powerful 
influence in the world. (6) She is a free- 
holder and must pay taxes (and under our 
present system she has "Taxation without 
lepresentation," the very thing our men 
fought so bitterly against years ago) . (9) Be- 
cause, by her indifference, they drift into 
manhood without any political principles and 
become a disgrace to their race, when, with 
the right training, they would have been a 
blessing and left their mark in the world. 
(10) Because of the "liquor traffic." If she 

could not stamp it out, her influence would 
throw a damper on it that would save thou- 
sands of boys and, if it were my boy, or your 
boy alone saved, we would say 'twas good for 
women to be interested in politics. (11) Be- 
cause to protect our eons she must be up 
and on the alert and realize this interest is 
her very own interest and her only hope. 
(12) Last, but not least, women as a rule 
give their time and talent to "Christianity." 
They make it the paramount thought of life 
as our men do "politics," but fail to see that 
the two are so closely connected that to be 
indifferent to one is a detriment to the other. 
She keeps the great wheel of " Reformation " 
rolled back regardless of the strength and 
energy she puts forth. She must keep her 
hand upon the throttle of Christianity and 
her eye tipon the political track, if she would 
pilot the great train of reform into the sta- 
tion of "Success." And to do this she must 
be equally interested in both Christianity 
and politics. Woman needs no urging to 
become interested in politics. She needs 
only to be reminded of these facts. Woman 
must become interested and to the degree 
that she will desire to give her voice against 
wrong and for right. Christianity would be 
a failure without woman and 'tis equally 
true of politics. A noble woman would no 
sooner sell her honor than her virtue. 

Mrs. Annie Bruion, Missouri. 


TV E want all the interesting facts we can get about the origin , history and manufacture of our ordinary 
household utensils and furniture, the various articles of food and drink, the common things in our yards 
and neighborhoods The obiect of this branch of our Department is to make interesting the very im- 
plements of our daily toil and to teach the mind to free itself from the deadening monotony of mere 
routine and to learn to gather wholesome, enlivening food from the broader fields outside. If you don t 
need this help, remember that many other women do need it and need it badly. Help them by doing 
these two thmgs. 

I. Send in any items you may think of yourself or learn from inquiry by consulting encyclopedias, 
dictionaries, books, magazines or the free reports of the United States Department ot Agriculture and 
the United States Department of Commerce and Labor. 

2 If you find a newspaper article or paragraph which gives interesting information about any of 
the ordinary articles or commodities of our everyday home life, send it to the Department. If you 
find a magazine article of this kind and do not want to cut it out, send us the name of the article, an 
idea of what it is about and the name of the magazine in which it appears, giving the year, month or 
week, and the page. If you send either a newspaper or magazine clipping, always give the name of 
the publication from which you take it. Inform the Department, too, of any good books along this line. 

We will publish, every month, selections from these articles and clippings and will give the names 
of all of them, with the name of the publication from which they are taken. In this way we can always have 
a good reading list on hand and be in touch with a great deal of information about our everyday things. 

Special "Prize 

Every month there will be a special prize of one year's free subscription to Watson's Magazine, 
sent to any address desired, for the best contribution to " The Interest of Everyday Things.' 

Teaching "Butte r-MaKin^ 

In some of the colleges of the country, 
notably Illinois College, Purdue, in Indiana, 
and the Ohio State University, there are 
regular courses in butter-making. There are, 
of course, many such institutions that offer 
a complete course in agriculture, so that the 
students can fit themselves for farming just 
as other students do for the law, medicine, 
teaching and business. All the most modem 

July. igo6 — 8 

appliances of field, dairy and so on are used. 
Butter-making is taught not only to ordinary 
men and women but also to those who have 
big creameries. All the butter, milk and 
cream is disposed of at the highest market 
prices in the towns in which the college is 
situated. The Indiana college, in two 
chumings a week, turns out 2,500 pounds of 
fine butter. They teach practice as w^ell as 




There is no end to the interesting facts 
about beds. I hope some of the rest of you 
will add some more to the following. 

Every country has its own kind. In 
ancient Palestine they used a simple couch 
both for reclining during the day and for 
sleeping at night. Through Europe the 
beds are generally of open couch form, 
usually for one person, with one or two hair 
or wool mattresses. Often curtains are 
hung from the ceiling. In Germany and 
some parts of France a large fiat bag of down 
is used as a cover, so short that one has to 
"learn how" before one can get any good 
out of it. Sometimes in Germany a big bag 
or mattress of down is the only covering 
used in cold weather. In Oriental coun- 
tries a rug on the floor is often the only bed. 
In Japan the thin mattress is laid flat on the 
floor and put away during the day. In- 

stead of having dining-room chairs the old 
Romans reclined on couches at the table. 
Through Spain and much of France the na- 
tives today use simple iron beds even in 
remote and primitive districts where there 
are almost no other modem conveniences. 
These iron beds and the tile floors make it 
easy to keep out vermin. To prevent dust 
annoying the sleeper the Romans some- 
times used canopies, but only in England 
has this arrangement been thoroughly per- 
fected, though in France one often finds 
round canopies above the bed. There is an 
old superstition that no one can die calmly 
on a mattress of game-bird feathers. 

Right here in America there are dozens 
and dozens of kinds of beds, from the rough 
board bunk to the finest air-mattresses and 
water-beds — old four-posters, folding beds, 
iron beds, wooden beds, brass beds, cots, fold- 
ing cots and many more. 



One of the greatest blessings bestowed 
upon humanity by an all-wise Creator is the 
ability and necessity to work. There are 
some kinds of work that every human being 
ought to know how to do, and to do w^ell. 
Of such kinds are the preparation of food, 
the care of the house, and such things as are 
always necessary to be done. Boys should 
be taught to excel in these things the same 
as girls. As a general thing boys are better 
taught about what is considered boy's work 
than girls are in their department. So many 
mothers say, "My girls will have a hard time 
when they go to housekeeping and I want 
them to have some enjoyment while they 
are with me." So they double their ow^n bur- 
dens, and perhaps hire help w^hose ineffi- 
cienicy and wastefulness is an added strain on 
an income already too small. How much better 
it would be to teach the girls to enjoy the 
work and learn it so thoroughly that when 
they have houses of their own to keep there 
will be no "hard times," but, instead, the 
pleasure that always comes of being really 
mistress of the situation, wnth everything in 
their own hands to manage as they please. 
Everything there is to be done in the way 
of housekeeping, cooking, washing, ironing, 
milking and any other necessary work about 
the house should be considered as a part of 
the education of a girl, no matter what may 
be the condition of her parents. And this 
should be so general that girls would strive 
to excel in these arts with the same zeal 

that they show in their competitions at 
school. It would be a good idea for parents 
to stimulate the pursuit of knowledge of this 
kind by the offer of rewards for excellency 
in any of those jobs about housekeeping that 
are considered particularly disagreeable or 
difficult, such as the care of cooking vessels, 
the cleaning of fowls, fish, etc. Everyone 
likes to do what he or she can do better than 
anyone else, and so a taste for domestic pur- 
suits might be formed that would save many 
a household from wreck. The boys should 
rival their sisters in these accomplishments, 
and much innocent pleasure might be enjoyed 
in neighboring families by competition of 
this kind. All domestic training should con- 
stantly instil the principles of true economy. 
The work should be done in the quickest and 
easiest way and the object should always be 
the best meal at the lowest cost. The effect 
of a system of this kind would be to greatly 
increase the chances of a happy married life 
for the young people of the family, and to 
greatly decrease the cares of the mother of 
the household. Surely it is worth a trial. 
Mrs. Lucy T. Russell, Georgia. 

For anyone troubled with poor digestion 
the simplest cure "that ever was " is to take 
only a cup of good tea for your breakfast and 
eat the other two meals between ii and 12, 
and 5 and 6, taking care to eat them slowly, 
or you will be likely to eat too much — iake 
an hour. Insomnia is quite often only bad 

, New York. 



"Don't Strain at a Gnat and StualloUi a 

I know a tall, commanding woman who 
talks eloquently on the subject of microbes, 
both m clubs and at her own family fireside. 
Yet, she is breeding an army of them in her 
own flour-barrel. I have it on good authority 
that a woman who was called in to do a few 
hours' work in her kitchen, not long since, 
found in her flour-barrel a fresh sack of flour, 
aroUing-pin with bits of dough sticking to it, 
a little paper sack with a twisted mouth and 
containing three stale onions, a package of 
cereal filled with life, but not freshness, six 
cereal boxes containing each a tablespoon of 
chicken feed and a pound of moldy cheese 
which had not been opened since it came 
from the grocery at least a month before. 

Yet this woman's children are so well 
trained on the subject of microbes that they 
would not dare kiss their best friend, and 
actually refused to eat some molasses candy 
which a kind neighbor made as a cure for 
their colds because they feared a stray mi- 
crobe might have been sticking to the lady's 
fingers and got entangled in the candy when 
she was stretching it. 

Mrs. Ellen Sergeant Rude, Lyons, Wayne 
Co., New York. 

No matter how humble the home, if pre- 
sided over by a cheerful, thrifty, refined 
woman; it may be the abode of comfort, 

character-building and happiness. It may 
be a sweet resting-place after toil; a balm 
for a wounded heart; and a blessing at all 

It is of good women rather than great 
ones that we mostly hear, but the woman who 
has determined the character of men and 
women for good is not only good, but great, 
and her influence, though unrecorded, will 
live after her. 

There are women in whose presence we 
feel as if we inhaled a kind of spiritual air, 
strengthening us to noble action, exercising 
an influence that awakens the good that lies 
in every nature. 

'Tis Christian women that we need— 
Christian mothers in everyday life. Chil- 
dren cannot be sound in morals, if mothers 
are the reverse. The purity of character 
and strength of mind of men and women finds 
its best support in the Christian mother. 
M . Ida Fleming, Alabama. 

The prize for the best general contribution 
goes to Mrs. Lucy T. Russell, of Georgia. 
As usual, there were two or three other ex- 
cellent contributions that made me miserable 
trying to decide fairly and justly. Award- 
ing the prizes is by far the hardest part of 
my work and the only part of it that is not 
a pure pleasure to me. Of course, it is 
pleasant to give a prize to the winner, but 
it is so hard not to give one to all of you! 



Every month the Department will publish a little story of heriosm in the home — not any one act 
of heroism, but the tale of how someone lived heroically, lived self-sacrifice in everyday life. It must be 
true and must be about somebody you know or have knov/n or know definitely about. // must not have 
over soo words. The shorter, the better. Whoever sends in the best story each month will not only have it 
printed, but will receive a year's free subscription to Watson's Magazine sent to any name you choose. Tell 
your story simply and plainly. 

Please state whether the names and places mentioned in your story are real or fictitious. The Depart- 
ment does not print real names in these stories. The reason for not printing the narnes in this case is 
that the stories are true and the characters in them are real people, who might be sensitive about having 
their most private affairs set forth in type with their right names appearing in it If we published the 
names and addresses of the persons who send in the story about them it would be almost the same as 
publishing their own names. In each number there will be a note saying that such and such a story 
receives the prize, but no names will be given. The names in the story will be left blank or fictitious 
names will be supplied. Please do not send in stories about someone rescuing another from drowning. 
or anything like that — we don't want stories of single acts of heroism, but of lives bravely and vmselfishly 
lived out 

The prize this month is awarded to "A 
Boy." Every number there seems to be 
great difficulty in deciding between two of 
the stories. This time "A Hero" is the one 
that makes it hard to call any other heroic 
life better. The Southern gentleman (gen- 
tleman in the higher sense of the word as 
well as by birth) in "A Hero" commands 
all the admiration and respect we are 
capable of, but the nine-year-old boy, who 
faced similar odds with equal courage and 

with a sense of duty and an unselfishness 
and devotion worthy of any grown man, 
seems to claim first place this month. 

In response to your request for true stories 
of heroism in the home I am pleased to sub- 
mit the following incident, which came under 
my notice about a year ago, and which I 
have since followed with much interest. 



The hero is a young fellow going on fifteen 
years of age, who has been the sole support 
of a family of four, including himself, since 
his ninth year. Alaout this time his father 
died and he was obliged to leave school and 
go to work in a foundry, where the work was 
such as would have taxed the strength of a 
lad far older than he, but, fortunately , nature 
had endowed him with a sturdy physique, 
and he was able to hold the job. The four 
dollars a week received from the foundry 
was hardly enough to keep a family of four, 
so his evenings were spent in building up a 
newspaper route to such proportions as to 
give him a total income of about $8.25 a 
week, on which the family lived. 

For five years this heroic, heart-breaking 
grind of day, night, and Sunday work was 
kept up, until an outraged nature rebelled, 
and he was obliged to seek for a position 
where the work was less exhaustive. His 
story being known to the manager of the 
factory in which he is at present employed, 
he gave him a job at $9 a week, and the 
evenings heretofore spent in selling papers 
are now devoted to study. 

Here the story might end, but it would 
leave untold the saddest part — the part in 
which the truly heroic character of this boy 
is shown in a way that must win the ad- 
miration of all who hear the story. 

His mother is a drunkard, and this sad 
truth has placed a burden of grief upon his 
youthful heart far more oppressive than that 
entailed by the struggle for bread. The 
expression of the eye betrays the feelings 
of the heart, and the spontaneous enthu- 
siasm of youth has been withered up. His 
many well-wishers have repeatedly advised 
him to have the mother committed to the 
Coiinty House and the children placed in a 
home, but he declared to the writer a few 
months ago that as long as he is able to keep 
them together he will never break up the 
home. No matter what her sin, she is still 
his mother. This strikes me as being the 
key-note of true heroism in the home. 

With best wishes for the success of your 
helpful department, I am. 

Yours truly, 
D. E. C , New York State. 


The grandest victories of life are not al- 
ways recorded in history. And some of the 
greatest heroes are unknown and unsung. 
My mind reverts to such a hero, whom I knew 
and loved. And I yield to the impulse to 
write his simple story. 

Thomas Davenport was bom in South 
Carolina, but soon after his mother's second 
marriage the family moved to Georgia. His 
own father had died when he was quite 
young, leaving a handsome estate. When 
he moved from the state of his nativity, his 
stepfather, at his request, was appointed his 
guardian. He was m college when war was 
declared between the states, and he donned 

the gray at the age of seventeen to fight in 
defense of the South. He entered the army 
a rich boy. When hostilities were suspended 
he returned home to find himself bereft of 
everything except a little real estate which 
his stepfather had turned over to him — all 
he had left out of the wreck of a "lost cause." 
The home place, being the largest house in 

, had been used as a hospital by the 

soldiers and had been destroyed by fire. 
The servants' houses and a small cottage were 
all that was left standing on the lot. He 
promptly deeded this property back to his 
mother, with the assurance that it would be 
his first ambition in life to rebuild the home 
and restore to her the comforts she had been 
forced to renounce. He was engaged to a 
beautiful girl, but he had her sever the en- 
gagement because he felt duty came first 
and he hated to bind her to a long waiting. 
Thus, his first sacrifice in his devotion to his 
mother. The inclination to complete his 
college course was strong, but to do so he 
knew would cause his mother deprivations, 
so he spumed the idea. Though abhorrent 
to the Southern pride in which he had been 
mothered, he decided to retain some of the 
horses and conduct a dray while studying law. 
The bulk of these earnings were contrib- 
uted to the support of the family — to rear 
a large family of children. Ere long he saw 
there was an opening for a good school, so 
turned his attention to the instruction of the 
young. This was a successful venture, but 
he soon resigned it to engage in the practice 
of law. His business was prosperous, and 
how happy he was to realize his first dream 
and place his mother in a large and comfort- 
able home! He might have then listened to 
the alluring voices of beauty and love, for 
what man has not felt the desire to love and 
be loved again ? But just then the tidings 
came that his oldest sister was dead and had 
left three little boys. Again self was sub- 
merged, and he assumed the support and 
education of the orphan boys. If the heart's 
truest felicity consists in resigning all that 
is dear to one's self to promote the happiness 
of others, then to the fullest extent he ex- 
perienced that joy. All during this time 
constant demands were made upon his stock 
of patience and finances to aid his two 
brothers' families, who had been unfortunate. 
And many friends and the poor, as well, 
owed much to his kind liberality. He 
achieved success at the bar, was highly es- 
teemed and was mayor of the city when he was 
called to his long rest. His noble life has 
been an inspiration to me. For when the 
cares are so heavy and the way so rough that 
I stagger under the burden, my mind reverts 
to his life of self sacrifice and immolation and 
I am stimulated to press on, work and be 
brave. "It is better to live in the grateful 
memory of one true heart than an hour on 
the crest of fame." For etemity his image 
is engraven on the heart of his sister! 

M. II. 5., Georgia. 



m:aPES, old and new 

From a collection of recipes that dates 
back almost to "War Time" we shall give a 
few every month jvxst as they stand in the old 
hand-written book that has come down to us. 
Along with them occasional new recipes of 
the present day will be given. 

Meringue J 

The whites of nine eggs beaten to a stiflf 
froth with a pound of soft, white, fine sugar. 
Lay out a spoonful at a time, or shape to 
fancy. Bake in the oven. Can be served 
with whipped cream or ice cream, or used as 
shells to contain either of these. 

Sit-Oer CaKfi 

Five eggs, one and a half cups of sugar, 
half cup of butter, three tablespoons of milk, 
small teaspoon c^f cream of tartar, half tea- 
spoon of soda, two cups of flour. Beat the 
whites of the eggs separately, using them 
only. Bake in a slow oven 

Two cups of sweet milk, two cups of sugar, 
four eggs, five tablespoons of melted butter, 
five tablespoons of melted lard, one tea- 
spoon of soda, two teaspoons of cream of 
tartar, a little salt, one nutmeg, flour enough 
to roll out. 

Chopped Tickje 

Two dozen onions, two double handfuls of 
horseradish, two pounds of white mustard 
seed, one-fourth pound of ground ginger, 
four tablespoons of black pepper, two table- 
spoons of cinnamon, two of allspice, one nut- 
meg, three dozen button onions, three small 
red peppers, one teacup of brown sugar, one 
tablespoon of ground mustard. 


One quart of sour milk, one teaspoon of 
soda, two eggs, beating the whites separately. 
Do not make the batter too thin. 


Under this head in every number we will have some little poem or prose extract from the works of 
some great man. There is no ule or limitation in selecting these. Anything that is good and helpful 
and an aid to broader thinking and truer living may find place here. 

The following is a well-known selection from Robert Louis Stevenson's "Christmas 
Sermon," with which many of you are familiar. But it is something to read again and 
again, to think over, and to make a rule of life. In an earlier number we had one of Steven- 
son's "Prayers Written at Vailima." 

To be honest, to be kind^ — to earn a little and to spend a little less, 
to make upon the whole a family happier for his presence, to renovmce 
when that shall be necessary, and not be embittered, to keep a few friends 
but these without capitulation — -above all, on the same grim condition, 
to keep friends with himself — here is a task for all that a man has of 
fortitude and delicacy. 

— Robert Louis Stevenson. 

The Peopld 

Our readers are requested to be as brief as possible in their welcome letters to the Magazine, as 
the great number of communications daily received makes it impossible to publish all of them or even 
to use more than extracts from many that are printed. Every effort, however, will be made to give 
the people all possible space for a direct voice in the Magazine, and this Department is freely open to 

W. J. Hicks, Ashford, Ala. 

The reform measures advocated by the 
President, I think, will be of little benefit to 
the people, provided they can bceflfected as 
he desires. If the railroads can be, and are 
controlled by a commission, the changes 
made by it will, in my opinion, amount to 
little so far as the people generally are con- 
cerned. The benefit to the traveling public 
wiil be very slight. Passenger rates may be 
fixed at 3 cents per mile. This is greatly too 
much, but will be permitted in order to pay 
dividends on watered stocks. The big 
officials will be permitted to receive fat 
salaries and the wages of the hard laboiers 
will be increased but little. The gentlemen 
who may compose the commission may be 
ever so able and honorable, still they will be, 
more or less, under the influence of purse- 
proud millionaires and heartless shylocks, 
who will not be satisfied with anything less 
than the pound of flesh. Their chief effort, 
no doubt, will be to appease the wrath of 
the people and permit these soulless corpora- 
tions to make money on watered stock re- 
gardless of the legal obligations they are 
under to do business for the public good. 

James Logue, Washburn, Texas. 

Pardon my presumption in saying that I 
do not think you catch the meaning of the 
inquiry of a Rockham, S. D., friend (page 
115, Watson's Magazine for March) , asking 
a second time what Wm. H. English meant 
when he said "a large sum to our credit for 
lost and destroyed bills." 

We will say that some citizens of Wash- 
bum owned $50,000 of government bonds. 
They desired to start a bank, but had no 
money — only these bonds. The govern- 
ment says to them: "We will print $50,000 in 
paper money to be called notes of the Na- 
tional Bank of Washburn. We will then go 
your security that if any one gets one of these 
bills and presents it at your window that you 
will pay him its face in lawful money, but 
you must deposit these bonds with us as 
collateral." I then go to the bank and bor- 
row $50,000, and they pass me out over 

their counter this $50,000 the government 
has just turned over to them. Then I take 
these notes home, and lose or destroy them. 
The bank will of course make me and my se- 
etuities pay this $50,000; it then goes out of 
business. Its agreement with the government 
was that it would return these notes for can- 
cellation and receive back its bonds, but when 
it assures the government that these notes 
have all been destroyed the bonds are turned 
over to it anyway;. So the bank has the 
amount of bonds it started with and the 
$50,000 that I paid it for the loans of the 
notes. Hence this whole $50,000 is "to the 
bank's credit for lost or destroyed bills." 

Roger Cameron, Boston, Mass. 

The article on "De Foe " in the December 
number of your publication is most interest- 
ing and instructive — worthy of the man and 
his manly efforts to improve his fellow men. 

jf. AI. Hughes, Boston, Tex. 

Quite a lot of old-time reformers of this 
place are taking your journal and to say 
that we are pleased with its contents does 
not begin to express our appreciation. I 
keep my numbers on the move doing mission- 
ary work for the great cause of the people 
against the oppression of greed and rascality. 

Could the honest thinking men of Amer- 
ica be induced to subscribe for and read your 
incomparable journal there would be "some- 
thing doing" about 1908. 

Samuel W. Williams, Vincennes, Ind. 

I am glad to note continued improvement 
in the Magazine and gratified that yoii will 
shorten the name to "Watson's Magazine." 
That "Tom" never did sound dignified and 
I did not like it. 

J. H. Calderhead, Helena, Mont. 

At a meeting called m this city for the pur- 
pose of organizing an association having for 
Its object the securing of fair and jvist rail- 
road rates in this state the following resolu- 
tions were offered by J. H. Calderhead and 
O. P. Chisholm. In issuing the call for 



the meeting it was stated that "The rail- 
ways of this country are exercising a function 
of Government "and the chairman in an able 
address supported this view. The resolu- 
tions are based on this statement. 

"Whereas: The railways of this coimtry 
are exercising a function of Giovemmcnt: 
We declare 

"That the railroads are public highways 
which it is the exclusive and mandatory 
duty of the Government to provide where 
public interest and convenience demand it. 
"That the Government has provided for 
the building, maintenance and operation of 
these public highways through the medium 
of agents of the Government known as rail- 
road corporations contrary to every prin- 
ciple of good government. 

"That the Government in creating these 
public corporations conferred on them two 
of the sovereign powers of the State which 
are first: the right of eminent domain — for 
the purpose of securing for them by con- 
demnation the necessary lands for right of 
way and terminal facilities — and second: the 
right to levy a tax on those using these high- 
ways for their maintenace and operation. 

"That these public corporations acting as 
the agents of the State have by usurpation 
used the right of condemnation to take pri- 
vate property for private use and have used 
the power to tax the people for private gain 
"That by delegating these functions of 
Government to these agents we have placed 
the sovereign power of the State, which 
should be used to promote the public good, 
in the hands of a subject to be used for pri- 
vate gain. 

"That the conferring of these powers on 
these corporations is contrary to the consti- 
tutions and institutions of this free Govern- 

"That the sovereign power of the State 
has not authority to levy taxes for a private 
purpose, not to take private property for 
private use. 

" That these powers in the hands of the cor- 
porations have been used not to promote the 
general welfare and prosperity of the nation, 
but in their hands have become a danger 
and menace to the industrial and political 
liberty of the people. 

"Therefore be it resolved that it is the 
sense of this convention that the Govern- 
ment should at once condemn all railroads in 
the United States, pay for them in full legal 
tender money, and operate them for all 
time in the interests of the American people. 
"J. H. Calderhead, of Helena. 
"O. P. Chisholm, of Bozeman." 

Christopher Otting, Evansville , Ind. 

That the currency question will never be 
settled until it is settled right is showed by 
the ntunerous jolts and turns it has received 
lately. In fact, ever since the Greenback 
Party started its agitation in 1876 has it 

been occupying a front scat among the im- 
portant questions of the day and this it will 
continue to do until it is settled right. 

During the first week of January, 1906, in 
an address before the New York Chamber 
of Commerce, Mr. Jacob H. Schiff, a banker 
of that city, called attention to the fact that 
our currency system is radically wrong, de- 
claring that unless its defects were speedily 
corrected the consequences would be most 
serious, if not disastrous. 

The plans of Mr. Schiff and of Secretary 
Gage to reform our system are open to seri- 
ous objections, chief among which is that 
they leave the absolute control of our cur- 
rency in the hands of the bankers, brokers 
and speculators. 

Would it not be better to retire all our 
different kinds of currency, which now con- 
sists of greenbacks, blackbacks or National 
Bank Notes, gold certificates, silver cer- 
tificates and coin certificates, not to mention 
gold, silver, nickel and copper coins, and 
replace the same with a single and imiforaQ 
issue of certificates of value? — Such cer- 
tificates to be issued by the general Govern- 
ment without the intervention of National 
Banks and to be in some such form as this: 

"This certifies that the bearer hereof has 
parted with Labor, its production, or prop- 
erty to the amoimt of Five Dollars and is 
therefore entitled to receive the same in 
return for this certificate. This is a full 
legal tender for all dues and debts, public 
and private, within the United States of 
America and her Colonies. " 

_ This would give us a stable and cheap 
circulating medium which would be based, 
not only on the few tons of precious metals 
we can accumulate in our National Treasury, 
but on all the taxable wealth of the Nation. 
It would not require the payment of a single 
cent of interest or a borrower to get it into 
circulation as is the case with every dollar 
issued by or through the National Banks. 
But, say you, how are you going to get 
these bills or certificates into circulation? 
That is easy. 

If we issue Four Billion Dollars' worth of 
these certificates of value (which would be 
somewhere near fifty dollars per capita) 
with which to replace the various kinds of 
bills and notes now in circulation, we will 
have quite a start toward getting them 
circulated. Then we could buy bonds with 
our gold reserve and retire them up to the 
point where all our four billion certificates 
were in circulation. 

Under this arrangement we would no 
longer require a gold reserve as we would 
have no notes in circulation that would 
require a "redeemer." A scientific money 
should not have value in itself nor should 
it be based upon a single commodity which 
is entirely too limited to afford such a base 
as will be secure at all times. But when 
our circulating medium is based on all the 
wealth of our great nation we can stop the 



coinage of gold altogether and in place there- 
of keep in the United States Treasury gold 
bars in varying sizes from one ounce to ten 
pounds and stamp them worth their weight 
and fineness, to be used in the settlement of 
balances with foreign covm tries. 

W. S. Hazelrigg, Lebanon, Ind. 

I have taken it since the first number. I 
don't want to miss the editorials. They will 
stand the test of time. 

B. T. Altman, Wauchiila, Fla. 

I have taken Tom Watson's Magazine 
from the first copy and am well pleased with 
it. I think Tom Watson one of the brainiest 
and truest men in America today. He is 
doing a noble work. 

Morgan Brown, Cordele, Ga. 

I cannot do without Watson's Magazine. 

W. H. Moore, C us seta, Ga. 

I like it all right. Don't want to miss a 
number of it. 

J. A. Holconib, Commerce, Ga. 

I am well pleased with the Magazine and 
can say that I can't see anything that could 
be added. It is already superb. No man 
can afford to be without the Magazine. 

With best wishes to the Magazine. 

M. A. McCreary, Rockwall, Tex. 

The Magazine is a great favorite with me. 
I do not want to miss a single copy. 

C. J. Jackson, Belton, Tex. 

I don't know how it could be made any 
better. The only suggestion that I have 
to make is that more copies be printed. 

William K. Nelson, Augusta, Ga. 

I cannot afford to be without it, nor would 
be for thrice its subscription price. 

T. W. Peek, Naples, Tex. 

I am a great admirer of Watson, 
he is the stuff. 

I think 

Milton Fox, Bicknell, Ind. 

I am a middle-of-the-roader and don't 
want to be dropped from your list. Nothing 
better than Watson's for me. Can't afford 
to do without it. Don't know how to make 
it any better, onlymoreof Watson's writings. 

L. H. Colley, M. D., Smithfield, Tex. _ 

I like the Magazine and can't do without 
it. Keep up the good work. 

Thomas Wadsworth, Raglesville, Ind. 

I could not get along without it. I think 
it the grandest document that is published 
in the United States or in any other country. 
I have no suggestions to offer. I am willing 
to leave it in the hands of the Hon. Tom 
Watson, for I don't think that any living 
man coidd better it. Long may Watson 

and his Magazine live to bless the world. 
Dethrone Plutocracy and restore the Gov- 
ernment back to the common people is my 

E. T. Malonc, Sugar Valley, Ga. 

No, Sir, if you leave it to my opinion, there 
is nothing printed under the canopy of 
Heaven that can take the place of Watson's 
Magazine. It surely is, like the Bible, 
written by inspiration. No other Magazine, 
book or periodical has the power and in- 
fluence of Watsons Magazine. I can 
suggest no improvement except, perhaps, a 
better cover. 

I hope for you that success which your 
Magazine justly merits. 

Dr. T. C. Brasscll, Cost, Tex. 

We take four other Magazines, but none 
of them is so eagerly looked for each month 
as Tom Watson's Magazine. 

A long life to Watson and his Magazine. 

Thomas D. Baker, Sheridan, Ind. 

I like your Magazine and would hate to 
be without it. 

J. I\I. Becker, Germantown, O. 

We like Watson's Magazine. We can- 
not improve it, for it voices our sentiments. 
We are midroaders and have been since 1892. 

W. S. Pendleton, Shawnee, Okla. 

Watson's Magazine is filling a great 
want. Every patriot must envy you your 

C. J. Woodall, Kissimmee, Fla. 

Please do not strike my name from your 
list tmtil we see about the matter, for I don't 
see how I could do without Watson's Maga- 
zine, for it is a corker. 

T. B. Peck, Naples, Tex. 

How do I like Watson's? To be sure I 
regard it as being the best, most soundest, 
patriotic and valuable reading matter that 
I know of. No, sir; I cannot afford to be 
without it. Cannot suggest anything to 
make it better unless it is to have more of it. 
Way back in the Alliance days I became 
acquainted with TomWatson by reading the 
People's Party paper. I thought then, as I 
do now, that he was the greatest patriotic 
statesman of our country. Do you want to 
know when my eyes were first opened? It 
was when Tom Watson was in the halls of 
Congress and threw the curtains back and 
told the people to look in and see the corrup- 
tions. Success to the Magazine and its 
editors. I was with the principles of reform 
in the beginning and you will find me at the 
same old stand when you hear from me any 
time in the future. 

W. P. Brooks, M. D. Cook, Neb. 

Tbe Magazine is O. K. Don't see where I 
could suggest improvement. 



D. D. Burdick, M. D., Fort Gibson, I. T. 

I discover nothing that should operate to 
depress the spirit of a PopuUst, but, per con- 
tra everything that is calculated to make 
hirn pull oft" his hat and shout with the vehe- 
mence of a calliope for joy; for has the Popu- 
list not hved to see his day ? The mere tact 
that our organizations are not perfected and 
that many have seen fit to ally themselves 
with one or the other of the two old parties, 
does not detract at all from Populism, since 
Populism is rampant and such discover no 
necessity for keeping up camp-fires around 
the old schoolhouse, because the ideas that 
were first taught there and adopted as basic 
principles of a just government have reached 
and hke leaven that is fast leavening the 
whole lump. The question of keeping up 
party organizations is a question of expe- 
diency, not one of necessity. 

Personally, I entertain views perhaps 
peculiarly my own. I held to the same views 
at and before the Springfield convention, but 
was not in favor of adopting them at that 
time, but now I am, and at the next national 
convention; for I am in favor of another 
national convention in 1908, for one and the 
sole purpose of adopting and going before the 
people with one plank and only one — the 
initiative and referendum. 

and party against party; they must combine 
and present a solid front to the enemy, the 
money power. I predict that with Bryan 
and Watson, or, if you prefer, Bryan and 
Hearst, as the reform ticket in 1908, there 
would be such an uprising of the people as 
this country never saw before, and that they 
would sweep the coimtry like fire in a broom- 
sedge field. Bryan and Watson would have 
carried the country in 1896 but for the Sew- 
all fiasco, which was a dishonest compromise 
with the gold-bugs, and cost the party the 
confidence of the people. 

J. M. Corwin, Atwater, N. Y. 

I admire a thinker and a person as well who 
is fearless in giving expression to his thoughts, 
particularly when those thoughts are in the 
interest of universal good government. 

J. M. Calloway, Wylie, Tex. 

I will say that I cannot afford to be with- 
out it. Tom Watson is the purest and 
smartest man in this United States.^ Oh, 
how I do love to encourage him, hoping he 
will continue with success. The Magazine is 
worthy of a better binding. Some of the old 
guard never voted anything else since the 
ticket was first issued. 

H. Weil, N. Y. City. 

I have read your great Magazine since its 
first appearance, and would not miss an issue. 
Kxa more than pleased with its contents and 
foresee the results that such education must 
bring eventually. As I am thoroughly in 
accord with the princijiles of Government 
Ownership of Public Utilities, I have saved 
the clippings and hope to see an article 
touching on this wasteful slaughter of life by 
private corporations, when life-saving de- 
vices are easily obtained. Of course, I re- 
alize that the soulless railroad magnates are 
not in business to save life, but to create divi- 
dends, not caring by what means; therefore, 
I think that between elections the public 
should be kept awake with all the facts, and I 
believe you are the man capable of present- 
ing this question in its best light. 

Leslie Lee Carey, Cloyd's Landing, Ky. 

Watson's Magazine continues to improve, 
each number over the preceding, until it now 
stands w^ithout a peer as an exponent of 
social and political reform. 

I don't know whether I am a Democrat or 
a Populist, and I don't care, for I consider 
Populism as nothing more or less than genu- 
ine, undefiled democracy. The word, Popu- 
list, implies a believer in a government ruled 
by the people. The platforms of the party 
and the people who compose it, are further 
testimonials to this fact. And allow me to 
make a suggestion in this connection, that is, 
that if the reformers expect to win the next 
Presidential election they w^ill have to stop 
fighting each other, faction against faction, 

I think 

O. G. Tarvcr, Blythe, Ga. _ 

I have all confidence in Watson, 
what he does is all right. 

r. J. Tilcher, Ellaville, Ga. 

I like the Magazine all O. K., and don't 
think it can be improved on. 

I agree with C. Q. De France — call the new 
party "Radical." Let all Radicals get to- 
gether in opposition to the "Safe and Sane. " 
Watson, Bryan, Folk, La Follette, etc. I 
am an admirer of T. E. Watson for his 
bravery, etc. I am 82 years old. Have 
been a radical all my life. 

J. L. B. Poarch, Cran Eater, Ga. 

I am well pleased with the Magazine. I 
can't well do without it. It is full of truth 
and all impartial minded men are obliged to 
admit it. 

W. F. Smith, Clarksville, Tex. 

I like the Magazine immensely. I don't 
want to be without it. I don't know that I 
could suggest anything to improve it unless 
it's more of Tom's editorials. I am using it 
as an eye-opener among m>^ neighbors and 
am having some success. Wishing you much 

N.O. Smith, Troupe, Tex. 

Have read the Magazine since its first issue. 
Could not suggest any improvement, 'Tis 
good and clean enough for the most fastid- 
ious taste. Expect to continue to read it as 
long as dear Tom edits the same. I am one 
of the old guard. In other words I have 
never been willing to fuss or mix with either 



of the two old parties. I am not ashamed of 
any of my pohtical affiliations except the one 
time I voted for Grover Cleveland. I feel 
that I helped in that one act to burden un- 
born generations, but I have asked God to 
pardon that one act of my life. I am 58 
years old and should I reach four score years, 
then I will be found fighting in the ranks of 
reform and hope Tom Watson will be my 
leader then. Yours for reform. 

W. D. Thompson, Newton, Miss. 

Would state that the book is up-to-date. 
Cannot make any suggestion to improve it. 
Would not be without it for twice the present 
price. You can count me in for life if it 
keeps up its present standard. The book is 
bound to bring about a revolution in politics 
in this country. It is just what we have 
been needing for the last 15 years. I have 
not language to express my admiration of 
Thomas E. Watson. I give my books out, 
as fast as I read them, where I think they 
will do the most good. 

J. H. Eiland, Pecan Gap, Tex. 

I like the Magazine very much and don't 
think I could add anything to improve it. 

J. H. Giles, Bishop, Ga. 

I am wonderfully pleased with the Maga- 
zine, and do not want to miss a single issue. 

Lee Query, Newells, N. C. 

I am highly pleased with your Magazine 
and all who read it, and I try to keep it "on 
the go" all the time, I will keep up my 
subscription while I can as I can't do with- 
out it. 

With best wishes for yourself and the 
success of your most inestimable Magazine. 

A. L. Keith, Gainesville, Ga. 

We don't want to miss a single copy. 
Can't do without your Magazine. Could 
not suggest any improvement. 

R. B. Fount he Roy, New Kent, Va. 

I like the Magazine marvelously well. 
It voices my every political sentiment to the 
very echo and wish it every success. 

J. G. Dearborn, South Ware, N. H. 

I have been a subscriber to your Magazine 
from the first and you have converted me 
from a conservative to a radical democrat. 

J. T. Strickland, Flippen, Ga. 

I appreciate your Magazine very much. 

Roy Stone, Thomson, Ga. 

I like the Magazine better than any that 
I have ever read. I wish you great success. 

William Hogan, Corinth, Ga. 

I like it the best kind and don't think any 
improvement necessary, and I trust it may 
live and grow in favor until its principles 

are fully adopted and the government is 
again restored to its original purity. 

J . W. Brasselle, Harris, Ga. 

Can't see how I could do without it. It 
is the finest and most ably edited magazine 
I have ever read. 

Joel Ray, Belton, Tex. 

The Magazine is a household necessity. 
I can't afford to be without it. 

S. A. Read, Sr., Washington, Ga. 

The Magazine is fine, especially the edito- 
rials. Never expect to be without it as long 
as Watson manages it. I am an old line 
middle-of-the-road Populist. I agree with 
Watson thoroughly in the position he has 
taken in Georgia politics. My best wishes 
for the success of the Magazine and my 
prayers for the health of Tom Watson. 

G. W. Boyd, Banham, Tex. 

I certainly admire Watson as a man, and 
his Magazine is a gem for purity of thought 
and candid expression. 

F. Yerkes, Veedersburg, Ind. 

The Magazine is good and grand. I shall 
do the best I can for its success. Hurrah for 
Thomas E. Watson in 1908, and Samuel W. 
Williams, of Indiana, for Watson's running 
mate. As ever for our cause in the middle 
of the road and on the road to the White 

Benjamin J. Freeland, Jackson, Mich. 

I would not like to be without Tom Wat- 
son's Magazine. 

W. W. Power, Union Point, Ga. 

I want the Magazine. I am a Tom Wat- 
son man. 

Nicholas Greim, Warrensburg, Mo. 

The Magazine could not be any better, 
according to my sentiments. 

Joseph Harrison, Dandridge, Tenn. 

As to how I like the Magazine, I am not 
scholar enough to command words to express 
myself. I am a charter member in the cause 
you represent so nobly, and hope to be with 
you to the end. My best wishes for success 
in the cause of freedom and equality. 

W. R. York, Marietta, Ga. 

I like the Magazine very much, I think 
these is nothing like it. 

J. A. Southern, Germanton, N. C. 

Tom Watson's Magazine is all O. K. 
Keep hewing to the line and I will stay with 

J. W. Dickey, Musella, Ga. 

I am well pleased with the paper and hope 
your circulation may reach a million. 



John L ]\Iojre, Madison, Ga. 

I like the Magazine very much and do not 
wish to miss a copy. 

C. B. Fenton, Danville, III. 

I think it the best Magazine I have ever 
read, and don t want to miss a copy. 

Johns. Pctiit. Baldwin, N. Y. 

I remain for Tom Watson I would not 
sail under the Parker flag. 

C. L Stocks. Sandcrsville, Ga. 
Don't let me miss an issue. 

J. D. Perkerson, Austell, Ga. 

As to the Magazine, it is all right. Don't 
see how it could be much better. 

James J. Green, Athens, Ga. 

I have no suggestions to make as to im- 
provements. I like the Magazine the best 
of any I ever read and cannot afford to do 
without it. Watson's editorials are worth 
several times the price of the Magazine, 
besides other valuable articles. I wish 
every man in the United States would take 
and read it. 

W. H. Kitchens, Griswoldville , Ga. 

I can't do without the Magazine, 
for Tom Watson! 


Elisha Allen, Adair sville, Ga. 
I like the Magazine very much. 

/. D. Laminack, Muscadine, Ala. 

I don't want to miss a single number of 
the Magazine. I clubbed with the Herald 
and got the first number. I assure you they 
are w^elcome visitors. I have no suggestion 
to make as to improvement on the Magazine. 
I hope you will continue the good work you 
have commenced. 

John A. Bailey, Bailey, Miss. 

Your Magazine is unquestionably the best 
of its kind published in the government. 
Both the editorials and contributed matter 
are concise and convincing in their conclu- 
sions and bound to make an impression for 
good on the reading public. Best wishes 
. for your success. 

Edward Vanlandingham, Cairo, Ga. 

I like Watson. I don't think that a man 
has ever been born that can fill his place at 
this time. I would be glad if his Magazine 
could be read by every voter in the Union. 
I can't do without it. 

W. E. Hill, Hoschton, Ga. 

I have read your Magazine from the start 
and feel I could not do without it. I 
especially like the editorials. Wishing you 
much success and the principles vou have 
been advocating. Hurrah for Watson's 

ir. F. Mc Daniel, Congress, Ga. 

The Magazine is good enough for me. 
Just keep ripping them up the back is all I 
ask. I have been a Populist since the organ- 
ization started and expect to be till I die 
and all the epitaph I want on my tomb is 
"There "lies a dead Populist." Of all the 
papers I read your Magazine is the best of 
them all. I save them for my library. I 
want to keep them for my children and 
grandchildren to read long after Watson and 
I are under the sod so they can understand 
why we were Populists. 

J. T. Chisler, Perrysville, Ind. 

I am well pleased with the Magazine and 
I can't see any room for any improvement. 

J M Attaway, Palmetto, Ga. 

I think the Magazine is the best educator 
we can get for $1.50, and I am well pleased 
with it. Have not missed a single number 
and I do not expect to as long as I can get 
the money to pay for it. Long live Tom 
Watson and his noble cause! 

W. J. Lewalling, Caddo Mills, Tex. 

I am well pleased with Watson's Maga- 
zine. Could not be otherwise, as I am an 
old Middle-of-the-road Populist and have 
been for many years and think Tom Watson 
one of the greatest men in the United States 

5. M. Brown, Longstreet, Ga. 

I cannot afford to be without the Magazine 
even if the price was double what it is. In 
regard to my making suggestions for the 
advancement of the Magazine, don't feel 
competent. Mr. Watson compels admira- 
tion from all who read after him. One 
thing especially true of Mj*. Watson is, he 
never makes an assertion he cannot prove 
by the records. Even gives the page of 
book in which it is to be found. I feel proud 
of Watson as a Georgian and anything I 
could do to put the Magazine in the hands of 
people who read, I would do it. That is the 
trouble with the masses. They do not read 
enough to be posted on different subjects. 
Tom Watson is today the greatest man in the 
South, if not in theUnited States. 

John M. Swinney, Forest Park, Ga. 

Don't stop your Magazine for I don't 
know how I would get along without it. Mr. 
Watson, I have read every one of your 
Magazines and it is a grand book. There 
is nothing like it. I am a Populist and ex- 
pect to stick to its principles as long as I 
live. The Populists around here are solid 
and are ready to vote for Tom Watson every 
time. Hoke Smith is running for Governor 
on our platform and if Tom Watson says, 
"Vote for Smith," the world will fly, for we 
are for principles that the Populists advocate. 
Tom, you are hitting them hard. Hit 'em 
again. The Clark Howell kind of Demo- 



crats are scarce around here. I saw one 
coming down the road the other day and I 
told the children that there was a Clark 
Howell Democrat coming down the road 
and they all ran out to the gate and looked 
at him till he passed and they said, "Pa, he 
doesn't look like our kind of people, does he?" 
And I told them: " No, sir ; he is not our kind, 
either." Hurrah for Tom Watson! 

Fred. C. Schwatier, Ftsher's Island, N. Y. 

Kindly look up the matter as I don't wish 
to be without the Magazine. 

J. M. Hall, Hamilton, N. Y. 

Your Magazine is all right and am more 
than pleased with it. 

5. Robineau, Syracuse, N . Y. 

Have been a subscriber from the first 
issue and will want the Magazine. 

J. F. Sowers, Stonebridge, Va. 

Have no idea of doing without Tom Wat- 
son's Magazine, for there is no other 
published that can take its place. I wish 
you the highest political honors for your 
courage and patriotism. 

Joe S. Anderson, Summit, Ga. 

I think Watson is the greatest American. 

C. A. Cameron, Mento, Ga. 

Can't do without Tom Watson's Maga- 

J. L. Gilmore, Lela, Ga. 

I don't want to miss a copy. I like it too 
well. It is after my own heart. 

Marion Todd, Springport, Mich. 

I would not miss a single number of the 
Magazine. It is glorious. 

Virgil Aaron, Garfield, Ga. 

I do not want to lose a single copy. I am 
only eighteen and I find your Magazine a 
great help in obtaining knowledge. 

Elisha Kinney, Mtlford, Neb. 

Cannot afford to be without your Maga- 
zine. Keep on sending it. 

Mrs. M. Rosenbaum, Winthrop, Mass. 

We are pleased with the Magazine and 
look for it monthly. We think it is the best 
on the market. 

Mrs. Elva Brown, Canon, Ga. 

I cannot do without the Magazine. I 
would certainly vote Hoke Smith one — but 
I am a woman. 

E. A. Baker, Norwich, N. Y. 

Will say the Magazine is all right. It 
advocates the same idea I have advocated 
for the last twenty-five years and I wish 
every home could have one in it. 

/. Leonard, Lake Geneva, Wis. 

I like the Magazine. No — I cannot do 
without it. 

George H. Jones, Schenectady, N. Y. 

I wish to say that Watson's is all right. 

W. H. Leonard, Marshall, Mo. 

None of us want to miss a single copy of 
the Magazine. 

R. B. Frisbie, Kirksville, AIo. 

I like the Magazine first rate, especially 
Watson's editorials. They can't be beat. 

Yours for success in the cause. 

P. A . Rodgers, Sycamore, Ga. 

I cannot do without the Magazine, and 
especially this issue, as I am so anxious to 
see Mr. Watson's reply to Clark Howell. 

yohn May, Cottonton, Ala. 

I like your Magazine. It is hot stuff, 
flavored just right. I don't want to miss 
a copy. 

George P. Wilson, Midlothian, Tex. 

The Magazine is strictly fine and I can't 
afford to do without it. I don't believe 1 
can advise any improvement, but it would 
suit me better if it contained more of those 
red-hot editorials. It tickles me to read 

C. R. Minier, Gordon, Ga. 

I have no suggestion to make as I am not 
experienced in journalism nor well enough 
posted on the situation in politics The 
Magazine is all right. Couldn't do very well 
without it. 

A. L. Bryan, Aberdeen, Miss. 

You ask me if I like it. Yes, and I wish it 
had more readers. I have been in the 
reform movement ever since the advent of 
the Grange. I am 78 years old and hope 
to live to vote for Tom Watson for President 
May the Lord preserve and crown you with 

Jacob Cosad, Farina, 111. 

I have been watching Watson for a long 
time. I have taken his paper for a number 
of years and have a box packed full of his 
papers that he published in Georgia. I 
voted for him at the Convention that nomi- 
nated him for President. I watched him 
when he was in Congress and he is my first 
choice of all the men for President. 

S. H. Byers, Osceola, Neh. 

Can we afford to be without it? No. It 
is a grand educator and I only wish every 
family in the United States would read it. 
Not being able to suggest anything for bet- 
terment of your Magazine, I close by saying 
that Thomas Watson should be our next 



y. J. Chrisenherry, Chetopa, Kan. 

I think the Magazine is splendid. I think 
Tom Watson is strictly honest. I have 
voted for him twice and hope to see him 
President. I was a delegate at the birth of 
the People's Party and hope to live to see its 
principles enacted into laws. 

G. W . Peckenpaugh, Dyersburg, Tenn. 

I could not do without the Magazine. I 
subscribed for it before it was even published. 
I never expect to let my subscription run 
out as long as I live and the Magazine does. 
I praise it very highly. 

A. H. Taylor, Rutherford, Tenn. 

I am well pleased with your Magazine, 

Sam Spetght, Little Falls, N. J. 

I like the Magazine very much, and am 
always ready for the next number. 

J. H. Jennings, Rockville, Utah. 
I cannot afford to be without it. 

J. P. Retelsdorf, Malvern, la. 

Watson's Magazine is all right. 

H. A. Thomas, Thomson, Ga. 

I am very much pleased with Watson's 
Magazine and like it better and better. 
Watson's Magazine grows. It improves 
with every issue. Can't possibly do with- 
out it. 

Edwin T. Cox, Marquette, Mich. 

The only change I would have in Wat- 
son's Magazine is to give W. J. B. hot shot 
until he makes amends for his treachery to 
P. P. by supporting Parker and the Gold 
Standard. The P. P. organization may be 
dead, but the spirit of the cadaver goes 
marching on. 

C. C. Dadd, Lnla, Ga. 

I don't want to miss any number of 
Watson's paper for I have heard him speak 
three times and he just beats anything that 
I ever heard in my life and if we had just 
such men as Tom at the head of this govern- 
ment, the people would all fare alike under 
the laws. He has surely worked hard for the 
common people and I believe he is as hon- 
est as they ever get to be and I believe he is 
a Christian and that's what makes me have 
so much confidence in him. No man need 
be afraid of a man-that fears God and I surely 
believe he is one of that kind. 

God speed him in his aspirations. 

E. S. Gilbert, Davey, Neb. 

In a little over a month from now it will 
be 73 years since I took my place in the 
ranks of the firing line on the subject of free 
trade and personal freedom. In all that 
time I have never heard a speech or read an 
article on the subject of the aggregate 
amount paid to the manufacturers to help 
them fight the paupers of Europe. In ali 

other cases where large sums are expended 
the aggregate is sought. Why not in this.? 
It does seem to me if that aggregate could be 
got before the people it would be a stagger- 
ing blow to the protectionists. Now, the 
favor I ask is that you will give to the subject 
some serious consideration, and whichever 
way your mind leans talk it over with Mr. 
Watson. If you both decide the game is not 
worth the candle, I shall acquiesce without a 

I can no longer read Watson's Magazine. 
I have it read to me. It is great. It is 

G. M. Tuggle, Bujord, Ga, 

It is a pleasure to one who feels toward 
you as the writer does to assist in distribut- 
ing Tom Watson's Magazine among the 
people. The principles that you so ably 
defend must be enacted into law or our grand 
old Republic must be sacrificed; so my 
humble efforts are consecrated, though small 
they are, in aiding the work. 

Adam Kern, Maryville, Mo. 

We like Watson's Magazine very much, 
and regard it as an excellent eye-opener. 

W. W. Deardorff, Hale, Mo. 

No, I cannot afford to be without it. 
think it is just grand. 

5. E. Jones, Thunder, Ga. 

Don't stop my Magazine, 
it every one. 

I think more of 

7- F. Miller, McKenzie, Tenn. 

I am well pleased with the Watson Maga- 
zine. I have read every number and then 
handed to a neighbor. Every man that has 
read the Magazine says that it is the best 
they ever read, but thinks there is no chance 
for the reformers as the money power has in 
their hand the control of all parties. I am a 
Populist in the middle of the road. Equal 
rights to all and special privileges to none. 

Good luck to Watson and the Magazine. 

T. H. Kennon, Milled gei-ille, Ga. 

I do not think that the Magazine could be 
better unless Mr. Watson would fill every 
page with his own writing. Keep pouring 
in solid shots. I see the walls are beginning 
to tumble. I find all sorts, sizes and con- 
ditions of men have ravenous appetites to 
read Watson's Magazine. 

A. J. Brandon, Wartrace, Tenn. 

I can't do without Watson's Magazine. 
Why not suggest live current issues and 
invite a short discussion pro and con? The 
editorials are the best I read anywhere. 

Long live Tom Watson as an exponent of 
civic righteousness. 

G. L. Shuford, Newton, N. C. 

The Magazine is glorious. I have known 



Mr. Watson by reputation since he was nom- 
inated for Congress on Ocala platform. 
Was a subscriber to P. P. P. he published as 
long as it lived. I have had every Magazine 
from first number. I am doing all I can for 
the Magazine. No man who will read it 
need go uneducated. I read Everybody s, 
but Watson's is much better. Mr. Watson 
is the one man in the United States whom I 
would follow blindfolded. 

Down with the grafters. Yours to the 

R. C. Buchanan, Burdick, Ky. 

I don't want to miss a single number. I 
have voted for Thomas E. Watson every 
chance and hope to see him President in 
1908. He is my style of a man. Not 
afraid to speak the truth. Dares to be a 
Daniel. Hew to the line and let the chips 
fall where they may. I don't want to miss 
a single number of Tom Watson's Maga- 
zine. It is splendid. Long may he live. 
Success to you. 

Prof. J. H. Camp, Chisago, III. 

Like it? Yes, I like it. Could not be 
without it, and will not if I have to pay for 
it twice over. I take the Atlanta Constitu- 
tion also. Both sides , eh ? 

7. M. Collins, Salt Lick, Ky. 

How do you like Watson? Would say in 
reply sound to the core and the courage of 
his convictions, whose arguments are con- 
vincing and whose words strike terror to the 
hearts of the tricksters of the followers of 
either of the old parties. My prayers are 
to see him President. 

R. A. Mays, Philadelphia, Pa. 

I think your Magazine is the best one I 
ever read and would not be without it if it 
cost ten times as much and think every 
voter in the country should have a copy. I 
am a strong believer in honest government 
issue of paper money, government owner- 
ship of all railroads, and single tax, and 
every postoffice should be a savings bank. 
This would be hard on millionaires, but we 
can well do without them if we have every 
person prosperous. 

W. S. Vanghan. Mahleton, Ga. 

I would not be without the Magazine for 
double the price. 

G. W. B. Hale, Rocky Mt., Va. 

I cannot do without Watson's Magazine. 
It is a great educator and should be in every 
family in the United States. Why? Be- 
cause its articles on political matter are based 
upon facts and may be relied upon as truly 

J. Henry Theberath, South Orange, N . J. 

My wife and I both enjoy your Magazine 
very much. She, being bom and raised in 
Mississippi, naturally thinks that Tom Wat- 

son's Magazine is just right, because it is 
published by a Southern gentleman who 
knows what he is talking about and also 
knows how to say it. 

Best wishes for the success of your Maga- 

J. B. Geyus Griffin, Ga. 

I think the Magazine fine literature. The 
editorials are so instructive and uplifting. I 
think it is fine reading for one's family. 
Hope it will accomplish the good that its 
editor is striving for, as I think he's one of 
the grandest men now living. It may be I 
think too much of him. Don't know. 

Best wishes for your success. 

W. H. Thompson, Eastman, Ga. 

I could not keep house or run my business 
without Tom Watson's Magazine. 

W . G. Smitli, Grayson, Ga. 

I do not want to miss a copy. I like it 
and will take it as long as I can get it. 

G. W. Shrader, Murray, Neb. 

Do I like Tom Watson's Magazine? 
Well, I should say I do. It seems to get 
better and better every issue. I like the 
man that's behind it. I like the way he 
pounds on congressional and senatorial 
bums and corrupt scoundrels in other high 
places. As a radical he suits me. 

D. R. Johnson, Atkinson, Ga. 

Watson's Magazine will do more to en- 
lighten the people than any periodical in the 
country. I am proud to loiow that I was on 
his ticket for the 1 1 th District of Georgia 
as an elector. 

A. I. Willard, Grundy Centre, la. 

I read all my magazines and then circulate 
them among my neighbors. You are doing 
the right thing to publish reading matter 
that will set people to thinking. I can't im- 
agine where you have stored up so many 
good things to send out to your readers. 
We are with j^ou, and will help you all we 

M. G. Wells, Clinton, Miss. 

I heard a party say lately that the Maga- 
zine ought to be in the hands of every 
young man and lady in the land. 

R. M. McFarlin, Yatesi<ille, Ga. 

Try and look the matter up, as we don't 
want to miss one number of the Magazine. 

C. D. Hope, Mt. Pleasant, O. 

We read Tom Watson's Magazine with 
much interest, and believe the principles it 
advocates are right, but as you wish the 
people to be frank and tell what they think, 
will say it is our opinion that we need the 
different kinds of reform you speak of too 
much to lose any precious time on party 
machine work. It is the old system of party 



rule that the enemies of our country have 
used so long and successfully in keeping the 
people divided against themselves. 

Direct legislation is the first step before 
we can get any reform. Then why not get 
it by the shortest route, and I think ques- 
tioning old party candidates and securing 
their pledges in writing that, if elected, they 
will use their influence and vote for that 
system is much better than third-party 
work, because it is putting the direct veto 
and initiative system into practice at once, 
thereby educating the people in the use of 

Richard Wolfe, Denver, Col. 

Your editorial on "Tolstoy and the 
Land" was splendid. You are right in 
saying it was misgovemment that wrecked 
our former civilizations, and I agree with 
you that a vicious money system has been 
the prime factor in it all. Give us a money 
system that will free us from "interest" 
tribute and it will so free the world that 
minor ills will vanish as a troublesome dream. 
Give us a free circulation of money and the 
nightmare that besets the commercial 
world would vanish out of sight and be for- 
ever gone. 

/. O. Garrason, Ludovici, Ga. 

I am already a subscriber to the Maga- 
zine and have been from its start; it's a 
clincher. Well may the enemies of Watson 
fear him — even his enemies admit he is 
brainy. His writings alone are worth the 
price of the Magazine — so interesting. It's 
funny to see how easy it is for him (Wat- 
son) to bottle up the smart Alecks when 
it comes to a "show-down." That there is 
but one Tom Watson has been well said. 
Long may he live. 

P. R. Runnels, Belle Buck, Tenn. 

Having read much of Mr. Watson's writ- 
ing from his early manhood to the present, 
I was not much surprised to find Tom 
Watson's Magazine comparing favorably 
with magazines much older. His editorials 
are not surpassed, his contributors equal 
Munsey's or Leslie's, the stories compare 
favorably with others. 

Paul Winkel, Kansas City, Mo. 

I desire to say that I have read every 
number of your Magazine, and I must say 
your Magazine is becoming better with 
every issue. Your Magazine fills great 
wants, or rather, every want but one. 

In my opinion we need an organ which 
will draw the attention of the people to the 
fact that in order to obtain the desired re- 
forms a new party is necessary, which party 
must be bom of the proposed reforms. This 
statement may look small upon its face at 
its first consideration, but what I know of 
the inside of the Democratic Party con- 
vinces me for all time to come that to hope 
for reform from that direction is folly, and 

no matter who may be the candidate or 
what the declaration of the platform may 
be. The Republican Party contains a large 
reform element, but it is too much to expect 
that the Republicans shall leave their party 
in order to help to reform the Democratic 
Party. On the other hand, the Republican 
Party is completely under the control and 
domination of the monopolists, and will 
remain so no matter how large and how in- 
dignant the reform element in the Republi- 
can Party may become against the monopo- 
list denunciation. 

\V. F. Flynt, Laurel, Miss. 

I congratulate you for such a grand and 
noble Magazine as you are putting before 
the people. I hope it may be read through- 
out the United States. Mr. Watson, I wish 
you would, as you have influence over a 
great many people, try and bring about a 
union between the Populists and Socialists. 

E. G. Paul, Pisgah, la. 

Lawson has set people to inquiring how 
it was possible for the plutocrats to acquire 
so many billions of the people's money, and 
they now will give a willing ear to anyone 
who will give them any information on the 
subject. Even the " Mossback Republicans" 
don't deem Tom Watson as big a fool as 
they formerly did, and many of them are 
now quite anxious to hear what said Watson 
has to say on the subject. 

When one of your Magazines goes out of 
my hands I can never get it back again. 
It goes on and on, until I lose all trace of 


By J. S. Ingalls, Litchfield, Minn. 

The following plan for what might be 
called a People's Banking System has now 
been approved by so many thoughtful men 
in Minnesota and the Dakotas that it seems 
advisable to submit it to a few men of recog- 
nized ability and large experience, and whose 
sympathies are known to be with the people. 

1. Incorporate a People's Finance Com- 
pany to undertake the work of pushing the 
work of organizing local banks in every com- 
munity, beginning in the agricultural dis- 
tricts. The capital stock could be divided 
into common stock (of which no one should 
be permitted to hold more than one share), 
and preferred, which could be retired after a 
certain date. The shares, I think, should 
not exceed $25 each. 

2. As often as funds are available the 
finance company would select a town, secure 
proper officers and directors, and incorporate 
a bank, the finance company subscribing for 
and taking the capital stock. Then let a 
contract be entered into between the finance 
company and the bank by the terms of which, 
among other things, the finance company 



agrees to make such examinations of the 
bank's affairs from time to time as prudence 
may require, and the bank agrees that its 
books shall at all times be open to inspection 
by the finance company, and that it will con- 
form to such business methods as may be 
adopted by the finance company for the 
regulation of all banks associated with it. 

3. Proceed to sell the stock of the bank to 
local patrons, requiring each to take one 
share of the common stock of the finance 
company, but requiring the purchaser to 
deposit both with a suitable trustee with a 
contract giving the finance company the 
right to repurchase both at any time, the ob- 
ject being to prevent our enemies buying it 
up and making trouble, and to render any 
excess over one share of the bank stock that 
may be held by any one person at all times 
available for sale to new patrons, and so 
secure as soon as possible an equal distribu- 
tion of the stock, one share of $100 to each 

4. Provide in the by-laws of every bank 
that the profits after paying expenses shall 
be distributed by paying — 

I. A fixed rate on share capital — say 
6 p^r cent. 

n. A certain percentage to a surplus 

III. The balance to the stockholders in 
proportion to their average daily balances. 

5. As soon as the finance company has 
accumulated sufficient funds let it organize a 
guaranty company for the purpose of guar- 
anteeing the deposits of all the banks and 
thereafter let all banks be required to keep 
their depositors insured against loss therein, 
paying therefor such rates as may be found 
necessary. All the stock of this company 
should be held by the finance company so 
that any profits would go back to the stock- 
holders of the banks. 

If no one but stockholders of the banks 
were permitted to hold any of the common 

stock of the finance company, which I think 
would be the better plan, the finance com- 
pany would in effect be a national organi- 
zation of the stockholders of all the banks, 
and one in which all would have an equal 
interest and responsibility. 

The first thought that naturally comes to 
the average mind is that such an organiza- 
tion would become unwieldy. Of course 
such a thing as a general meeting of all or any 
considerable portion of the stockholders 
would be impossible, and the spectre of one- 
man power through the control of proxies, as 
in the mutual insurance companies, natu- 
rally presents itself. This, I think, could be 

The by-laws of the finance company can 
provide for an election-board the members 
of which shall hold no other office and be in- 
eligible to re-election ; for a primary election 
to nominate candidates for directors and 
members of the election board ; for an official 
ballot with the names of all nominees 
printed thereon and whereon each stock- 
holder may indicate his choice, and on the 
bottom of which is printed a proxy to be 
signed by the stockholder authorizing the 
members of the election board to cast his 
ballot at the annual meeting of the stock- 
holders for the persons indicated in his bal- 
lot and not otherwise. The stockholders of 
each bank would constitute a sort of an elec- 
tion district, and the bank could be made 
the polling place, so that the machinery would 
be simple. 

In the same way amendments to the by- 
laws could be provided for — a certain per- 
centage of the vote cast at any primary elec- 
tion for any measure requiring it to be sub- 
mitted to a vote on the official ballot. These 
measures, it seems to me, would secure to the 
stockholders the power to rule the organiza- 
tion. Of course, such a movement would 
need its organ for the enlightenment of its 
members and the public generally. 

The Eagle and the Hen 

AN eagle and a hen were confined together in a large cage. The eagle sat 
moping, with head downcast, whereas the hen fluttered about, cackling 
joyously. Seeing her companion so dismal, the hen undertook to hearten him, 
saying, "Do not give way to misfortune; take a lesson from me: Wherever 
placed I make the best of the situation." With that she shook her feathers and 
strutted about, proud of the fortitude she displayed. 

" Ah," replied the eagle, " you may easily be contented. You know not what 
it is to soar." 

A hen may be contented in a cage, but an eagle needs the skies. 

Stasch Mlotkowski, 


A Plain "Hold-Up" 

Bryan and Hearst-"Now, if Bill only wasn't mad at me." Rogers, in N. Y. Herald 

Bart, in Minneapolis Journal 

Will Aldrich Get the Switch Over in Time to Save his Friend? 

De Mary in Philadelphia Record 


{Unless otherwise signed, reviews are by Thomas E. Watson,) 

Rimes to Be Read. By Edmund Vance 
Cooke. Dodge Publishing Co., New 
We have fallen upon commercial times 
wherein Art is gauged by the price some snob 
of the newly-rich pays for his "treasures"; 
therefore a poet is almost a rare specirnen of 
an extinct species. We are ready to discviss 
appreciatively the work of bards ^^ho are 
dead, but no one seems to expect or desire 
another Bums, or Poe, or Lowell or Whit- 

Nevertheless, the spirit and the bride say, 
"Come" to many a tender thought and 
feeling which dwell amid the mysteries of the 
mental world, be3'ond the realms of prose; 
and "every once m a while," some strain of 
rarest poetic harmony, some touching senti- 
ment fitly robed, some noble thoughts radi- 
antly bodied forth, remind us that, after all, 
poesy still lives, along with the stars and the 
flowers, along with the grief which makes the 
earth bitter, and the love which makes it 

There is nothing more capricious than the 
preference with which Reputation selects 
her favorite poets. When 1 see that Cowper 
is still a celebrity and Oliver Wendell Holmes 
a luminary — indeed, he deserves to be! — I 
wonder why Paul H. Hayne should be neg- 
lected and Dr. Frank H. Ticknor forgotten. 
When I read one of the perfect lyrics of 
James R. Randall, and feel myself thrilled 
by it, captivated by its classic form, its 
exquisite finish, its burning thought, its ten- 
der passion, I find myself asking, "Why has 
this master of song been slighted when fame 
has heralded Whittier, Longfellow, Bryant 
and Poe?" Randall's Eidolon appeals to 
me quite as irresistibly as "Annabel Lee." 
" My Marj'land " has more of the true fire of 
genius than anything Whittier penned. 
Why, then, does the world exalt two of these 
divinely gifted bards and ignore the third? 
I cannot tell. But I predict that when 
the modest poet of Maryland has been dead 
a reasonably sufficient length of time, the 
tardy recognition which he should have had 
while living tuill be given to his memory and 
every poem that he wrote will be gathered up 
as a gem. And suppose he had been recog- 
nized and encouraged while still in the flower 
and fruit stage of development! The lack 
of appreciation chills, and sometimes kills, 

and the finer organization of mind, heart 
and soul is precisely that which is paralyzed 
by cruel neglect. 

In running through the pages of " Rimes 
to Be Read," the reader will find himself 
asking " Did Bryant, or Whittier or Lowell 
write verses better than these?" 

Take the author's story of "Connor 
McCarthy": wherein does it lack the deepest 
huinan interest, and the best artistic expres- 
sion? Wherein does it suff"er by compari- 
son with the highest standards of poetic 
narrative ? Of its kind it seems to me a 
perfect poem. To be appreciated it must be 
read as a whole. But conjugal afTection is 
so beautifully expressed in one stanza that 
I quote it: 

And never a worriment found me, 
But Mary's kiss laid it to rest. 

And whin her two arms weut around tne, 
I held all the world to my breast. 

Here, also is a fine stanza: 

Ah, sad is the Aa.Y that must borrow 
Its light from a day of the past. 

And sad when you turn from tomorrow 
To a yesterday never to last. 

The concluding stanza breathes that spirit 
of chastened resignation, of mingled_regret 
and hope that is always so pathetic: 
I've got no reproach for the livin'. 
I've nothing but love for the dead. 
I hope me own past is fortjiven, 

And, as for what's comin ahead, 
Who can tell? Maybe joy, maybe sorrow. 

But surely there s some place, at last. 
Where old people live for tomorrow. 
As well as look into the past. 

One of the minor poems in the book is a 
song of the "Old Schoolhousc." Upon this 
familiar chord, whose vibrations have been 
felt by all of us, Mr. Cooke lays his touch 
also, and draws out original melody. "Al- 
most Up," is a noble commemoration of 
heroic devotion to Duty. 

The writer or the speaker who can compel 
tears is likewise the master of smiles — always. 

Therefore, the reader whose eyes have 
been dimmed by "Connor McCarthy" is not 
shocked when he discovers that he is laughing 
over "Fin de Siecle," " De Goofeh-Jack," 
"Not a Coon-Song Coon," and "Revenge." 

The humor of the=e pieces is delicious. 
There is no straining, no Mark Twain 
exaggeration, no effort to extort artificial fun 



out of contorted spelling.| The humor is in 
the conception, in the thought, where it 
should be, and hence the enjoyment lingers 
after the first reading, and you come back 
to read again. 

"Fin de Siecle" is bully — no other word 
fits — and if you know anything about real 
niggers (not Afro-Americans) you'll see the 
truth as well as humor in the " Goofeh-Jack," 
and " Not a Coon-Song Coon." 

In "The Minor Role" Mr. Cooke pays 
tender and glowing tribute to that noblest 
of God's creatures, the pure, modest, devoted 
Woman of the Home. 

Other reviewers may say what they please, 
but to my thinking, "Rimes to Be Read" 
is a book that deserves a high place in the 
library of Poesy and Song. 

The Henry Laurens Pamphlets. Henry 

Laurens, Publisher, New York City. 

Amost excellent statement of the case of 
the Masaes against the Classes, in which the 
evils of class legislation are vividly set forth. 

The World's Revolutions. By Ernest Unter- 
mann. Charles H. Kerr & Co., Chicago. 

This is one of Kerr's Standard Socialist 
Series, pocket size, neatly bound in red 
cloth, and contains 176 pages. Mr. Unter- 
mann is the author of another book, called 
"Science and Revolution," and has trans- 
lated a number of Socialist books from 
foreign languages. In the volume under 
consideration Mr. Untermann has attempted 
to give, in a sort of kindergarten way, some 
of the facts and guesses which may be found 
in Loria's "Economic Foundations of So- 
ciety," as well as in a number of other 
Socialist works of foreign origin. 

It is to be admitted that the translator of 
Loria's work has made the book hard read- 
ing, but Mr. Untermann, in his desire to 
avoid the precise statements of the college 
professor, has gone to the other extreme. 
His first chapter, "The Individual and the 
Universe," is a good example of sentimental- 
ism, but could hardly claim a place in a 
so-called scientific work. 

In the second chapter, " Primitive Human 
Revolutions," Mr. Untermann appears in an 
apologetic mood because he cannot believe 
the Mosaic account of the creation, and he 
seemingly forgets the alleged international 
character of Socialism in the following sen- 
tence: "And there may be many believers 
in the Bible who are American enough to 
hear all sides, even if they do not agree with 
the other sides." (The italics are ours.) Mr. 
Untermann's account of the creation, so- 
called, is that, after a lapse of many thou- 
sands of years, "it happened that among a 
number of children of primitive monkey 
man, one was bom with a superior brain, 
with better hands and feet, and under the 
prevailing conditions this superior type was 
better fitted to stand the struggle for exist- 
ence than all the other children." This is 
fallowed up with his guesses as to the evolu- 

tion of man up to the time when he avers 
that a primitive social organization had been 
effected, and that "all who traced their des- 
scent to the same mother belonged to the 
same group (gens) and lived together. Men 
and women lived as equals, dividing the 
work among themselves, and sharing equally 
in its proceeds." 

The first human revolution, according to 
Mr. Untermann, happened after mankind 
had learned to domesticate animals and 
make use of them. He says, "People had 
to leave their permanent places of abode, 
and so learned to make tents of animal 
skins and to wander about. This took them 
away from old habits and traditions. Then, 
too, the work of the men increased over that 
of the women, who stayed in the temporary 
domiciles and did the domestic work. After a 
few generations of such life the men gradually 
assumed a superior position in the groups, 
and one of them, the oldest, or wisest, or 
strongest, finally became leader and manager 
among them. The women had to be con- 
tent with an inferior position, and gradually 
the wealth of the group drifted into the 
hands of the strongest family, and then of 
the man at the head of that family." 

"This revolution of men against the tra- 
ditional equality of women," says Mr. Un- 
termann, 'was the cause of all subsequent 
human revolutions, and the motive for it, 
as for all others, was the desire to be ex- 
clusive owners of the resources of life which 
had been produced and used by all members 
of a certain group" 

He then takes up, in Chapter III," The 
Roman Empire and Its Proletariat, and 
attempts to draw a parallel between what 
he calls "The Roman Populist movement," 
with the "American Populist movement" 
almost 2,000 years later. By the former he 
means the attempted reforms by the Gracchi, 
from 133 to 121 B. C, and by Cataline in 
63 B. C. The only difference bet.veen the 
two movements, he avers, was "that the 
Roman Populist leaders were forsaken by 
the rank and file, while the rank and file of 
the American Populist movement were be- 
trayed by their leaders." 

In Chapter IV, "The Christian Proletariat 
and Its Mission," it would seem that Mr. 
Untermann has drawn very largely on his 
imagination in his attempt to snow that 
Jesus was the chosen head of a propaganda 
committee to disseminate knowledge and to 
carry on an international proletarian move- 
ment. This chapter might well be labeled 
"interesting if true." 

Chapter V, "Feudal Ecclesiasticism and 
Its Disintegration" is largely a re-hash of 
attacks upon both the Catholic Church and 
the Protestant organization. But when we 
reach Chapter VI ," The American Revolution 
and Its Reflex in France," then the average 
American may be expected to sit up, and 
take notice. He is told that " Washington, 
the man who could not tell a lie, had stolen 
about 30,000 acres of land from the English 



Government while he worlced as a Govern- 
ment sur\^eyor," and because he feared los- 
ing his possessions, he headed the American 
Revolution. That Jefferson "was as un- 
scrupulous a land grabber as Washington, 
Franklin, Hamilton and other gentlemen." 
That "John Hancock was to have been tried 
for defrauding the Customs on the very day 
when the first shots of the Revolution were 
fired at Lexington." That Lafayette "was 
a haughty aristocrat of the most exclusive 
pretensions, and cared so little for th liberty 
of the people that he was one of the first to 
shoot them down when they rose in the 
French Revolution a few years later. That 
Steuben was "one of the despotic, overbear- 
ing drill-masters of Frederick the Great, and 
was engaged by Washington for the purpose 
of instilling ' more discipline and respect for 
superiors' into the refractory heads of the 
American soldiers." 

Mr. Untermann is greatly exercised be- 
cause "it was this gentry that started the 
Revolution ; not the working people. It was 
the gentleman, Patrick Henjy, who assailed 
the British King in the Virginia Legislatures. 
It was a crowd of gentlemen's sons who led 
the party that threw the tea overboard in 
Boston Harbor. A crowd of workingmen 
would have been jailed for disturbing the 
peace if they had attempted such an exploit." 
He confesses he doesn't blame the farmers 
of Pennsylvania who refused to furnish pro- 
visions to the American Army which was 
starving at Valley Forge, because the Eng- 
lish army in Philadelphia paid better 
prices. He says "they proceeded on ex- 
actly the same principles toward the Revo- 
lutionary gentlemen that these gentlemen 
observed against the farmers and the rest of 
the working people." In fact, he points out 
these various matters to prove that "the 
American Revolution was a business rev- 

A noticeable feature in Mr. Untermann 's 
writing is that venom he spits upon the 
bourgeoisie. Only the proletarian is Christ- 
like and meek and a gentleman and honest. 
The possession of a bit of property trans- 
forms one into a vacillating coward, possessed 
of the most sordid selfishness, and utterly 
without good qualities of any kind. This, 
it may be remarked in passing, is hardly the 
attitude of a scientist. It is more the mouth- 
ing of a special pleader. 

Suppose we grant that the American Rev- 
olution was a business revolution, and that 
it was inaugurated and carried to a success- 
ful conclusion through the efforts of the wn- 
tlemen Mr. Untermann feels called upon to 
slander. And suppose that the proletariat 
possesses all the lovable qualities Mr. Unter- 
mann depicts; and that the bourgeoisie is as 
bad as he paints it. Has the "historical 
mission of the working class" made any ma- 
terial change in the situation ? Where today 
is there a proletarian leader of the Socialist 
movement? Where is the working-class 
man guiding the destinies of his class, or 

engaged in leading it? So far as I am able 
to learn, the real leaders of Socialism in this 
country are themselves "business men." 
I have no knowledge that Mr. Wilshire ever 
stole 30,000 acres of good American soil, but 
itis common talk that he owns a comfortable 
block of stock in the Standard Oil Company. 
I am not inclined to think that J. A. Wayland 
is a proletarian, especially in view of the 
fact that he can give away as prizes several 
farms. I know nothing of Mr. Unlermann's 
personal affairs, but venture to guess that he 
is not himself a member of the proletariat. 
I do not believe Victor Berger is, and I know 
that Joseph M. Patterson, Robert Hvmter, 
Jas. G. Phelps Stokes and many others are 
not proletarians. 

Suppose "Jefferson was a typical Southern 
gentleman of the most aristocratic tastes and 
habits." Much the same thing might be 
said of Gaylord Wilshire. And yet both he 
and Jefferson are typical Democrats. I 
have it on rumor that is not denied that 
Maxim Gorky, while the guest of Mr. Wil- 
shire, consumed in wines and liquors each day 
more than the average proletarian receives in 
wages in a month. I am not complaining 
of this, but simply call it up as a sort of par- 
allel case to Mr. Untermann 's American 
Revolution. It would seem that if the next 
revolution is to be successful, it must be 
directed and led by "business men," just as 
previous revolutions were led. 

As a sample of the scientific manner in 
which Mr. Untermann deals with the bour- 
geoisie, I quote the following paragraphs: 

So they pretend to sneer at aristocracy, but 
they imitate its assumption of manners and style 
of living. They scofE at religious dogmas in the 
privacy of their clubs and offices, but they foster 
them for political purposes. They denounce cor- 
ruption, crime, prostitution, but they cannot get 
along without them and have never seriously tried 
to eliminate them. They point with pride to the 
progress of society under their rule, but they have 
resisted it and are resisting it today, step by step, 
and would not go forward one inch, unless the 
inexorable and to them incomprehensible laws of 
their own development lashed them ahead in spite 
of all their stubborn resistance. 

They brag of their high ideals and pure 
motives. But they have never realized in actual 
life one of the ideals of their youth. They are the 
inventors of the human rights theory, but they 
have never done one thing to materialize it in 
practise. On the contrary, they have always 
fought it bitterly, wherever the historical con- 
ditions pressed for its realization, and in no coun- 
try of this globe more so than in the United States, 
its birthplace. And if this theory found sporadi- 
cally and in isolated places a short opportunity to 
express itself in deeds, this happened very much 
against their will, and they hastened to stifle it, 
lest the working class should assume to much 

Their motives? Those which they publicly 
pretended to have were never their real motives, 
and the only consistent motive that actuated 
them, the greed for money, was a sordid one and 
never openly avowed by them, but always ideal- 
ized before the world and excused before thair 
own consciences. 

All this would be laughable if it were not 



so tragic. Mr. Untermann pretends to be- 
lieve in economic determinism, which, with- 
out elaborating it, is simply that one's 
method of getting a living controls his ac- 
tions and gives him his ideals. Are the 
capitalists to blame for such action? Mani- 
festly not, if the theory of economic deter- 
minis:n be true. A scientific work shoiild be 
consistent with his theories. 

Mr. Untermann has failed to be consistent. 

C. Q. D. 

The Agreement Between Science and Re- 
ligion. Orlando J. Smith. Published 
by C. P. Farrell, 117 East 21st street. 
New York. 10 cents. 
One notes with pleasure a writer whose 
distinguishing marks are sanity and urbane- 
ness in a field that is usually made intolerable 
by the venom and prejudice of the contro- 
versialist, and it would have beeneasy for 
a less philosophic mind to indulge in boast- 
fulness and vainglory in this slender, but 
copious pamphlet, which signalizes the latest 
stage in the ancient argument between Science 
and Religion. At first the religious philoso- 
pher showed no quarter to the scientific; 
later he became aware that the purpose of 
true science was not to destroy religion, 
however rudely it. might fall upon certain 
beliefs and symbols. A fanatic in science, 
a fanatic in religion, each is a fanatic, who 
may work upon the emotions; but neither 
can persuade the inquiring mind. The 
writer of the present pamphlet is not fanati- 
cal on one side or the other. His aim seems 
not so much to be to convince others, as to 
adventure in the way of truth for the satis- 
faction of his own soul. This done, he gives 
the fruit of his wide reading and of his medi- 
tation to the world in the simplest and cheap- 
est of forms. Such an essay as this invites 
re-reading, and is worth many a volume 
between whose covers it would occupy little 
more than a score of pages. 

"Every religious cult, from the lowest to 
the highest," says the author, "has had one 
central motive — the explanation of the 
government of the universe. Science, in 
its higher reaches, seeks to solve precisely 
the same problem. Religion would explain 
the relations of the individual soul to the 
government of the universe. Science would 
explain the relations of all truth to the su- 
preme adjustment. It shall be my task to 
inquire concerning the results of these two 
investigations — one religious and the other 
scientific — of the government of the uni- 
verse, and to ascertain whether there exists 
any agreement between them." He then 
proceeds to examine the foundation of 
science in common experience, in reasoning, 
in ethics, in mathematics, in physics, to 
arrive at the conclusion that: "A reaction 
is the consequence of an action, an effect is the 
consequence of a cause, a result is the con- 
sequence of an antecedent. It is evident 
that the words reaction, efjcci, result and 

consequence express different manifestations 
of one law, usually called the Law of Caus- 
ality, though it would be, I believe, more 
correctly named the Law of Balance, mean- 
ing thereby, that an antecedent and its 
consequence are equivalent, reciprocal or 
compensatory to each other — that one 
balances the other, that consequences are 
true to their antecedents. 

"Returning to the fact that there is cease- 
less motion everywhere, and perfect rest 
nowhere, we perceive that this ceaselets 
motion is regulated by equivalence, reci- 
procity or compensation between ante- 
cedents and consequences. Throughout the 
imiverse reaction unceasingly balances action , 
effect unceasingly balances cause, conse- 
quence unceasingly balances antecedent. 
And this state of balance explains perfectly 
the precision and order in the processes of 

Continuing, the author shows that the 
simplest truth is in harmony with all other 
truths; and that any truth concerning the 
system of nature must agree with, and 
through its relations include, all truth con- 
cerning the system of nature. Modem 
science recognizes that Kepler's three laws of 
planetary motion are covered by Newton's 
laws of motion — that planetary motion is 
governed by precisely the same laws as all 
other motion. It is true, also, that Newton's 
three laws of motion are included in the 
single fundamental principle that conse- 
quences are true to their antecedents. 
Again, the author makes clear to us that the 
theory of evolution is a statement of the 
working, in one very important line of in- 
quiry, of the principle that consequences are 
true to their antecedents. Then he seeks 
the relation of the theories of the conserva- 
tion of energy, the indestructibility of matter 
and the ceaselessness of motion to the prin- 
ciple that consequences are true to their 
antecedents; and goes on to prove that in 
reality the theory of the conservation of 
energy and the theory of the indestructibility 
of matter are not two theories. They con- 
stitute one theory — that force and matter are 
indestructible — the meaning of which is that 
in the transformation of force or matter 
there is no loss, no waste; that the conse- 
quence is equivalent to the antecedent. 

From all these observations the author 
draws the conclusion: "that the universe is 
governed by one law — that consequences are 
true to their antecedents; that consequences 
are ceaseless and compensatory. This is, I 
believe, the supreme law of nature, single and 
fundamental, in which all other explanations 
of the system of nature and all truth con- 
verge and have their center." 

Having made his examination of the foun- 
dation of science, the author undertakes a 
similar inquiry in to the foundation of religion. 
By religion he understands not one or any 
creed, but universal religion, all religion. 
He seeks the essential meaning of religion 



"in the broad principle of principles which 
have been accepted by great masses of men 
in places and times wide apart; in the per- 
manent manifestations of reUgious sentiment, 
and in the instinctive, spontaneous or un- 
taught beliefs common to primitive men 
which survive in more highly developed form 
among the enlightened. And finally, in the 
harmony of belief in the great religious 
organizations now in existence; for they 
must contain, in the natural order of growth, 
that which is worthy of survival in the 
religious faith that has preceded them." 
We then learn that three basic beliefs have 
persisted in all religion: the belief that the 
soul is accountable for its actions ; the belief 
that the soul survives the death of the body; 
the belief in a supreme power of adjustment. 
"The primitive interpretations of the 
supreme power improved with man's growth 
in culture. The lower conceptions gave way 
to something better, and these to something 
still better — fetiches to idolatry, idolatry 
to polytheism, polytheism to monotheism. 
In contrast with the narrow views of primi- 
tive men, the enlightened sects have attrib- 
uted the most sublime qualities to the 
supreme order or ruler. A divine power is 
recognized in Varuna, the chief deity of the 
early Argans; in Brahma, the absolute of the 
Hindoos; in Jehovah, the almighty of the 
Hebrews and Christians; in Odin, the all- 
father of the Norsemen; in Zeus, the 
highest deity of the Greeks; in Jupiter, the 
chief god of the Romans; in Allah, the one 
God of the Mohammedans. The strongest 
words expressive of beneficence and omnipo- 
tence are applied habitually to God — the 
providence, the divine, the infinite, the 
eternal, the all-powerful, the all-present, the 
all-holy, the immutable, the most high, the 
ruler of heaven and earth, the king of kings, 
the light of the world, the sun of righteous- 
ness. Always he is the God who rewards 
the good and punishes the evil ; the God who 
administers the compensation — the supreme 
power of adjustment." 

The three fiindamental religious beliefs 
ascertained, the author prepares to point otit 
the agreement between science and religion. 
"As science assumes that cause and effect, 
action and reaction, motion and transfor- 
mation, are ceaseless in the physical world, 
so religion assiimes that cause and effect, 
actions and consequences, are ceaseless in 
the soul and the individual. The religious 
doctrine of ceaseless moral accountability is 
identical with the scientific doctrine of cease- 
less cause and effect. As science postulates 
that matter and force are indestructible, so 
religion postulates that the human soul is 
indestructible. The belief in a supreme 
power of adjustment is the necessary corol- 
lary of the two preceding beliefs. . . We 
have no difficulty in thinking of ph>^sical 
consequences as invariable. All experience 
shows that they are invariable. Extending 
this one law of invariable consequences into 
the realm of the soul, we perceive that the 

one law establishes the religious theory of 
moral accountability, and the rightness of 
the cosmic order. I cannot doubt that this 
one law is that which religious thought has 
sought to comprehend in all stages of cul- 
ture, and with increasing success as men 
have grown in knowledge. The very same 
law which is recognized by science as funda- 
mental in the physical world establishes 
perfect justice, infinite and eternal, when 
extended into the world of souls. Applied to 
matter and force, this one law explains the 
marvellous order in the material universe; ap- 
plied to the individual, it becomes the noblest 
philosophy that the mind can grasp. 

"Religion and science are in agreement, 
not in conflict. They have never been in 
real conflict. The appearance of conflict has 
been due to misunderstanding and misinter- 
pretation of both religion and science through 
the ages in which men have been groping and 
toiling upward from darkness to light. 

" The scientific explanations of nature have 
advanced constantly in breadth — into the 
uniform, the boundless, the tmiversal, the 
changeless, theceaseless, the deathless. Upon 
these broad grounds religion and science 
meet — on the ground of life, not death; of 
persistence, not annihilation; of right, not 
wrong; on the grovmd of the uniformity of 
Nature: that the consequences of human 
action are as definite as the consequences 
of chemical action ; that the law of compen- 
sation which operates in the realm of phys- 
ics acts with the same unfailing certainty, 
and with the same eternal ceaselessness, 
upon the soul of man." 

R. D. 

Visionaries. By James Huneker. Charles 
Scribner's Sons, New York. 
Mr. Huneker has taken as device for this 
volume of his short stories a line from 
Baudelaire: "J'aiine les nuages . . . la 
bas . . . I" And to understand, to 
appreciate, one must adventure forth with 
him far off there where the clouds are, along 
the purple way, to worlds that are far and 
strange. In these tales of the supercivi- 
lized, one marvels again at the multi-colored 
opulence that distinguishes all he writes, 
whether criticism of music, of painting, 
of drama, or fiction, whose characters 
move and have their being in these arts. 
With such a province for his stories it is but 
natural that he should find himself more at 
home in Europe than in the United States. 
The ideas, the characters, the background 
lie there at hand, and are his to choose and 
embellish with the prismatic radiance of an 
English, vigorous and true, yet faintly aro- 
matic of alien voices. One impression left 
by his brilliant book is, that the author 
must be somewhat kin to an American he 
thus describes. "But his thoughts were 
always three thousand miles away, in that 
delectable city of cities, Paris. For Paris 
he suffered a painful nostalgia. There he 
met his true brethren, while in New York he 



felt an alien. He was one. The city, with 
its high, narrow streets — granite tunnels, 
its rude reverberations, its colorless, toiling 
barbarians, with their uncouth indifference 
to art — he did not deny that he loathed this 
nation, vibrating only in the presence of 
money, sports, grimy ward politics . . . 
no nuance in its life'or its literature. France 
was his pairie psycliique: he would return 
there some day and forever ... " 

We know that it is tmfair to trace the 
likeness of an author from one of his charac- 
ters. It is stupid also. But we do not say 
more than that Mr. Huneker seems akin to 
such a character, whose distant relatives are 
are to be met with at home wherever 
gather those sincerely devoted to the arts. 
One may judge then what a fertile field he 
possesses in which to cultivate fiction. That 
he knows material when he sees it at home, 
there can be no doubt, if one reads the last, 
and perhaps the most fantastic story in this 
book of vivid color, sweeping imagination, 
and acute analysis of the temperament 

Here is Mr. Huneker's picture of the gypsy 
band in a certain New York restaurant. 
You may have been there yourself, seen and 
heard, yet never so dramatically. "A 
vicious swirl of color, and dizzy, dislocated 
rhythms prefaced the incantations of the 
Czardas. Instantly, the eating, gabbling 
crowd became silent; Alfassy Janos magne- 
tized his hearers with cradling, caressing 
movements of his fiddle ! He waved like tall 
grass in the wnnd; he twisted snakewise his 
lithe body as he lashed his bow upon the 
screaming strings; the resilient tones darted 
fulgurantly from instrument to instrument. 
After chasing in circles of quicksilver, they 
all met with a crash; and the whole tonal 
battery, reinforced by the throbbing of 
Arpad Vihary's dvilcimer, swept through the 
suite of rooms from ceiling to sanded floor. 
It was no longer enchanted music, but 
sheer madness of the blood; sensual and war- 
like, it gripped the imagination as these 
tunes of Old Egypt, filtered through savage 
centuries, reached the ears. Lora trembled 
in the gale that blew across the Puzta. She 
imagined a determined Hungarian prairie, 
over which dashed disordered centaurs, 
brandishing clubs, driving before them a 
band of satyrs and leaping fauns. The 
hoofed men struggled. At the front was a 
monster with a black goat-face and huge 
horns; he fought fiercely the half human 
horses. The sun, a thin scarf of light, was 
eclipsed by earnest clouds; the curving 
thunder closed over the battle ..." 

Another story, "The Tune of Time," re- 
veals the brilliant daring of imaginative 
power that is Mr. Huneker's most striking 
characteristic as a fictionist. In fact, this 
quality, developed to such a high degree, 
makes the book stand alone in English short- 
story literature of today. Not all the stories 
are of equal worth — one notes the excesses 

of his ability in conception and in expression ; 
but the least of them is individual, 

R. D. 

A Woman's Heart. By Olive Ransom. 
Doubleday, Page & Co., New York. 

This book purports to be composed of 
manuscripts found in the papers of Katherine 
Peshconet, and edited by her executor, Olive 
Ransom. Katherine Peshconet, who calls 
herself an American of Puritan descent, 
despite a name that soimds very French- 
Canadian, became infatuated with a Roman 
Catholic priest. Marriage, of course, was 
impossible; though the passion seemed re- 
ciprocal, that is, if we may judge from the 
statement of the lady enamored. The man 
in the case is never allowed to say a word — 
except though the medium of his beloved's 
interminable utterance. The last would 
have kept any man, half sane, from ever 
thinking of living with her. Besides, she is 
making overt love to him all the time, which 
is so sharp a contradiction of sex tactics in 
such enterprises, that one seriously doubts, at 
times, whether the book is truly the product 
of a feminine typewriting machine. Con- 
sider the picture of wedded bliss the lady 
draws in her imagination ; and wonder which 
way any man with a beard on his face would 
run at the offer: "You shoi:ld read aloud 
from Keats and Sophocles, Dante, Thomas 
a Kempis, Emerson, Clough, Arnold, Shelley, 
and the Gospels — our hearts would welcome 
messages from all brave, strong, time souls — 
while I should count your linen, stiffen the 
fastenings of your buttons, and pick up the 
dropped threads of your stockings." Again: 
"I should like to take you this morning as a 
mother takes her baby on her lap, and rubs 
him with mild water, holding up soft linen to 
defend the tender body from stray draughts. 
She washes and pats the tender skin, brushes 
up the brown hair, and lulls him to restful- 
ness. Then, finally, I should put j-ou away 
in a cool, shaded cot, like the baby, for a 

Except for the long passages of ecclesiastic 
discussion, which are dull, and some few too 
ardent passages that verge on vtilgarity, the 
book is amusing in spots. It is evident that 
as autobiography it is fictitious; and as 
fiction that it is impotent and immature. 
There is no question of disrespecting the 
memory of the dead, for Katherine Peshco- 
net never can have lived under that or 
an;^ other name. The executor-author has 
plainly read too much and lived too little; 
but we may feel equally sure that she has 
fvill opportunity to outlive this youthful in- 
discretion, at least by years. She has our 
best wish that she may do it also by her 
future work. 

H. E. V. 

The Four Million. O. Henrs'. McClure, 
PhiUips & Co., New York. 
"Not very long ago some one invented 



the assertion that there were only 'Four 
Hundred' people in New York City who 
were really worth noticing. But a wiser 
man has arisen — the census-taker — and his 
larger estimate of human nature has been 
preferred in marking out the field of these 
little stories of the 'Four Million'." In his 
paragraph of a preface.O. Henry shows the 
same sense of economy of words, individual- 
ity of view-point and ingenmty of concep- 
tion that characterize the twenty-five stories 
of which his book is made up. In word-limit 
all the stories are shorter than the average 
magazine story, yet it would be difficult to 
find as much observation and insight com- 
pacted in the short stories of any fictionist 
of today. 

It is worth while to examine closely the 
method of a writer whom critics have, on 
various occasions, compared to Dickens, 
Maupassant, Stevenson. This, even though 
one may have a confirmed opinion on the 
inutility of comparisons. If we feel inclined 
to say a writer is very much like Stevenson, 
we are unconsciously subtracting from the 
later man's individuality. Indeed, it would 
be tiresome to read any man just like Steven- 
son, except Stevenson himself. Moreover, 
one might pick a majority of traits in the 
stories of O. Henry that make him quite un- 
like the celebrities just named. 

For instance, he describes, in a phrase, 
where Dickens indulges in a paragraph. 
Again, his sentiment is always spiced with a 
humorous cynicism, never unkind, yet never 
unaware of the general foolishness of normal 
human nature. He is as much like Dickens 
as Broadway is like the Strand. His people 
are often of very humble station, and soul 
to soul one meets waiters of both sexes, 
policemen, tramps, factory workers. Bowery 
heroes, shop girls, messenger boys, boarding- 
house keepers, the furnished roomers under 
life sentence, yaps and a yellow dog. _ Not 
even the dog is presented in the rose-tinted 
vapor that most writers spray upon the 
Lady Romance that seems to be the genius 
of Manhattan Island. Nor does he see them 
drenched in the grime that is the main 
denotement of the so-called realist. He 

sees them as they are, and manages to epito- 
mize in some misadventure of every day the 
whole melodrama of their existence. 

He refuses to see New York as provincially 
as New Yorkers see it. He refuses to see the 
pathos in the short and simple annals of the 
poor, whichis the effect of the habit of reading 
newspaper accounts of kidnapped children. 
He cauterizes the snobbery that makes a 
native of the State of Maine pose as a cos- 
mopolite in a caf^, with the same admirable 
restraint he uses in the romance of the girl 
in the skylight room, who worshipped a star 
and was hurried away starving by an ambu- 
lance surgeon of the same name as the star. 

Sometimes he seems not to be telling a 
story at all. The Chorus, at his elbow al- 
ways, talks uninterruptedly. One feels the 
case is being stated; and then comes the 
quirk of the last line that throws a new 
light on all that has gone before. With the 
aid of his Chorus he manages the paradox of 
telling a story without writing it. The 
quirk of the last line, that never fails to sur- 
prise, is factitious, but we wouldn't dispense 
with it, even though it does invalidate the 
comparison to Maupassant. He resembles 
all good writers in his fine instinct for the 
right word, whether he is writing New 
Yorkese or English; he is stii generis in the 
manifold impressions he records of the 
great illusion New York is — in common 
with other over- advertised cities. For this 
reason, we believe "The Four Million" to be 
the most interesting book of New York 
stories yet written. Not all phases of the 
city's life are comprised in it, but all the 
phases that to the outsider mean the city 

R. D. 

Books Received 

Better-World Philosophy : a Sociological Syn- 
thesis, by J. Howard Moore. Chas. 
H. Kerr & Co., Chicago, Publishers. 

Mark Twain's Library of Humor. Illus- 
trated. Harper Bros., New York, Pub- 

We have assimilated the Filipinos, but 
we have abandoned the pretense of benevo- 
lence. We won't allow them an outlet for 
their products, sugar and tobacco. They 
can't send either to this country, of which 
they are a part, without paying duty. Their 
agriculture needs help. Their fields have 
been devastated by war. We have given 
them a costly government, chiefly military. 
They have been forced to import rice for 
food. On top of all this we shut them out of 
the market in this country. We tax the 
Filipinos without their consent even as 
George III taxed ourselves until we revolted 
and became free. We treat these colonies 
as vilely as they were treated by Spain, if 
not worse. The defeat of the Philippine 
tariff bill is a disgrace to this country, a repu- 
diation of the principles to which, as a nation, 
we owe our origin. — Graphic, Kirksville, Mo. 

Trustism, bossism, partyism, along with 
such isms as Clevelandism and other dam- 
phoolisms, have made American politics 
corrupt. And they have made a great many 
good men independent in things political, 
and in the course of time may be the salva- 
tion of our native land. — Salinac Farmer, 
Sandusky, Mich. 

With the dividends of Standard Oil 
amounting, in eight years, to three times the 
par value of its capital stock, it would seem 
that any raise in the price of oil or gasoline 
is nothing short of the boldest form of high- 
way robbery. — People's Press, Perkins, Okla. 

The Union Mine Workers voted $5,000 
to aid the Western Federation men who have 
been arrested and taken to Idaho for trial 
in connection with the murder of ex-Gov- 
crnor Steunenburg. If the accused are 
guilty they should be punished, and if inno- 
cent they should be given a fair trial. The 
laboring element is greatly worked up over 
the stand the present governor has taken in 
the matter, as by his actions he shows that 
he believes in reversing the way the law 
reads, and holding the defendants guilty 
until proven innocent. — Herald, Beatrice, Neb. 

Henry Clews, the Wall Street banker, 
in his weekly circular letter of April 7 , says 
the " railroad earnings are gratifyingly large ;" 
117 roads report a gain of 20 per cent, for 
January; 58 roads report a gain of 25 per 


cent, during the month of February. Mr. 
Clews further says "the returns of many of 
our large industrial corporations are also 
gratifying." But does the prosperity of the 
railroads and the manufacturing trusts al- 
ways mean that the people are also prosper- 
ing? — Missouri World, Chillicothe, Mo. 

The internal dissension generally rife in 
both the great political parties is one of the 
most hopeful signs of the times. It means 
thinking is being done by individuals and 
that organizations as such are getting their 
proper rating. — Union Standard, West field. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission 
says that the freight inspectors detect at 
least 1 ,000 cases of underbilled freight in New 
York every day. It would be a good deal 
more interesting if the commission could tell 
how many of the cases were not detected. 
— Phonograph, Glenwood, Mo. 

Ex-Senator Pettigrew says: "A third 
party standing for government ownership of 
railroads and for the referendum will in all 
probability come into being and carry the 
day against both the Republicans and Demo- 
crats in the next Presidential election. The 
very rich are the anarchists, because they 
violate the law. The outcry of the rank and 
file of all parties today is the outcome of the 
anarchy of these very rich people. Their 
conduct has broken down the representative 
system of our country that was developed 
before the corporations came into existence, 
but was destroyed by the creation of corpo- 
rations, resulting in corruption and bribery 
in our legislatures and representative bodies. 
Today we are the corruptest government in 
the world. Complete socialism is not a prac- 
tical remedy." — Investigator, Omaha, Neb. 

Nebraska has one county that is larger 
than either Rhode Island or Delaware, and 
Rhode Island is the boss of the Senate through 
Aldrich, and the people of Rhode Island 
would die of starvation within a year if they 
were forced to live on the products that were 
produced in that state during that time, 
while enough could be produced on the fer- 
tile lands of Nebraska to feed and clothe the 
whole of New England and have goods to 
sell elsewhere. Yet Aldrich is king over 



Nebraska as well as the rest of the states, and 
will continue to be as long as he lives and 
the people vote the Republican ticket. The 
moral of this little story is that you ought 
to stand pat and vote 'er straight. — Inves- 
tigator, Omaha, Neb. 

Money performs precisely the same func- 
tion in the social and business organism that 
blood does in the animal organism. Blood 
is the vitalizing force in the human body, and 
money is the vitalizing force in the body 
politic. Everybody knows that the loss of 
blood causes weakness in a human person, 
and just so the loss of money — a contraction 
of the money volume — causes weakness in a 
government; hence no "Power should be 
permitted to control our volume of money." 
Good paper money based on the credit of the 
people is the best money ever invented by 
man or men. — Reporter, Strang, Neb. 

President Roosevelt has compromised 
on the railroad rate question and consented 
to the court review feature, which he resisted 
for a time. The courts have no terrors for 
the railroads. Had an idea all the time that 
our strenuous President would find the rail- 
road rate proposition a very strenuous one 
to handle. Government ownership is the 
only correct and lasting solution. Any- 
thing short of this will be a miserable make- 
shift at the best. — People's Voice, Norman, 

tions. Our country is what we make it. 
The workers, the rank and file, are respon- 
sible for those they elect to serve them. — 
Advocate, Lardo, Idaho. 

When a banker steals money they call it 
embezzlement, but when a poor man steals 
money, or its equivalent, they call it robbery. 
Isn't it a nice distinction? — Citizen, Verdi- 
gre. Neb. 

Mr. George B. McClellan can not com- 
plain any longer that only hard luck falls to 
him, as Judge Parker recently refused to 
stand sponsor for a McClellan Presidential 
boom. — Leader, Guthrie, Okla. 

Joe Bailey missed his calling. If he can 
make a speech powerful enough to convert a 
Republican Senator from Maine, he should 
have been a revivalist by all means. The 
fields are white unto harvest for him. — 
Chronicle-Reporter, Cedar City, Mo. 

We cannot help but think that a great 
mistake is made by people forming fixed 
opinions from studying one side of a ques- 
tion only. But many do so, and become so 
firmly fixed in their opinions that when in 
error angels could not convince them to the 
contrary. They take up with one issue and 
will neither read nor hear anything that con- 
flicts with it. They become narrow minded, 
bigoted and intolerant, many good men in 
other respects becoming a nuisance by trying 
to force their beliefs down the throats of 
their fellow-men. All important questions 
should be diligently studied from all .sides, 
and this is especially true of political qucs- 

Some very interesting politics will develop 
in this country in the next two years. It 
has been demonstrated in the past that when 
a dominant part)' has destroyed all effective 
opposition, it is time to look for a new deal. 

The present situation in Congress would, 
if certain Republican leaders were not pur- 
blind, prompt conciliatory methods between 
law-makers and their constituents. Voters 
are in a frame of mind to discriminate be- 
tween the servants of the people and of mo- 
nopoly and the candidate who can convince 
them that he stands for the promotion of 
their interests, will tear party lines into 
shoe strings regardless of his political affilia- 
tions. — Ogle, Reporter, Oregon, III. 

It is now currently reported that Senator 
Knox has brought the President round to 
his way of thinking on the rate bill. If the 
other Senators have the same luck, the Presi- 
dent will have some difficulty in recollecting 
what his original opinion was. — Plain Dealer, 
Lake City, Mich. 

From 1888 to and including 1898, the av- 
erage increase in salaries paid U. S. officials 
was at the rate of $2,000,000 a year. Since 
1898 the average annual increase has been 
$11,000,000! It costs money to run this 
country as a world power, it does! — Standard, 
Frankfort, Ind. 

The business public has everything to 
gain and nothing to lose by aiding the farm- 
ers to establish a clearing house in every 
town. Give the farmer the highest possible 
price for his produce and he will have more 
money to spend with you. Every sensible 
business man and banker will contribute to 
the establishment and maintenance of a 
clearing or market house for the farmer. 
They should know that the farmers' pros- 
perity means their prosperity. — Union 
Signal, Shawnee, Okla. 

The Republican oligarchy in the U. S. 
Senate has been wonderfully shattered in the 
fight over railroad rates. Aldrich and Al- 
lison, two of the most conspicuous in this 
combination that "did things," are now un- 
compromising leaders of opposing factions. 
To yield to Allison will destroy party cam- 
paign contributions. To jneld to Aldrich 
will ruin the party with the common people. 
The contest will be watched with interest. — 
Herald, Boliver, Mo. 

President Roosevelt said in his message 
to Congress that if relief was not given in the 
way of railroad rate regulation, something 
more radical would come, meaning govern- 
ment ownership. It is now quite apparent 



that the administration will utterly fail to 
give the country any practical and effective 
relief, and that President Roosevelt has 
uttered a prophecy of the downfall of the 
Republican party. — Democrat, Grand Island, 

There are times when it is justifiable to 
change one's opinions and convictions — be- 
come inconsistent, as it were. If a man goes 
on forever in the same rut he will never 
make any improvements. It may be 
justifiable to charge a political opponent 
with inconsistency and insincerity but when 
there is trash in his own back yard he had 
better be careful with his charges because 
when he is caught, as he will be, his methods 
seem those of a blackguard. 

Such has been Howell's position up to the 
present time. 

But now he has become entangled in the 
net of his own dtiplicity. 

He has been detected in a bare-faced, cold- 
blooded falsehood ! 

In his Monticello speech, he said that he 
worked for Hammond for the Senate, did not 
support Calhoun, did not attend the Calhoun 
caucus, etc., and the records — even the files 
of the Constitution — show that he supported 
the Wall street candidate with all the vigor 
of criminal fraternity. A member of the 
legislature of that year has told us the whole 
story: Howell could have elected Gk)rdon 
vnth his vote as chairman, when the house 
was evenly divided, but did not do so. 
When, however, Gordon's election was 
assured, this two-faced flopper crawled from 
his high seat and changed his vote, even 
suggesting that the election be made tman- 
imous! What a flopping! 

Why did he change his vote? What good 
did it do either Gordon or himself? It was 
simply a scheme to falsify the record, to 
make his vote cotmt for Gordon so that he 
could say "I worked and voted for Gordon." 

Now Howell points to his record with 
assumed pride, when his very changing, re- 
gardless of his personal proclivities, shows 
a weakness of courage and character ill 
befitting a candidate for governor. 

But who was Pat Calhoun? He was the 
Clark Howell of that race — the tool of Wall 
Street and the railroads — the hireling who 
hums "Wist ye not that I must be about 
my master's business?" 

That is why Howell "worked and voted" 
for Calhoun. 

But who was John B. Gordon? He was 
the Hoke Smith of that campaign, the man 
of the people, the advocate of reform, the 
man who fought and bled for his country — 
for four years played hide-and-seek with 
death on the bloody field of battle. — Sparta 
(Ga.,) Ishmaeliie. 

The denial of Clark Howell that he worked 
for Calhoun's election against the lamented 
Gordon, is only in keeping with his vascil- 
lating, insincere nature, and does not sur- 
prise anyone who has watched his erratic 

career. The Ishniaelite is not one whit too 
severe in denouncing his perfidy. — Times, 
Dublin, Ga. 

The Macon TclcgrapJi says Major Hanson 
owns no stock in it, and the Major himself 
says he owns no Central railroad stock. 
Poor fellow; we do not believe he owns any- 
thing, except that "tin horn" title, "a rail- 
road president." — Citizen, Dalton, Ga. 

The executive committees of fifty Georgia 
counties have formally declared in favor of 
the same rules that have heretofore governed 
State primaries, in so far as they are related 
to the qualification of the voters. Two 
county committees have declared for new 
rules, requiring pledges of "future loyalty," 
while the rump committee of Fulton County 
has also expressed a preference for some 
strange and hitherto unknown rules. If the 
State Executive Committee acts wisely it 
will be governed by party custom and past 
actions and will prescribe the same voting 
qualifications that have governed Demo- 
cratic state primaries during the past decade. 
— Newman {Ga.) News. 

An Idaho paper says "a motion to adjourn 
in Congress is a parliamentary method of 
turning off gas." It's a wonder some of 
them do not blow it out. — Sentinel, Gentry, 

The rate bill is still before the Senate, and 
is liable to be for some time, though it seems 
certain that the bill in some shape will pass 
that body. Those senators who have fought 
against any legislation of this kind begin to 
see that they cannot prevent it, and will now 
take up considerable time in the Senate for 
the purpose of proving that they have been 
in favor of "proper rate legislation" all the 
time. — Breeze, Spicer, Mo. 

The Taft Philippine party is said not to 
have been a junket, and it was claimed that 
each man paid his own expenses, which were 
$500 a person for the round trip. Secretary 
Taft is now before the Senate Committee 
explaining that it cost General Leonard Wood 
$3,600 to go from Manila to Boston. There 
seems to be an inequality somewhere. — News, 
Harvey, Ind. 

The moneyed interests of the East name 
the presidential candidates and the deluded 
people of the West elect them. Did it ever 
occur to you that way? — Btdletin, Bixby, 
I. T. 

Judge Parker, in his North Carolina 
speech, advocated the plan of running a 
Southern man for the presidency of the 
United States in 1908. It would seem that 
he has the nerve of an ox to even mention 
the subject after he has "Out-Greeleyed" 
Greeley himself. The people know that he 
is not a Democrat, but a tool of the Wall 



street party, a dummy, a nonentity. Con- 
sequently, they are not going to listen to him 
on anything pertaining to politics, especially 
when he begins to mention such mush as 
that, however much we would like to see a 
Southerner in the White House. We have 
the best chance we have had in years, and 
should be careful to steer clear of such ' ' Gold 
bricks" as Parker and his allies. — Ishmaclite, 
Sparta, Ga. 

Chinese pirates did a foul piece of work 
near Shanghai, by capturing a Standard Oil 
yacht and swiping $10,000 in specie there- 
from. As a consequence, the Standard Oil 
Company has advanced the price of gasoline 
of all grades from § to i^ cents per gallon. 
Thus does Chinese cheap labor levy tribute 
from the haughty Caucasian. — Renfrews 
Record, Alva, Okla. 

Isn't it great! Senator Long, after all 
these years of campaign wind- jamming and 
smooth deception, is called upon to do some- 
thing for his friends, the railroads, and his 
eloquence is touching. Some months ago 
the people of his state, regardless of party, 
demanded from him an expression of how he 
stood in regard to railroad regulation. And 
to save his soul he couldn't somehow make 
a noise like a think! — Journal, Kingman, 

Although there is some doubt as to 
whether there will be a long coal strike, the 
operators have decided to prepare the con- 
sumer for the worst by putting the price up 
a few notches right away. — Star, Kingston, 

Senator Foraker, of Ohio, holds that 
the enforcement of existing laws will "prac- 
tically" remove all evils aimed at by the 
Hepburn railroad-rate bill! BUT, the laws 
have not been enforced, and there seems to 
be no way of guaranteeing their enforce- 
ment. — New Voice, Chicago, III. 

Another New York idol of the reformers 
has fallen from his pedestal. District-At- 
torney Jerome declares he can not bring suit 
against the insurance thieves for taking the 
policy-holders' money and pouring it into 
the Republican campaign fund, because 
there is no law against such an act. Neither 
is there any specific law against a bank 
cashier taking money to invest in the board 
of trade, there is no specific law against steal- 
ing coal or anything else, but somehow pros- 
ecutors out West once in a while get men 
into the penitentiaries for doing such things. 
Jerome has become color-blind by too inti- 
mate association with Wall street. — Argus, 
Clinton, Ind. 

Many unkind people will now begin to 
wonder how much District-Attorney Jerome 
got for experiencing a change of heart. — 
Enterprise, Luck, Wis. 

It looks as if it would be necessary to 
nominate three or four Democratic candi- 
dates for the presidency in order to satisfy 
the many different kinds of Democrats now 
scattered over the country. — Sun, Schagh- 
ticoke, N. Y. 

Senator Bailey, of Texas, made a speech 
in the Senate the other day that reminded 
the old timers of the good old times when 
Clay, Calhoun, Stephens and Brady were 
members of the body. It would be a good 
thing if something would happen to cause 
that sedate body to shake off its lethargy 
and actually act on the rate bill. — Demo- 
crat, Casa, Ark. 

Judge Parker, while on his trip through 
the South made frequent allusion to his con- 
duct when "running for the presidency." 
Democrats who pinned their faith to Alton 
B. during that race are thinking that he 
made a mighty slow walk of it. — Herald, 
Tahlequah, I. T. 

Senator La Follette is on guard for the 
people in the United States Senate. He is 
the man, if it is done, who will prevent rail- 
road monopoly of coal. He stands up and 
fights straight from the shoulder. Tillman, 
of South Carolina, has joined him, and the 
old cringing soreheads of monopoly are 
trembling for fear they will be forced to the 
record which will show how they stood. — 
Watchman, Cleburne, Tex. 

Chaplain Hale, of the United States 
Senate, in the course of his prayer a few 
mornings ago, quoted the admonition: "I 
say unto you here. Love your enemies." The 
vice-president and Senator Piatt, of New 
York, were the only persons present, and it is 
said that each thinks the chaplain meant the 
other. — Farmer, Dallas, Tex. 

Senator Platt is heartily in favor of re- 
ducing the amount of printed matter turned 
out by the Government. His "express 
company " never gets a chance to carry it, 
anyway. — Herald, Ludlow, Mo. 

Miss McDowell, of Chicago, says that the 
girls in the packing-houses are treated a little 
worse than the cattle which are transported 
for 36 hours without food or water. But the 
girls are less fortunate in that they are not 
slaughtered at the end of the journey. — New 
Era, McEwcn, Tcnn. 

The postmaster-general has issued a 
notice that all rural mail carriers have the 
right-of-way on all country roads, and that 
other carriages or conveyances must sur- 
render the right-of-way to the rural carriers. 
This order was issued as the result of 
numerous complaints on the part of carriers 
who were not able to deliver their mail in the 
specified time, because carriages and con- 
veyances which they met refused to give 



them the right-of-way, and often made it 
necessary for them to drive slower or wait 
until the road was clear before they could 
proceed. A fine will be charged to all who in 
any way interfere with the speedy delivery of 
rural mail, and as a carrier is also fined, and 
sometimes deposed, for late delivery, he will 
no doubt see to it that any person responsible 
for his delay will bear the punishment in- 
stead of himself. — Gazette, Bellevue, Neb. 

Senator La Follette directs his first 
legislative effort in the way of election re- 
forms, by seeking to have enacted a bill pro- 
viding for the most publicity regarding the 
election expenses of any party or candidate. 
Publicity is a powerful weapon, and the 
greatest safeguard against corruption. Sen- 
ator La Follette, perhaps better than anyone 
else, appreciates this fact. — Democrat, Le 
Sueur, Minn, 

Congress is arranging to put ofl the pay- 
ments of the construction of the Panama 
Canal to the next generation. The "graft," 
by far the biggest bill, is to be paid now. — 
Mail, Tipton, Mo. 

If John D. Rockefeller lives twelve years 
more he will be the first billionaire the world 
has known. His wealth grows automati- 
cally. He absolutely controls fifty-one of 
the largest banks and trust companies of 
America, dominates 60 per cent, of the rail- 
roads, can fix the price of steel for the world, 
has nearly a million and a half men's work 
and wages under his power, has the oil 
industry in the hollow of his hand, and sways 
the fortunes of over =;oo other great corpo- 
rations. — World, Idaho City, Ida. 

Efforts to introduce the parcels post in 
the United States have aways been defeated 
by the influence of the express companies 
whose most notable representative is Senator 
Piatt of New York. At present packages 
over four pounds in weight will not be ac- 
cepted by the mail service at merchandise 
rates, though it was said John Wanamaker, 
when he was Postmaster-General, could 
carry parcels at one-twelfth the cost now 
charged by the express companies and make 
a profit on it. There are thirty-five foreign 
countries in the parcels post union, and in 
that business last year Germany made a 
profit of over $14,000,000; while the profits 
of England on the four billion packages 
carried by the parcels post amounted to 
§12,000,000. These are the figures to con- 
vince the people that a parcels post in this 
country is as much of an economical neces- 
sity in this country as in the regulation of 
railroad rates by the Government.— A^m'5. 
Harvey, Iowa. 

Judges, instead of forwarding the ends of 
justice, are too frequently used to forward 
the ends of corporations to defeat justice. 
This is what is bringing judges into con- 

tempt of the people. — Sharp Shooter, Rolla, 

The idea prevails that travel broadens a 
man, but since the withdrawal of passes 
Congressmen are of the conviction that it 
also makes a man shorter. — News, Mathews, 

The wonderful Jerome, the fearless prose- 
cutor of New York, has finally reached his 
level. He has "gone easy" on the life in- 
surance donations to the campaign fund 
because he said it was too common to admit 
of criminal prosecution. — Messenger, Smtth 
Center, Kan. 

According to Jerome, of New York, a 
man may secretly take the funds of a bank 
or an insurance company and turn them 
over to a Matt Quay, a Cortelyou or any 
other political party boodler and it is not 
stealing, provided the fellow, when found 
out, owns that he took the funds and turned 
them over as a "patriotic duty." Great 
Scott, what a doctrine! And many of the 
postoffice organs indorse that sort of stuff. 
There is nothing too mean for the brain and 
stomach of some party worshipers. — Her- 
ald, Waseca, Minn. 

The courts of this country, from the low- 
est to the highest, need judges whose ability 
to see justice and equity is sharpened, and 
whose eyes are not so finely focussed upon 
technicalities. — Bonham News. 

Then you said something, but most of the 
judges are lawyers, and some of them have 
partners that practice in their courts. — Cour- 
ier, Cresson, Tex. 

Speaker Cannon has once more let the 
country know that he is the Casabianca of 
the standpatters. And the flames are leap- 
ing up all around him. — News, Red Wing, 

Senator Tillman is as brave as he is 
honest, and as intellectual as he is patriotic; 
no breath of suspicion was ever raised against 
his uprightness, not even by his bitterest 
enemies. It is fortunate for the country 
that we have a few "Tillmans and Baileys" 
left, whose masculine virtues overwhelm 
effeminate cunning. These two distin- 
guished Southerners come from a section of 
country where the greatest spirit of gallantry 
and solicitude is manifested towards women, 
but "men rule the roost" in the South, not 
women. Hence their superior character. 
That same spirit which repudiated the Yan- 
kee schoolmarm right after the war, when 
she was rushed into the South by abolition- 
ists for the purpose of educating the South to 
the effeminate ideal, is still strong (thank 
God) in such distinguished men as Senators 
Tillman and Bailey and Tom Watson. These 
great men are a power in the nation, and 
their peers are very hard to find in either the 



North or the South, East or the West. — The 
Patriarch, Seattle, Wis. 

The revelations of dishonesty in the great 
American Ufe insiirance companies have re- 
sxilted in the formation of a "Pohcy-Holder's 
Protective League" in England, of which 
Sir Alfred Harmsworth (now Lord North- 
cliffe) is chairman. Twenty-five thousand 
Englishmen are insiored in the Mutual Life 
of New York, many of them men of large 
wealth and great influence. They are nearly 
all enrolled in this protective league. They 
have retained the ablest EngUsh legal ad- 
vice, and are about to supplement it by the 
best attorneys to be had in the United 
States. They are not intending to assail the 
Mutual Life to its harm, but merely to its 
good. They intend to protect their own in- 
terests, however, and they hold that vinder 
the old system of management this is im- 
possible. They say blimtly that if the man- 
agement of the great New York insiirance 
companies is typical of American commercial 
morality, it is necessary for foreigners havmg 
policies in American insurance companies to 
secure additional protection; they say also 
that there are apparently two kinds of hon- 
esty recognized in America: corporate hon- 
esty and ordinary honesty; and they add 
that in foreign eyes there is only one kind of 
honesty; that all the other kinds are dis- 
honesty, and should be punished by the law. 
It is to be feared that the extremely blunt 
arraignment of American commercial meth- 
ods by this English committee may arouse 
a feeling of resentment in America, which 
may defeat the Protective League's ends. 
But no fair-minded American can deny that 
the Englishmen are right. They have been 
robbed by the managers of the Mutual Life. 
So have the American policy-holders been 
robbed by the managers of the Mutual Life. 
The difference is that the English policy- 
holders call it "stealing" and the American 
policy-holders call it "mismanagement/^ 
Both phrases seem to be too harsh : " Convey," 
the wise call it." — Argonaut, San Francisco, 

Euchred, is the President (if he was in 
earnest). Flim-flammed are the reformers. 
Tillman and Roosevelt ; what a team ! Both 
pulling the railroad rate cart with a bag of 
wind in it, marked " Handle with care (glass) , 
this side up." The railway rate bill that has 
passed the House, and which Senator Aldrich 
is willing to let Tillman steer through the 
Senate, regulates but very little. _ It does 
not regulate sleeping-car rates, chair or ob- 
servation car privileges. It does not regu- 
late express or mail car rates. It does not 
regulate private car, private switch engines 
and standing contracts. What does it regu- 
late? From what 1 can glean, a minimum 
or maximum rate will be made or stipulated. 
The railroads can charge for extra precau- 
tions, extra service and storage; a price for 

this can also be set. The late Democratic 
party platforms have asked for railway regu- 
lation and the Republicans can laugh in 
their sleeves. "It's a regalater wat reger- 
lates, nit" — score one for the railways. — 
Liberty Bell, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Judge Parker says the Democrats should 
go South for a presidential candidate for 
1908. They shoiild certainly go somewhere 
where Democrats grow. The real Demo- 
crats have had their fill of Wall Street stool- 
pigeons. — Donliain's Doings, Le Gueur, Alinn. 

Kansas judges are reported to have given 
up all their free passes. They doubtless pre- 
ferred doing this to giving up their jobs. — 
Advocate, Greemille, Ala. 

Senator Penrose lately introduced a 
bill for $50,000 appropriation to "determine 
the quantity of the so-called hammer blow 
centrifugal lift and tangential throw of the 
counter-balance driving wheels." Perhaps 
Senator Penrose is trjdng to find out what 
hit him at the last election. — Mountaineer, 
Gorham, N. H. 

Senators Spooner and Tillman are laying 
down the law to each other and brightening 
the pages of history with their merry quips 
and sallies. In the meantime the people are 
waiting for some wholesome legislation. — 
Herald, Si. Johns, Artzona. 

Representative Longworth, the son- 
in-law of the President, in a speech at Chi- 
cago, said that "instead of everything getting 
worse everything is getting better." Mr. 
Longworth is in the same optimistic condition 
as ex- President Cleveland, who, while still in 
his honeymoon, declared that "Life is one 
grand, sweet song." — Gleaner, Almond, 

Did the President fear that if he did not 
defend some of the senators against the just 
attacks being made on them by magazine 
writers they would refuse to heed the shak- 
ing of his "big stick" under their noses? 
What defense can the President have for 
such senators as Depew, Piatt, Aldrich and 
Gorman ? These men have caused the most 
criticism of the senate, and as long as a ma- 
jority of the senate continues to be run by 
men whose interests are against the masses 
it must expect to be censured, and those who 
are caught in bad company will sufier for 
their evil companions. The President has 
made another one of his many mistakes in 
trying to pacify the enemies of the people. 
His words for a taxation of the rich are hol- 
low when his defense of those who are respon- 
sible is considered and are almost hypo- 
critical. — Democrat, Lansing, Mich. 

We hear talk of a great bank to regulate 
the money market — a great individual 



f," uL? t°^*'''^^"'• , We don't want an- conditions by the issuance of unlimited -e- 

other Biddle Bank, such as it took all Jack- curities and the jugglin- of the mTJket bv 

lT\L^r,''Z%''' '^^"V"- }^^,^^'-^ ^"^ ^^^ nieans of false repre'^sSntationBW stocks 

of men m three or four banks controlhng down to their real value by proper ritriction 

money rates m acute speculative crises now, upon their issue, and the pinches will not be 

and they control it for their own benefit made so frequently by the raSine of rates on 

mostly Another set would do the same loans guaraUeed b/ securit es ?f c Sri? 

thing. What IS wanted is not another Bank fictitious value We hav^ prettv near X 

of England but a law to regulate the currency enough money. We hav^entSely t^oo much 

and other laws to prevent the corruption of stock mnc^t nf it hi ru\ !^ ^ i ^; 

finance and fostering of diseased speculative Mirror s7 Louis' Mf" ^"P'^'^'- " ^""^ 

Old French Song 


SPRINGTIME sees the flitting swallow 
On its homing pathway follow 
To its nest among the eaves; 
And the nightingale comes singing, 
When no more the frost is clinging 
Through the old famihar leaves. 
Stream and flower and song and pinion 
Own the season's glad dominion 

Through their wonted haunts again; 
So in tenderness, my Sweeting, 
Comes a heart to thee repeating 
O'er and o'er the old refrain. 
As from exile am I turning, 
In thy gentle soul discerning 

Where my native country lies ; 
And the star my skies provide me, 
Ever clear alone to guide me. 
Is the beauty of thine eyes. 

His Peculiar Action 


A FELLER walked half way across the street, right out in front here 
. -n 11 J .J^ yesterday, and fell dead," said the landlord of the taveni 
at PolkviUe, Ark. 

"And, as I presume there was nothing to prevent his leaving town in the or- 
dmary way, a trifle hypercritically returned a tourist from the North, "doubt- 
less his action caused considerable comment?" 


FROM APRIL 8 TO MAY 8, 1906 

Home News 

April 8. — The Board of Governors of the 
New York Democratic Club decides to 
recommend to the club, as a whole, at a 
meeting to be held April 25, the nation- 
alization of the club and the change of 
its name to the National Democratic 
Club. Back of this is a plan to push 
William J. Bryan to the front as the 
candidate of the "regular" Democracy 
for President in 1908. The Eastern 
Democrats hope to check the wave of 
radicalism and the following of William 
R. Hearst by this move. 

Robert G. Proctor, private secretary of 
Senator Lodge, of Massachusetts, who 
is charged with embezzling campaign 
funds, surrenders to the Boston police. 

Samuel Untermyer, counsel for the inter- 
national policyholders' committee, 
makes public a letter which he has writ- 
ten to Thomas H. D. Berridge, one of the 
committee's representatives in London, 
which contradicts the statement of 
Charles A. Peabody, president of the 
Mutual Life Insurance Co., that he is 
not connected with the Standard Oil, 
Morgan, or Harriman interests. The 
letter states that Peabody is recognized 
as "the figurehead" of the Standard 
Oil interests, is their director in several 
corporations, and that the Mutual does 
not intend to push the suits brought 
against ex-President Richard A. Mc- 
Curdy, and that the actions were in- 
stituted for the purpose of anticipation 
and getting control of litigation, which 
they knew was inevitable as a result of 
the recent disclosures. 
April 9. — The conference between the coal 
operators and representatives of the 
miners is postponed. 

The debate on the Hepburn rate bill 
continues in the Senate. An agree- 
ment on the measure is said to be in 
April 10. — The hearing before the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission at Phila- 
delphia, to determine whether the rail- 
road companies are interested, directly 
or indirectly, in the oil or coal whicn 
is transported over their lines, has 


shoT\Ti that the bituminous coal traffic 
is divided by agreement among six 
railroad companies. The commission 
also brought out the fact that by means 
of the private-car system large mining 
companies are able to enter into con- 
tracts for the delivery of coal at stated 
periods, while smaller companies, which 
own no such cars, are unable to guar- 
antee the exact time of their deliveries. 

The coal operators make counter propo- 
sitions to the miners and it is expected 
that they will accept. 

Maxim Gorky, the Russian writer and 
patriot, arrives in New York and will 
work here for his country's freedom. 
April II. — The debate on the Hepburn rail- 
road rate bill is drawing to a close in 
the Senate. The House takes the post- 
office appropriation bill under consider- 
ation . 

Congressman Denby, of Michigan, intro- 
duces a bill for the revision of the Chinese 
Exclusion act. The bill provides for 
the inspection of emigrants by American 
inspectors in China and for the re-regis- 
stration of Chinese now in this country. 
The bill is not intended to modify the 
basic policy of excluding Chinese 
laborers, but is an attempt to find a 
compromise which shall harmonize dif- 
ferences with China. The bill also 
provides: i. That Chinese applicants 
for the writ of habeas corpus may be 
admitted to bail. 2. That any China- 
man, resident in the United States 
and wishing to go back to China and 
then return to the United States, may 
receive a return certificate on exhibi- 
tion of his certificate of registration or 
original certificate of entry and proof 
of identity. 3. That the provision of 
existing law, placing the burden of proof 
on Chinese arrested for being unlaw- 
fully in the United States to show their 
right to be here, be repealed. 4. For 
an enlargement of the exempt classes 
to include accountants, bookkeepers, 
bankers, members of the learned pro- 
fessions, editors or members of other 
classes not falling within the category 
of laborers. But it shall be tmlawfiil 



for a member of the exempt classes to 
work for gain as a laborer. 
James A. Bailey, chief owner of the Bar- 
num and Bailey circus, dies at his home 
in Mount Vernon, N. Y. 
The Indiana State Republican convention 
indorses the administration of President 
Roosevelt, declares in favor of railroad 
rate regulation and a protective tariff. 
April 12. — Peace negotiations between the 
coal operators and representatives of 
the miners come to an end. A long and 
bitter strike is now expected. 
Charles A. _ Peabody, President of the 
Mutual Life Insurance Company, states 
that if the British policyholders will 
name the trustees whose resignations 
they desire, these trustees -will resign, 
or explain why they should not do so. 
A despatch from Washington states that 
the President and Attorney-General 
Moody wish a law passed which will 
give the Government the same standing 
in the federal courts as is now enjoyed 
by the defendant. Under the present 
statutes, as exemplified in the Beef 
Trust cases at Chicago, the Government 
cannot take an appeal on a writ of error 
or for any other catise, and must accept 
a first adverse decision as final. 
The Hon. Bourke Cockran, of New York, 
praises the House of Representatives 
and roasts the Senate. He ridicules the 
Questions of constitutionality, raised by 
senators against the Hepburn railroad 
rate bill, and declares that the Senate 
is playing battledore and shuttlecock 
with its terms. 
Senator Foraker, of Ohio, addresses the 
Senate on the railroad rate bill, and 
discusses his proposed amendment 
giving complainants the alternative of 
taking their cases into the courts in 
preference to the Interstate Commerce 
Commission. He also argues the ques- 
tion of whether Congress has the power 
to fix rates, and, if it has, whether it is 
not delegating its power to the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. 
April i3.-;-It is discovered that the woman 
now in this country with Maxim Gorky, 
the Russian author and Socialist, is not 
his wife, but is a former actress. Gorky 
and the woman are asked to leave the 
hotel at which they are stopping in New 
York City. 
Senator Tillman, of South Carolina, prefers 
formal charges against Benjamin F. 
Barnes, recently nominated to be post- 
master at Washington. The charges 
are all based on the ejectment of Mrs. 
Minor Morris from the White House. 
Arthur Hall, superintendent of transporta- 
tion of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 
testifies before the Interstate Commerce 
Commission that the Baltimore & Ohio, 
Railroad owns coal mines from which 

June, 1906 — 10 

it hauls coal over its lines to companies 
in which it is interested. 
The final argument in the effort to force 
Senator Reed Smoot, of Utah, from the 
Senate is heard before the Senate Com- 
mittee on Privileges and Elections. 
In the House of Representatives, Repre- 
sentatives Williams, of Mississippi, and 
Dalzell, of Pennsylvania, become in- 
volved in aviolent discussion and charge 
each other with falsehood. 
April 14.— At the laying of the comer-stone 
of the office building for the use of 
members of the House of Representa- 
tives, the President delivers an address 
m which he bitterly attacks magazine 
and newspaper correspondents who have 
been writing criticisms of the United 
States Senate. The correspondents are 
referred to as "The Men with the Muck 
Rake," and an effort is made to defend 
the Senate. More important than the 
preannounced Muck-Rake theme is the 
following proposal that occurs towards 
the end of the speech. "As a matter of 
personal conviction, and without pre- 
tending to discuss the details or formu- 
late the system, I feel that we shall ulti- 
mately have to consider the adoption 
of some such scheme as that of a pro- 
gressive tax on all fortunes, beyond a 
certain amotmt, either given in life or 
devised or bequeathed upon death to 
any individual — a tax so framed as to 
put it out of the power of the'"owner of 
one of these enormous fortunes to hand 
over more than a certain amotmt to any 
one individual; the tax, of course, to be 
imposed by the National and not the 
state Government. Such taxation 
should, of course, be aimed merely at 
the inheritance or transmission in their 
entirety of those fortunes swollen be- 
yond all healthy limits." 
Seven persons are killed and fourteen 
injured by the explosion of a 13-inch 
gun on the United States battleship 
William R. Hearst renews his fight for the 
mayoralty of New York City. Quo 
warranto proceedings are instituted 
before the Attorney-General of the 
John Mitchell leaves New York City to 
attend a convention of the mine work- 
ers' committee at Indianapolis, Ind., 
April 17. 
Conservative Democrats, backed by Wall 
Street, take concerted action to block 
the boom of William R. Hearst for 
governor of New York. 
April 15. — The mine operators plan to work 
their mines by importing miners. The 
two weeks' strike losses are: 
To mine workers in 

^ wages $3,400,000 

To operators in value 

of coal immined 5,200,000 



To railroads in haulage 

charges $2,600,000 

To general business in 

anthracite region 3,400,000 

Total $14,600,000 

April 16. — Three persons are killed, and two 
injured in a riot among striking coal 
miners at Windber, Pa. Operators are 
hurrying plans to work their mines in the 
Wilkesbarre district, in case a strike is 
formally declared. 

In a riot of Greek railroad laborers at 
Gurley, Arkansas, ten are killed and 
seven injured. 

Mayor McClellan, of New York City, is the 
chief speaker at the New York Jefferson 
dinner. August Belmont, Patrick Mc- 
Carren, Thomas F. Ryan and other 
"conservatives" are present. A let- 
ter is read from Grover Cleveland, and 
the main purpose of the dinner is to 
sidetrack the growing sentiment in 
favor of William R. Hearst. 

Senator Tillman, of South Carolina, intro- 
duces a resolution in the Senate which 
directs the Committee on Finance to in- 
quire into contributions by national 
banks to campaign committees. 

The House passes a bill permitting the 
withdrawal from bond, tax free, of do- 
mestic alcohol when rendered unfit for 
beverage or liquid medicinal uses by mix- 
ture with suitable denaturizingmaterials. 

Charles B. Aycock, ex-Governor of North 
Carolina, and Van Leer Polk, of Ten- 
nessee, are appointed by President 
Roosevelt delegates to the Pan-Ameri- 
can conference, which is to meet at Rio 
Janeiro, Brazil, in July. 

The United States Supreme Court decides 
that when a divorce is granted against 
a person in a state of which that party 
is not a citizen, the divorce is illegal. 
April 17. — Charles E. Hughes, who con- 
ducted the insurance investigation, is 
retained by the United States Govern- 
ment to prosecute the coal-carrying 
railroads that own interests in coal 

The coal operators formally decline the 
proposition of the miners' represent- 
atives to submit their differences to 

In the rebate case against several railroads 
and packing houses in the United States 
District Court at Kansas City, Missouri, 
Judge Smith McPherson denies the 
pleas of immunity filed by the defend- 
Senator Tillman makes a lengthy speech 
on his resolution for an investigation 
of campaign contributions by national 
The President sends a message to Congress 
urging the passage of insurance laws 

that will prevent a repetition of the 
recent scandals. 
Two more victims of the Kearsaage ex- 
plosion die. 
April 18. — An earthquake strikes San Fran- 
cisco, California. It is estimated that 
500 persons are killed, 2,000 injured, 
100,000 made homeless, and property 
damaged, $200,000,000. FirefoUows the 
earthquake, and adds to the horror of the 
situation. The waterworks system is 
wrecked and the fire department is un- 
able to check the flames. Blocks of build- 
ings are being dynamited in an effort to 
check the fire. Thousands are without 
food, clothing or shelter. The city is 
marshalled by United States soldiers 
under General Frederick Funston and 
every effort is being made to allay the 
suffering. Sacramento, Santa Rosa, 
San Jos^, Santa Cruz, Monterey^ Gilroy 
and Hollister also suffer heavily. At 
Santa Rosa many persons are killed and 
10,000 are left homeless. Every busi- 
ness building in San Jos^ is a wreck, and 
many lives are lost. Flames continue to 
sweep San Francisco and the entire city 
seems doomed. Troops, under General 
Funston, are in command of the city, 
and every effort is being made to pro- 
vide fpr those who have not been able 
to escape from the city. A famine 
threatens. Troops shoot ghouls caught 
robbing the bodies of the dead. Many 
thousands are unable to leave San Fran- 
cisco on account of the lack of facilities, 
as all travel is almost at a standstill. 
The hospitals, churches and theatres of 
Oakland are crowded with the dying and 
injured. At Santa Rosa the loss of life 
is estimated at 500. Brawley was de- 
stroyed. The number of dead at San 
Jos6 is 10. 
April 19. — The Senate passes a joint reso- 
lution appropriating $1,000,000 for the 
relief of San Francisco sufferers. 
April 20 — The fire in San Francisco is now 
under control, and it is thought about 
one fourth of the residence section will 
be saved. The water supply is par- 
tially restored, and food and tents are 
being provided for the sufferers. Re- 
lief trains from nearby cities begin to 
reach the stricken city, and there is no 
longer any danger of a famine. Relief 
trains from every section of the United 
States are being rushed to San Francisco, 
carrying doctors, nurses, medical sup- 
plies, food, clothing, blankets and tents. 
The estimates now give 300,000 home- 
less, and property losses $200,000,000. 
No correct estimate of the dead can be 
made, as hundreds are supposed to be 
buried in the ruins. The relief fund 
reaches $5,000,000. President Roose- 
velt expresses his appreciation of offers 
of aid for San Francisco from abroad, 
but declines to accept them. Many 



people have been able to reach Oakland 
and nearby cities, as transportation has 
been partially restored. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Rail- 
road is found guilty of rebating by the 
Federal Court at Chicago. The railroad 
is fined $40,000, and Darius Miller and 
Claude G. Bumum, two officials of the 
road, are fined $10,000 each. 
April 21. — Conditions in San Francisco are 
greatly improved. Ample supplies of 
food and clothing have been distributed 
by the authorities, and all efforts are 
now directed to improving sanitary 
conditions. Very little sickness is re- 
ported and the fear of a pestilence is 
no longer felt. Thousands have left the 
city for other parts of the country. 
Many dead bodies are recovered from 
the ruins, but it is impossible to state 
the number of lives lost. The relief 
fund is swelled to more than $11,000,000 
and contributions continue to come 
from all sections of the United States. 
Hvmdreds of tons of provisions are 
being rushed to San Francisco from 
other cities. 
April 22. — So far 300 bodies are taken from 
the ruins of San Francisco, and, as only 
a small part of the niins have been ex- 
plored it is thought the number of dead 
will be as large as first estimated. 
Many of the bodies cannot be identified, 
but sanitary prudence makes immediate 
burial a necessity. The property loss 
is placed at $300,000,000, by insurance 
experts, on which there was $1 75,000,000 
insurance. The area burned is 26 
miles in circumference, comprising the 
entire busness district and most of the 
residential section. Reports from the 
different camps show very little sick- 
ness and no danger of an epidemic. 
All persons made homeless are now 
being sheltered and fed as well as 
possible under the circumstances. The 
people are recovering their courage, 
though many cases of temporary in- 
sanity are reported as a result of the 
terrible strain of the past few days. 

Twenty-two miners are killed by an ex- 
plosion in a coal mine near Trinidad, 

Chairman Shonts, of the Panama Canal 
Commission, returns from the Isthmus 
and reports the work to be progressing 
April 23. — Another earthquake is felt in 
San Francisco, but no damage is done. 
Confidence has been restored and plans 
for rebuilding the city are now under 
way. Much suffering is caused by a 
cold rain and many cases of pneumonia 
are reported. There is no longer a 
scarcity of food and medical supplies. 
Congress appropriates $1,500,000 more 
for the sufferers, making the relief fvmd 
more than $15,000,000. 

Major Heber C. Tilden, one of the most 

prominent members of the relief com- 
mittee, is shot and killed by six members 
of the Citizens' Patrol. Major Tilden 
was in his automobile, which was being 
used as an ambulance, and besides 
having the Red Cross flag on the auto- 
mobile. Major Tilden wore the Red 
Cross badge on his arm. 

T. D. Hobart, coal and coke freight agent 
of the Norfolk & Western Railroad, 
appears before the Interstate Commerce 
Commission and admits that there was 
an agreement between the Norfolk & 
Western and Chesapeake & Ohio Rail- 
roads on coal rates to Richmond 
and Norfolk. The Chesapeake Ohio 
charged 25 cents a ton more to Rich- 
mond than the Norfolk & Western, 
and the Norfolk & Western 25 cents 
a ton more to Norfolk than the Chesa- 
peake & Ohio, which amounted to one 
road carrying all coal shipped into Rich- 
mond and the other all shipped to 

Senator La Follette closes his three-day 
speech in the Senate on the railroad 
rate bill. The Senator advocates the 
appraisement of the property of railroads 
to determine whether or not the rate 
being charged is too high. This would 
allow a railroad to charge rates high 
enough to pay only a reasonable 
interest on their actual valuation. 

An investigation by the United States 
Government into the relations of the 
railroads of the United States and the 
Standard Oil Company begins at Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 
April 24. — General Greeley, who succeeds 
General Funston in command of the 
troops at San Francisco, estimates the 
dead at 277, while Coroner Walsh 
believes the list will reach 1,000. 
Dogs are foimd eating the bodies of the 
persons buried in the debris at Tele- 
graph and Russian Hills, where it was 
supposed there was little loss of life. 
The work of restoration goes on. 

Captain Richmond Pearson Hobson, the 
hero of the Alerrimac, is nominated for 
Congress over Congressman John H. 
Bankhead from the Sixth Congressional 
district of Alabama. The nomination 
is equivalent to election. 

The body of John Paul Jones is laid with 
imposing ceremonies in Bancroft Hall, 
Annapolis, Maryland, where it will re- 
main until the new chapel is completed. 

Viscount Aoki, the first ambassador from 
Japan to the United States, arrives at 
Washington, D. C. 

The Senate adds an amendment to the 
Indian Appropriations bill, appropriat- 
ing $50,000 to make a thorough investi- 
gation of the proposed leasing of coal 
lands belonging to the Choctaw and 
Chickasaw Indians to the railroads. 

Samuel Gompers, president of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor, in a letter to 



President Roosevelt, points out instances 
where the eight-hour law has been vio- 
lated and not rectified by the head of 
a Government department. 

The Mutual Life Insurance Co. loses the 
records of 12,000 policyholders by the 
destruction of its San Francisco office. 
The amount of insurance involved is 

General Greeley asks for 2,500 regular sol- 
diers to take the place of the militia and 
citizens' guard in San Francisco. 
April 25. — Another earthquake shock is felt 
in San Francisco, and a panic follows. 
Only one life is lost and the people are 
soon quieted. The President asks Con- 
gress to appropriate $1,600,000 for pub- 
lic works in the Mare Island Navy Yard 
and for the construction of buildings 
at Fort Mason, which will give several 
thousand persons employment. The 
emergency finance committee at San 
Francisco is given permission to use the 
United States Mint as a bank until the 
sub-treasury and banks can be opened. 
The relief work is being systematically 
carried on. The number of dead at 
Oakland is now estimated at 100. 

The State of Texas brings proceedings 
against Swift & Co.. the Armour Pack- 
ing Co., the Fort "Worth Live Stock Ex- 
change and the Fort Worth Stock Yards 
Co., alleging that they are trusts, and 
asking that their charters be forfeited, 
and each assessed money penalties of 

The Senate ratifies the treaty providing 
for the determination of the boundary 
of Alaska. 
April 26. — Bellevour and Stoneburg, Texas, 
are destroyed by a tornado. The loss 
of life is heavy. 

By a strict party vote, the Senate Commit- 
tee on Post Offices kills the proposition 
to investigate the conduct of Benjamin 
F. Barnes in ejecting Mrs. Minor Morris 
from the White House, and orders that 
the nomination of Barnes for postmaster 
at Washington be favorably reported. 
Senators Clay, Culberson, Simmons and 
Rayner, Democrats, voted against the 
favorable report. 

The mine workers' committee makes new 
propositions to the operators, in which 
they concede practically everything, ex- 
cept the demand for an increase in 

Plans for rebuilding SanFrancisco are now 
under way. The area devastated by 
fire approximates ten thousand acres, 
within which were nearly 100 banks, 
some of the finest buildings in the world, 
thousands of mercantile and manufac- 
turing establishments and the homes 
of 230,000 persons. 

Senator Spoon er, of Wisconsin, replies to 
the argument of Senator Bailey, of 
Texas, on the railroad rate bill. 

The House debates the agricultural af>- 
propriation bill. 
April 27. — The House of Representatives 
passes an emergency appropriation bill 
tor work on Federal property in San 
Francisco. Representative Williams, 
of Mississippi, replies to Republican 
speeches on the taiifif. Senator Spooner, 
of Wisconsin, concludes his reply to 
the speech of Senator Bailey , of Texas, on 
the railroad rate bill, and it is hoped 
that a vote will soon be reached 

A complaint is served on Andrew Hamil- 
ton for an accounting of moneys spent 
by him as legislative agent for the New 
York Life Insurance Company. 

The coal operators refuse to accept the 
new demands made by the mine workers. 

Conditions continue to improve in San 

In an address to the New Jersey Bankers' 
Association, Secretary Taft declares it 
is as logical for the United States to ex- 
act a tariff for goods imported from our 
Philippine dependencies as it would be 
to take a tariff from goods shipped from 

Chief Justice Walter Clark, of North Caro- 
lina, addresses the alumni of the Law 
Department of the University of Penn- 
sylvania. He advocates a revision of 
the Constitution of the United States 
and election of senatoi^s by direct vote 
of the people. He also maintains that 
the Supreme Court shoiild not be in- 
vested with the power of declaring acts 
of Congress unconstitiitional tmless the 
members of that court are elected by 
the people, and for a term of years. 

The Senate Committee on Privileges and 
Elections reports favorably the follow- 
ing bill: That it shall be tmlawful for 
a national bank or any corporation or- 
ganized by authority of any law of Con- 
gress to make a money contribution in 
connection with any election to any 
political office. It shall also be unlaw- 
ful for any corporation whatever to 
make a money contribution in connec- 
tion with any election at which Presi- 
dential or Vice- Presidential electors or a 
representative in Congress is to be voted 
for, or any election by a state legislature 
of United. States senator. Every cor- 
poration which shall make any contri- 
bution in violation of the foregoing pro- 
visions shall be subject to a fine not 
exceeding $5,000, and every officer or 
director of any corporation who shall 
consent to any contribution by the cor- 
poration in violation of the foregoing 
provisions shall be subject to a fine not 
exceeding $1,000. 
April 28. — The San Francisco relief com- 
mittee says much more relief money is 
needed. Coroner Walsh reports that 
333 bodies of victims have been found. 
The Naval Appropriation bill is submitted 
to Congress. The bill carries $99,734,- 



215. The Senate passes the Indian 
appropriation bill. 
The Senate Committee on Interoceanic 
Canals discusses plans for reducing the 
member of the Panama Commission to 
three, the reduction of the commis- 
sioners' salaries, not allowing one 
commissioner to hold more than one 
office, and forcing two of the commis- 
sioners to live in the canal zone. 
Alleging that the Standard Oil and seven- 
teen affiliated companies have a secret 
trade agreement by which they control 
production and transportation of oil 
and gas, proceedings are filed in the 
Ohio covirts asking revocation of their 
charters and dissolution of the alleged 
April 30. — Mayor Schmitz, of San Francisco, 
asks that the shipment of foodstuffs be 
continued, as there is very little money 
available for the use of the sufferers. 
It is announced that the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad Company has sold its 
interests in coal mines because of the 
investigation of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, 
In a stinging speech before the Grand Jury, 
Recorder Goff,of New York City, places 
the responsibility for the investigation 
of the insurance companies on District- 
Attorney Jerome. 
The Senate agrees to begin voting on the 
amendments to the Hepburn railroad 
rate bill on May 4. 
The House of Representatives passes a 
resolution thanking General Horace 
Porter for recovering the body of John 
Paul Jones. 
A fight occurs at Mount Carmel, Pennsyl- 
vania, between striking coal miners and 
state constabulary, in which twenty 
prisoners are injured. 
May I. — The House of Representatives 
adopts an amendment to the agricul- 
tural appropriation bill, providing for a 
free distribution of seeds. 
Secretary of the Navy Bonaparte is suf- 
fering from ptomaine poisoning. 
James R. Garfield, Commissioner of Cor- 
porations, completes his report on the 
Standard Oil Company. The repoi 1: 
will be submitted tG the President and 
then to Congress. 
45,000 members of the Licensed Pilots' 
Association strike on the Great Lakes. 
The pilots dernand a recognition of their 
union, which is refused. 
A syndicate of New York capitalists 
agrees to furnish $100,000,000 for the 
purpose of rebuilding San Francisco. 
Temporary business structures are al- 
ready being erected. 

The Equitable Board of Directors adopt 
a new set of by-laws, which place all of 
the company's affairs tmder the con- 
trol of Paul Morton and a few directors. 

The International Conference of Cotton 

Growers and Cotton Manufacturers 
meets at Washington, D. C. The fol- 
lowing officers are elected: President, 
James R. MacCoU; first- vice-president, 
Harvie Jordan; second vice-president, 
R. M. Miller, Jr.; secretaries, Richard 
Cheatham, C. J. H. Woodbury, and 
C. B. Bryant. 
Negotiations to reach a compromise on a 
railroad rate bill are still on in the 
Hope is expressed in Philadelphia that 
the coming convention of the mine 
workers will find a way to avoid a strike. 
Warrants are issued for 24 members 
of the state constabulary in connection 
with yesterday's riot at Mt. Carmel, 
Rev. Father Sherman, son of the late 
General William T. Sherman, arouses 
the indignation of the Southern people 
by starting on a trip covering the terri- 
tory passed over by Sherman's army 
during the Civil War. Father Sherman , 
who is a Jesuit priest, is accompanied 
by an escort of United States soldiers 
from Fort Oglethorpe. 
May 2.- — The opinion prevails in Philadel- 
phia that the convaition of mine work- 
ers, which meets in that city tomorrow, 
will declare in favor of a strike. Gov- 
ernor Pennypacker, of Pennsylvania, 
appeals to all citizens to assist in the 
maintenance of the law, and declares 
that violence will not be tolerated. 

Representatives of American and foreign 
insurance companies discuss united 
action to effect a compromise in the 
adjustment of losses from the San Fran- 
cisco fire. It is reported that sixty per 
cent of the aggregate amotmt of damages 
will be offered by the insurance com- 
panies instead of contesting claims on 
the ground that many buildings were 
damaged by the earthquake before they 
took fire. 

The President receives Commissioner Gar- 
field's report of his investigation of the 
Standard Oil Company. The report, 
accompanied by a message from the 
President, will be sent to Congress. 

The Senate is still working on the railroad 
rate bill. Efforts are being made to 
frame a court review amendment that 
will satisfy all factions. 

The International Cotton Conference de- 
nounces the Agricultural Department 
and Government crop reports. They 
also pass a resolution advocating that 
the statistical cotton year run from 
August I to August I . 

The Panama Canal Commission decides 
to ask for an appropriation of $26,348,- 
281 to continue the construction of the 
canal in the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1907. 

Both sides express confidence of winning 
the longshoremen's strike on the Great 



The Senate passes the House joint resolu- 
tion thanking General Porter for the 
recovery of the body of John Paul Jones. 

The Senate Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions orders favorably reported a bill 
establishing a consul-generalship in the 
Congo Free State, Africa. This is done 
because of complaint of Belgium's rule 

Governor E. W. Hoch is renominated by 
the Republicans of Kansas. 

The military escort of Father Sherman is 
recalled by the War Department. 
May 3 — The statement is made at Washing- 
ton that the Department of Justice will 
immediately begin an investigation of 
the relations of the Oil Trust and a 
number of railroads, with a view of de- 
termining whether there have been vio- 
lations of the anti-rebate law. 

The sentiment of the miners' convention, 
now in session at Scranton, Pa., is al- 
most vmanimous for a strike. 

Andrew C. Fields, legislative agent for the 
Mutual Life Insurance Co., promises to 
go before the New York Grand Jury 
and tell all about his transactions with 
the company. 

Father Sherman abandons his trip over 
the territory traversed by his father 
during the Civil War, and returns to 
Fort Oglethorpe with his military escort. 
May 4 — President Roosevelt sends a message 
to Congress in which he transmits Com- 
missioner Garfield's report of his inves- 
tigation of the Standard Oil Co. The 
chief coimts in Mr. Garfield's arraign- 
ment of the Standard are: 

The Standard controls 23,000,000 of 
the 26,000,000 barrels of oil refined an- 

Oil is from 2 to 5 cents per gallon 
higher in non-competitive than in com- 
petitive fields. 

Officials of the Standard declare they 
were not obtaining rebates or transpor- 
tation discriminations, but the company 
has been and is now receiving secret 
rates and other imjust and illegal dis- 
criminations . 

Great advantage is obtained by the 
Standard in manipulations of open 
freight rates. 

Secret rates from Olean and Roches- 
ter gave the Standard absolute control 
of the Northeastern New York trade . 

The Pennsylvania Railroad gave the 
Standard a rate of 9 cents a barrel from 
Olean to Rochester, while independent 
refineries in territory adjacent to Olean 
were given a rate of 38 cents per barrel. 
The saving of the Standard during 
1904 by the secret rate from Olean to 
Rochester alone was $1 15,000 . 

The Standard has maintained abso- 
lute control of almost the whole section 
of the country south of the Ohio River 
and east of the Mississippi by means of 

secret rates and open discriminations 
in rates from Whiting, Ind. 

During 1904 the Standard saved 
about $750,000 through secret rates 
discovered by the bureau. 

The New York Central refused to 
give access to its records of state rates 

Most of the secret rates discovered 
were abolished by the railroads shortly 
after such discovery, nevertheless the 
widespread discriminations in open 
rates still in force leave the independ- 
ents at serious disadvantage. 
The corrective measures which the Presi- 
dent proposes to Congress are: 

The Standard Oil Company has bene- 
fited enormously by secret rates, many 
of these secret rates being clearly un- 
lawful. , 

The Department of Justice will take 
up the question of instituting prosecu- 

In New England the refusal of certain 
railroad systems to pro-rate has resulted 
in keeping the Standard Oil in absolute 
monopolistic control of the field, 
enabling it to charge from $300,000 to 
$400,000 a year more to customers. 

Exactly similar conditions obtain in 
a large part of the West and Southwest. 

By treating as state commerce what 
in reality is interstate commerce the 
New York Central and other railroads 
thwart the purpose of the law. 

The Sugar Trust rarely, if ever, pays 
the lawful rate for transportation and 
is favored at the expense of its compet- 
itors and of the general public. 

A law should be passed correcting 
the interpretation of the immunity 
provision rendered in Judge Hum- 
phrey's decision . 

In the effort to prevent railroads 
from uniting for improper purposes we 
have unwisely prohibited them from 
uniting for proper purposes — that is, 
for the purpose of protection to them- 
selves, and to the general public as 
against the power of great corporations . 

The Government should have power 
to examine into the conduct of railways 
as it does into banks. 

What is needed is the conferring upon 
the Interstate Commerce Commission 
of ample affirmative power to make its 
decisions take effect at once, subject 
only to svich action by the courts as is 
demanded by the Constitution. 

No coal or oil lands held by the 
Government or Indian tribes should be 
alienated, but leased only on such 
terms as will enable the Government 
to keep entire control. 

Competition should be introduced by 

tariff changes. 

H. H. Rogers and John D. Archbold, 

Standard Oil officials, deny the charges 

contained in Mr. Garfield's report, and 



declare that any charges that the Stand- 
ard Oil Company is engaged in practices 
which are unlawful is alike untruthful 
and unjust. 
A report comes from Washington that the 
President has surrendered his views on 
the railroad rate regulation bill, and 
has accepted the amendment proposed 
by Senator Allison, of Iowa, providing 
for a broad court review. It is even 
charged by some that the President's 
attack on the Standard Oil Company 
was to obscure his surrender to the 
Senate on the railroad rate bill . 

The Federal Grand Jury, in session in 
New York City, hands down seven in- 
dictments in the Sugar Trust rebating 
case against the New York Central Rail- 
way Co., the American Sugar Refining 
Co., Nathan Guilford, C. Goodloe Ed- 
gar, Edwin Earle and F. L. Earle 
charged with violating the anti-trust 
law. These indictments are the result 
of proceedings begun some time ago by 
William R. Hearst against the Sugar 

The Senate begins to vote on the Hepburn 
railroad rate bill. The amendment 
proposed by Senator Lodge, of Massa- 
chusetts, declaring the owners of pipe 
lines for the interstate carriage of oil 
common carriers, and making them 
subject to the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, and to the operations of 
the rate bill, is adopted. 

Ten persons are killed and 20 injured in a 
wreck on the Pennsylvania Railroad 
at Clover Creek Junction, Pennsylvania. 

The Federal Coal and Coke Co., at Clarks- 
burg, West Virginia, brings suit against 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and 
Fairmont Coal Companies, charging 
discrimination and freight rate juggling. 

A compromise with the longshoremen in 
the Great Lakes strike is expected. 

Fire insurance companies of New York 
and Chicago decide to advance rates to 
meet their loss in San Francisco 
May 5. — The coal miners convention votes 
to accept the first proposition of the 
operators, which is a continuation of the 
award of the Anthracite Coal Strike 

Vice-President Thayer, of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Co. , says that the report 
of Commissioner Garfield, so far as it 
relates to the Pennsylvania's relations 
with the Standard Oil Company, is an 
inexcusable and outrageous perversion 
of -the facts. President Lucius Tuttle, 
of the Boston & Maine Railroad Com- 
pany, and officials of the New Haven 
Railroad also deny that their roads are 
guilty of any discrimination in rates. 

The Standard Oil Company reverses its 
policy of remaining silent under criti- 
cism and establishes a press bureau. 

The Attorney-General of Indiana decides 

to begin an investigation of charges 
contained in the report of discrimina- 
tion of rates by railroads operating in 
Indiana. It is announced at Columbus, 
Ohio, that the Attorney General of that 
State will soon begin action to oust the 
Standard Oil Company from the state. 
The Interstate Commerce Committee 
suspends the hearing for the present, 
in the coal and oil investigation under 
the Tillman-Gillespie resolution. 
The Perry Belmont Campaign Publicity 
bill is knocked out by the House Com- 
mittee on Elections as being impracti- 
The President makes a formal statement 
declaring his entire satisfaction with 
the Hepburn railroad rate bill and the 
Allison amendment. 
May 6. — Father Sherman returns to Fort 
Oglethorpe and explains the proposed 
trip over the grounds traversed by his 
father's army in the Civil War. He 
states that the military detachment 
was in the field by order of the War 
Department to study Civil War ma- 
neuvres and that he was an invited 
guest because General Sherman was 
his father. Father Sherman denies 
that he has any ill feeling toward 
Southern people, but expresses regret 
that his purposes were misvmderstood. 
The Federal Grand Jury indicts twenty- 
one persons for land frauds in Oregon. 
Postmaster-General Cortelyou recom- 
mends to Congress the appointment of 
a commission to inquire into the sub- 
ject of second-class mail matter with a 
view to ascertaining what modifications 
of the present second-class laws are 
The independent oil men claim that they 
see hope in the present fight on the 
Standard, as equal freight rates will 
mean competition in the oil business. 
May 7. — The anthracite miners accept the 
offer of the operators to continue work 
three years longer under the award of 
the anthracite strike commission. 
Despatches from Washington state that 
the Ohio and the United States govern- 
ments will prosecute the Standard Oil 
Company simultaneously and the au- 
thorities will work together. 
A special grand jury begins an investiga- 
tion of the insurance scandals in New 
York City. 
Speaker Joseph G. Cannon celebrates lis 

seventieth birthday at Washington. 
Congress receives the report of the Inter- 
national Waterways Commission, 
which provides for the preservation of 
Niagara Falls. 

Foreign News 

April 8. — The eruption of Mt. Vesuvius con- 
tinues to increase in violence. No 



trace remains of the destroyed village 
Boscotrecase, and the people flee from 
Torre Anniinziata and Torre del Greco, 
The panic extends to Naples, where 
severe earthquake shocks are felt. 
The King and Queen of Italy set out to 
visit the stricken district. 

The Russian election returns show a 
sweeping victory for the Constitutional 
April 9. — The cone of Mt. Vesuvius dis- 
appears and the eruption becomes less 
violent. Many persons are killed by 
the falling of houses under the weight 
of ashes. 

The overwhelming victory of the Constitu- 
tional Democrats brings the struggle 
between reaction and reform to a head. 
Despatches state that Premier Witte 
tenders his resignation to the Czar inti- 
mating that a constitution must be 
r granted or his resignation accepted. 

Twenty Europeans are killed or wounded 
in riots at Meshed, Northeastern Persia. 

The education bill, the main measure on 
the Liberal program at this session 
of Parliament, is introduced in the 
English House of Commons. 
April 10. — The eruption of Mt. Vesuvius 
resumes activity and many towns and 
villages are threatened with destruction 
At Naples the roof of a market falls 
under the weight of ashes, killing 12 and 
injuring more than 100 persons. It is 
estimated that 500 lives have been lost 
in the district between Ottajano and 
San Giuseppe. 

Rumors of a reorganization of the Russian 
Cabinet are rife in St. Petersburg. The 
Czar is said to be imwilling to decide the 
struggle between Premier Witte, who 
favors the granting of a constitution, 
and M. Dumovo, who opposes it. The 
Czar is afraid to accept Witte's resigna- 
tion as it will likely have an imfavorable 
effect on Russia's negotiations for a loan. 

The miners congress at Lens, France, 
decides to continue the strike for higher 
wages. The coal workmen in the 
Department of the Loire vote to join the 

A despatch states that 12,000 Boxers have 
risen against the Manchu dynasty in the 
southern part of Ho-Nan province and 
the western part of Shan-Tung, China. 
April II. — The eruption of Vesuvius is 
slackening. A large region has been 
laid waste and the relief measvires are 
insufficient. Falling buildings cause 
panics in Naples. 

Thirty-two bishops, of English and 
Welsh dioceses, decide to oppose the 
education bill. The Roman Catholics 
also decide to protest against the 

President Castro, of Venezuela, tempo- 
rarily retires. Vice-President Gomez 
assumes the duties of office. 

A new rebellion is feared in the south- 

eastern part of Russia. The Constitu- 
tional Democrats elected to Parliament 
are preparing plans of campaign. It is 
thought that even the moderate views 
of the Democrats will be vigorously 
opposed by the Autocrats. 
April 12. — The eruption of Vesuvius begins 
to subside and the streams of lava to 
cool, though Naples is deluged with 
cinders and ashes. King Victor Emman- 
uel and Queen Helena aid the rescuers 
in their work. One himdred and twenty- 
nine additional bodies are extricated 
from the ruins, and the dead at Otta- 
jano are said to number 550. Two 
hundred and forty-five houses are 
damaged at Portici, 195 at San Giovanni 
and Teduccio, 432 at Rcsina and 1,000 
at Torre del Greco. It is estimated 
that 5,000 houses in all have been 

Despatches from Paris state that negotia- 
tions for a $400,000,000 loan to Russia 
have been completed with French 

The fall of Minister of the Interior Dur- 
novo is predicted in St. Petersburg, as a 
result of the victory of Premier Witte 
and the Constitutional Democrats. 
April 13. — The Government of New Zealand 
establishes agencies for the retail sale 
of state-mined coal. 

The Roumanian Government, at the re- 
quest of the Russian police, decides to 
expel Matuschenko, leader of the mu- 
tiny on the battleship Kniaz Potemkin. 

The strike of the French postal employes 
is gaining ground. 

Despatches from St. Petersbiirg state that 
England is endeavoring to form an alli- 
ance with Russia to keep Germany out 
of the Far East. 

Vesuvius is quieting down. The soldiers 
are still busy extricating the bodies of 
the dead. 
April 14. — Signor Matteucci, who remained 
at the observatory on Mt. Vesuvius 
throughout the eruption, declares the 
danger past. Much suffering is experi- 
enced in. the region of the volcano. 

Earthquake shocks cause a great loss of 
life and damage to property in Formosa. 

St. Petersburg newspapers denounce the 
appointment of a finance committee by 
the Czar of Russia, as it removes all con- 
trol of national expenditures from Par- 
liament. A number of fierce encounters 
between Catholics and Mariavits occur 
in Poland. 
April 15. — Despatches from St. Petersburg 
indicate that Premier Witte has won his 
fight against repression , and M . Dumovo, 
Minister of the Interior, may be forced 
to resign. Cossacks defeat a band of 
Tartars near Tiflis. 

Mt. Vesuvius continues quiet and Easter 
is celebrated in Naples. 

Reports estimate the number of deaths 
from an earthquake in Formosa, Japan, 



at more than loo persons. Thousands 
of persons are homeless. 
April 1 6. — The fall of ashes from Mt. Vesu- 
vius is much lighter, and all danger for 
the present is past. 
The discovery of the famous Temple 
of Artemis on the bank of the River 
Eurotas, near the site of the ancient 
city of Sparta, is announced by Dr. 
Bosanquet, director of the British School 
of Archaeology at Athens, Greece. 
April 17. — Despatches from St. Petersburg 
state that Premier Witte has won his 
fight against Minister of the Interior 
M. Dumovo, and that the Czar has prom- 
ised to dismiss the Minister before Par- 
liament meets. Russia succeeds in get- 
ting the five per cent, loan of $440,000,- 
000, which will be issued at 88. This 
is regarded as a victory for the Govern- 
ment despite the hard conditions at- 
Despatches from Tiflis state that the 
Tartars continue their attacks on the 
King Peter accepts the resignations of the 

Servian Cabinet. 
Baron von Holstein, chief of the Depart- 
ment of Higher Politics in the Foreign 
Office of Germany, retires because of 
differences with Herr von Tchirsky, 
the Foreign Secretary. 
April 1 8. — Striking miners fiercely resist the 
troops near Lens, France, and many 
persons are injured. 
The Constitutional Democrats elected to 
the Russian Parliament divide on a 
political program, but tmite in favoring 
autonomy for Poland. 
A large force of troops is being mobilized 
in Natal to use against the rebellious 
A British torpedo boat is stmk in the 
maneuvres off Malta and only one life is 
Turkish troops wipe out four bands of 
Bulgarian brigands in the Meinik dis- 
trict of Macedonia. 
April 19. — Professor Curie, the discoverer 
of radium, is run over by a cab in Paris 
and killed. 
April 20. — A meeting of the American So- 
ciety is held in London, and a fund is 
started for the San Francisco sufferers. 
The shares of insurance companies 
slump badly in the London, Liverpool 
and Berlin markets when the extent of 
losses in San Francisco is learned. 
British policyholders of the Mutual Life 
Insurance Company adopt resolutions 
calling for drastic reform measures by 
that company. 
April 21. — More fights between the striking 
miners and troops are reported at Val- 
enciennes and Lens, France. 
Earthquakes destroy several houses in the 

town of Poggibonsi, Italy. 
Rus.sian monarchists, in session at Moscow, 
urge an unlimited monarchy. 

A ladrone chief surrenders at Manila. 

April 22. — Twenty-five Russian authors at 

St. Petersburg condemn the treatment 

of Maxim Gorky by Americans. 

Striking miners destroy a railroad bridge 

near Lens, France. 
Twelve persons are killed and fifty 
wounded in a church riot at Lesnos, 
near Warsaw, Russia. 
April 23. — It is rumored in St Petersburg 
that Father Gapon was hanged on April 
10, by his former revolutionary compan- 
ions for acting as a spy. Other rumors 
state that he has fallen into the hands 
of the Holy Synod, which has con- 
demned him to imprisonment for 
forsaking the priesthood. 
Admiral Rojestvensky asks to stand trial 
with the officers of the Badori for sur- 
rendering to the Japanese in the Rus- 
sian-Japanese war. 
The Czar and high officials of the Russian 
Government are revising the fvmdamen- 
tal laws of the empire hoping to de- 
crease the power of the Douma. 
A Belgian training ship sinks off Prawle 

Point. Thirty-four persons are lost. 
Wholesale arrests are made among the 
striking French coal miners. A general 
uprising of the working classes is feared 
on May i. 
April 25. — France is reported to be in a state 
bordering on panic from fear of out- 
breaks at the labor demonstrations on 
May I . The Government is mobilizing 
troops for use in case of riots. 
A bomb is found at the home of ex- Presi- 
dent Loubet, of France. 
The Czar of Russia decides to go to St. 
Petersburg and open the first Parlia- 
ment on May 10. 
It is reported from London that England 
will make a naval demonstration to 
induce the Turks to withdraw from 
Ten political prisoners are rescued from a 

Warsaw prison on a forged order.^ 
King Edward and Queen Alexandria of 

England leave Athens, Greece. 
The labor agitation in France causes less 
alarm owing to measures taken by the 
Government to preserve order. _ A large 
force of troops is concentrated in Paris. 
Conditions in St. Petersburg are alarming, 
but improve somewhat when the muni- 
cipal authorities promise to provide work 
for the unemployed and to appropriate 
money for the relief of the destitute. 
A number of female suffrage adherents are 
removed from the gallery of the British 
House of Commons by the police for 
creating a commotion. 
Japan offers to send a hospital ship to San 
Francisco, but the United States Gov- 
ernment declines the offer with thanks. 
April 26. — England increases her garrisons 
in Egypt on accoimt of Turkey's actions 
on the Tabah boundary questions. 
The strike situation in France improves. 



More troops are moved into Paris to 
guai'd against an outbreak on May i. 

A circvilar is sent to the British policy- 
holders in the Mutual Life Insurance 
Company, urging reform in the com- 
pany's management. 

The Emperor of Japan gives $100,000 to 
the San Francisco sufferers. 
April 27. — The Paris police search the homes 
of leading Royalists, Bonapartists, labor 
leaders and anarchists in the hope of 
finding evidence of a plot to overthrow 
the republic. 

A statue of Benjamin Franklin is unveiled 
in Paris. 

King Edward and Queen Alexandria visit 
the region devastated by Mt. Vesuvius. 

The returns of the Russian elections con- 
tinue to show gains for the Radicals. 
April 28. — Paris is greatly alarmed over 
small riots, but the authorities say there 
is no danger of serious disorder. 

Irritation is growing in England over the 
Tabah affair, and it is believed that 
steps will soon be taken to force the 
withdrawal of Turldsh troops. 

The agitation against the Russian Govern- 
ment is growing. The peasants have 
chosen representatives of the most 
radical tendencies, and trouble is feared. 

General von Budde, the Prussian Minister 
of Public Works, dies. 

Thirty Chinese are killed in a collision 
between a British troopship and a 
Chinese steamer in the Straits of 
April 29. — Troops continue to arrive at Paris. 
Two attempts at violence are made, and 
Premier Sarrien warns the strikers that 
any breach of the peace will be firmly 
dealt with. 

The Czar of Russia decides to receive the 
members of Parliament at the Winter 
Palace instead of opening the Parlia- 
ment in person. 

Better conditions prevail in the region of 
Mt. Vesuvius. The damage done by 
the avalanche is heavy. 
April 30. — A great number of leaders of the 
labor party and some Bonapartists are 
arrested in Paris. Extensive military 
precautions are taken to prevent 

Mr. Asquith, Chancellor of the Exchequer 
of Great Britain, introduces the budget 
in the House of Commons. Among the 
measures proposed are the removal of 
the duty on coal, a reduction of tea and 
tobacco duties and a graduated income 

Despatches from St. Petersburg indicate 
that Count Witte has given up the 
Premiership and that the Czar is com- 
mitted to a policy of reaction. Growing 
symptoms of unrest are being manifested 
throughout the Russian empire. 

The returns from the recent elections to 
the Russian Parliament show that the 
Constitutional Democrats have a work- 

ing majority of seven over the Reaction- 
ists and Conservatives. 
May I. — The military precautions to main- 
tain order in Paris are effective. Small 
fights occur and i ,000 arrests are made. 

Count Witte refuses to confirm or deny 
the report of his retirement from the 
Premiership. A number of conflicts 
occur in Warsaw and trade and traffic 
are suspended. 

Turkish soldiers remove telegraph poles 
from Egyptian territory. The nego- 
tiations between England and Turkey 
continue at Constantinople. 

American steel companies propose to the 
German companies to cooperate with 
them in supplying the daman d for steel 
at San Francisco. 
May 2. — According to the estimates of the 
police, three-fourths of the striking 
workmen return to work. Reports 
from the provinces indicate that the 
backbone of the strike is broken. 

The resignation of Premier Witte is ac- 
cepted, and it is stated that he will be 
succeeded by M. Goremykin, a reaction- 

A bill prohibiting plural voting, which 
affects chiefly land owners, is introduced 
in the English House of Commons. 

Unless Turkey promptly withdraws her 
troops from Tabah, England will take 
steps to force their withdrawal. 

The Irish members of Parliament decide 
to vote against the education bill. 

The German Reichstag passes a measure 
providing for religious freedom through- 
out the empire. 

The plague is spreading rapidly in north- 
eastern Persia, and the superstitious 
natives refuse medical aid. 
May 3. — No more riots are expected in 
Paris, but the guards are maintained. 

All members of the Russian Cabinet ten- 
der their resignations. 

King Edward VII, of England, dines with 
President Falli^res, of France, at Paris. 
May 4. — The Russian Cabinet issues a state- 
ment saying that changes in the funda- 
mental laws will be revoked and that 
bills for general amnesty and the abo- 
lition of the death penalty will be in- 
troduced in Parliament. 

The British Government sends an ulti- 
matum to Turkey, demanding the with- 
drawal of troops from the territory in 
dispute within ten days. 

The Constitutional Democrats, recently 
elected to Parliament, decide to let the 
Russian Government define its policy 
before they decide on a course for their 

No disorders are reported from Paris. It 
is estimated that 77,000 persons are 
now on strike. 
May 5. — The retirement of Premier Witte 
and M. Dumovo from the Russian 
Cabinet is officially announced. 

Radical speeches are made at the con- 



vention of Constitutional Democrats, 
but the indications are that the Con- 
servatives' policy of letting the Govern- 
ment declare its policy first will be 

The French Foreign Minister, M. Bour- 
geois, confers with Sir Charles Ilardinge, 
British Under Secretary for Foreign 
Affairs, regarding French support of 
England in the Tabah incident. 

Fourteen revolutionists, believed to be 
members of the supreme tribunal of the 
fighting organization, are arrested at a 
meeting in Moscow. 
May 6. — The French elections indicate a 
victory for the Gk)vemment, few changes 
being made in the Chamber of Deputies. 
The issue was the separation of Church 
and State. 

Governor-General Doubassoff, of Moscow, 
is slightly injured by the explosion of 
a bomb. 

Plans for opening the Russian Parliament 
are completed, and hopes are entertained 

of a peaceful arrangement of the matters 
at issue between the Czar and the people. 

British troops are attacked by a band of 
Zulus in Natal. Sixty Zulus are killed 
and three British wounded. 

The Governor-General of Ekaterinoslav 
is assassinated. The Governor of Eliz- 
abethpol meets the same fate in revenge 
for his savage repressions in the Cau- 

Sharp actions continue in Macedonia be- 
tween Turkish and Bulgarian bands. 
May 7. — Strong opposition to the education 
bill develops, and the House of Com- 
mons adjourns without taking action. 

Additional returns from the French elec- 
tions show a majority for the Govern- 
ment in the Chamber of Deputies. 

The Constitutional Democratic Congress 
at St. Petersburg is considering a plan 
of providing for the peasants by the ex- 
propriation of Crown and Church lands. 

Eight bombs are seized, and sixteen anar- 
chists arrested at Barcelona. 

This Age 


THE Iron Age, the Age of Stone and Brass 
Have left the traces of their woe or weal; 
The Age in which we find ourselves, alas! 
May bear this burning brand, The Age of STEAL! 

Absolute Worthlessness 

T^HE CLAM PEDDLER— What kind of a feller is't that your niece married 
-"- Mrs. Tubman? 

The Widow— Tell you what's a solemn fact, Mr. Shelly— in confidence, of 
course — he's so utterly no-account that I don't believe she could raffle him off 
at a church fair! 

His Plea 

"THE PRIVATE SECRETARY of an eminent plutocrat had been held up 
-*- and robbed by a lone highwayman. 
"Gentlemen," said the victim of the outrage, addressing the detectives and 
reporters who a little later clustered around him, " I beg of you not to suspect 
my employer! " ' 

The m 

Circulation Manacrer . 


Four Important Meetings 

I AM glad to announce four import- 
ant meetings to be held at St. 
Louis,Missouri,on June 27. Thus 
far the agitation for political action has 
been confined to a number of in- 
dividuals in various states, each work- 
ing along lines of his own, and without 
any definite knowledge of what his 
fellow-men are doing in other parts of 
the country. 

The meeting of the People's Party 
National Committee is purely a par- 
tisan matter, having to do exclusivelv 
with the affairs of the People's Party. 
The members of this Committee, how- 
ever, while at St. Louis will have an 
opportunity of attending the other 
meetings which are much larger in 
scope. In some degree, too, the dele- 
gate meeting representing the National 
Federation of People's Party Clubs is a 
partisan affair, but this meeting will 
not be confined so strictly to purely 
party matters. The meeting of the 
Reform Press Association, of course, 
will not be held strictly to any ism or 
party line. Most of the members of 
this association are, or rather were, 
editors of Populist papers; but within 
the past few years a considerable num- 
ber of these papers have been converted 
into independent, or non-partisan, 
publications. In some cases, too, the 
editor has changed his paper to a 
Republican, Democratic or Socialist 

The preliminary meeting of the 

Conference Provisional Committee, 

called by Mr. Forrest, is the one in 

which all shades of reformers can meet 


on common ground, unfettered by any 
party lines. As Mr. Forrest shows in 
his call, he has now an enrollment of 
over 11,000 members who have ex- 
pressed a desire to have held a great 
national convention for the purpose of 
effecting an organization to unite the 
reform forces of the United States into 
one political party. The meeting June 
27 is simply preliminary. It is not ex- 
pected that a large number of persons 
will attend, but it is desired that one 
or two members from each state 
should be present to discuss and ar- 
range for the calling of the big con- 
vention to be held later; and also to 
discuss the advisability of putting a 
ticket in the field for the Congressional 
elections this fall. The big conven- 
tion may be held very much later — in 
fact it could be held after the Novem- 
ber elections, if desired. The signers 
of Mr. Forrest's original call who have 
been made members of the Conference 
Provisional Committee, and who now 
number over 11,000 persons, covering 
the United States, represent every 
shade of political belief. There are 
four or five different kinds of Demo- 
crats, some three or four kinds of Re- 
publicans, about four different kinds 
of Populists, at least two kinds of 
Socialists, as well as Independents. 
That an interesting meeting will result 
when all these reformers get together 
is a foregone conclusion. The official 
calls follow: 

On Guard: To the Members of the Con- 
ference Provisional Committee: 
A preliminary meeting of the Conference 

Provisional Committee will be held at the 

Southern Hotel, St. Louis, Mo., June 27. 

The purpose is to have a conference com- 



posed of one or two members of the com- 
mittee from each state and territory to 
arrange for a great National Convention of 
all the reform forces of the nation. 

While the meeting is but a forerunner of 
the convention, yet any and all who may 
wish to come and participate in the work of 
arrangements will be welcome. It is de- 
sired that all those who expect to attend the 
conference, June 27, shall send their name 
and address to me at once. 

The Conference Provisional Committee 
now numbers over 11,000 members; by the 
time of the National Convention we are 
justified in expecting an enrollment of 

The time for action has arrived. June 2 7 
will pave the way. Let each member secure 
twenty new enrollments to the Conference 
Provisional Committee and we will have an 
army over 200,000 strong. If you have no 
coupon blanks, write asking for same, and 
they will be forwarded to you at once. 

In the words of Lowell, let us realize that 
"The time is ripe, and rotten ripe for change. 
Then let it come, I have no dread of what 
is called for by the Instinct of Mankind; 
Nor think I that God's World will fall apart, 
Because we tear a parchment more or less." 

(Signed) Jay W. Forrest, 

236 First street, Albany, N. Y. 

To THE Members of the People's Party 

National Committee: 

A meeting of the People's Party National 
Committee is hereby called to meet at the 
St. James Hotel, in the city of St. Louis, 
Mo., on Wednesday, the 27th of June, 1906, 
at one o'clock p. m. of said day, for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining the status of the party 
organization in the several states and terri- 
tories, the discussion of the advisability of 
placing a ticket in the field in those states 
where the organization is weak, the formula- 
lation and publication of an address to the 
people, and the transaction of such other 
business as may come before the Committee. 

It is requested that each member of the 
Committee who expects to be present advise 
the chairman, at Joliet, 111., of that fact; and 
members who do not expect to be in attend- 
ance are requested to have their proxies 
made out and placed in proper hands, with 
full instructions as to the use of same, at the 
earliest possible date. 

(Signed) Jas. H. Ferriss, Chairman. 
C. Q. De France, Secretary. 

To the Members of the National Re- 
form Press Association: 
A meeting of the National Reform Press 
Association will be held at the St. James Ho- 
tel in the city of St. Louis, Mo., on Wednes- 
day, the 27th of June, 1906, at two o'clock 
p. M. of said day, for the purpose of electing 
officers, and for the transaction of such other 
business as may come before the meeting. 
(Signed) J. M. Mallett, President. 

To the People's Party Clubs of the 

United States: 

A delegate meeting of the People's Party 
Clubs of the United States is hereby called 
to meet at the St. James Hotel in the city of 
St. Louis, Mo., on Wednesday, June 27, at 
three o'clock p. m. of said day, for the 
purpose of electing officers of the National 
Federation of People's Party Clubs, and for 
the transaction of such other business as 
may come before the meeting. 

It is suggested that the members of the 
various local clubs all over the United States 
be called to meet at the usvial place on Tues- 
day, the 12th day of June, 1906, at such hour 
as the presiding officer may designate in his 
call, for the purpose of electing one delegate 
to attend a Delegate Convention for the state 
in which such club is located. 

It is further suggested that the president 
of each State Federation of People's 
Party Clubs issue a call for a meeting of the 
delegates so selected, as above suggested, to 
meet at the State Capitol on Tuesday, the 
19th day of June, 1906, at stich hour as may 
be deemed most convenient, for the purpose 
of electing one delegate and one alternate to 
attend the National meeting herein called. 

It is further suggested that at the meeting 
of the local club a collection be raised to 
defray the expenses of the delegate sent to 
the state meeting, and to help in contribut- 
ing to the collection to be raised at the state 
meeting. That at the state meeting a col- 
lection be raised to defray the expenses 
of the delegate, or alternate, to the National 

(Signed) H. L. Bentley, 

President National Federation of 
People's Party Clubs. 

Not much of importance to say 
regarding April subscriptions, except 
that they are Hghter than hereto- 
fore. We expected that. And as 
it gives us time to straighten out 
all the kinks, we cannot complain. 
The May number is just out — went out 
promptly on time (April 25) — and we 
do not expect to be late again, unless 
some serious accident should happen. 

The Postoffice Department has 
granted our application for entry of 
Watson's Magazine to be mailed at 
second-class rates of postage, except as 
to some four hundred subscriptions 
taken in combination with the "Jeffer- 
son Bible " under the old rate of $1 . 35. 
The ruling is that on these we must 
affix stamps — three cents on each copy 
sent. The reason for this ruling is as 
follows: The Department holds that 



a publisher must receive at least fifty 
per cent of his advertised subscription 
price on each subscription, or it will not 
be regarded as legitimate. In other 
words, the highest commission the pub- 
lisher could pay his agents for soliciting 
would be one-half the regular price. 
This is to prevent pubHcations from 
securing an enormous subscription list 
at merely nominal figures, in order to 
make up the loss on subscriptions by 
the income from high-priced adver- 
tising. With half a million subscribers 
or more a magazine like Watson's 
could almost be given away to the sub- 
scribers, because of the heavy income 
from advertising; but the Department 
frowns upon such business methods — 
and I am inclined to think the Depart- 
ment has the right idea. No reason- 
able man will object to paying a fair 
price for what he buys. If he gets a 
magazine for less than cost of produc- 
tion, somebody else is bound to pay for 
it. If it is the publisher, he will sooner 
or later go out of business — unless he 
has millions to squander in the pub- 
lishing business. And if it is the ad- 
vertiser, he in turn must make the 
additional cost out of his customers. 
So that the pubHc, in one way or 
another, pays full price for every paper 
or magazine sent out. 

But the Department rules for testing 
whether a given subscription is legiti- 
mate sometimes work a hardship and 
injustice upon the pubHsher. They 
did in our case. We put in the "Jeffer- 
son Bible" at a trifle less than actual 
cost to us, after considering freight 
from St. Louis and postage on the book. 
It was called " a dollar book," although 
in this age of cheap books, fifty or sixty 
cents would be nearer a fair retail price 
for it. The Thompson Pubhshing Co., 
who pubHshed the "Jefferson Bible," 
called it "a dollar book" in some of 
their printed matter. And without 
thought of violating any of Uncle Sam's 
numerous rules regarding second-class 
matter, we said in our first announce- 
ment: "A dollar book and a dollar 
magazine — both for $1.35." 

" Dollar" is rather an elastic term in 
business, even if Jacob Schiff and his 
banker friends do cry out mightily 
against our inelastic currency. "Dol- 
lar watches" sell at sixty -nine cents, 
and " dollar remedies " go at forty-three 
cents up. But the Department is very 
literal-minded. "M-h-m," we can 
suppose it to say, " a dollar for the book 
leaves only thirty-five cents for the 
magazine a whale year — and that's less 
than one-half the advertised price. 
Such subscriptions are not legitimate. 
The publisher must stamp the copies 
sent out." 

And we did. But we kicked, never- 
theless, as beseemeth a true American 
and Populist. And we wrote to our 
subscribers who had ordered the Jeffer- 
son Bible combination, advising them 
of the Department's action and asking 
the following questions: 

1. Would you have subscribed 
for the Magazine at $1.00 per year, 
if no premium had been offered ? 

2. Did you take advantage of 
our offer because you wanted the 

3. Or, was it simply because you 
wanted the Jefferson Bible and were 
willing to pay $1 for it? 

4. How much, when you sent in 
your subscription, did you consider 
you were paying for Tom Watson's 
Magazine a year? 

5. How much for the Bible? 

The answers came promptly. Only 
five out of the whole number gave 
answers adverse to our contention that 
the subscriptions are legitimate. At 
this writing nearly every subscriber has 
answered, and as follows: i. Yes. 
2. Yes. 3. No. 4. One dollar. 
5. Thirty-five cents. But very many 
of them did more than simply answer 
the questions. Several wrote direct to 
the Department rather caustic letters 
of protest, and many attached protest- 
ing letters to the sheet containing 
answers. All of which pleased us 
mightily, because it shows the loyalty 
and friendship of our subscribers. 



We have asked for a reversal of the 
Department's action, submitting the 
original letters from each answering 
subscriber. With such testimony, there 
ought to be no doubt as to the legiti- 
macy of all the subscriptions — except, 
perhaps, as to the five before mentioned 
— and as their answers gave evidence of 
a deliberate intention to lie, we can 
afford to stamp their copies until their 
respective subscriptions expire. 

Those who enrolled as subscribers at 
the dollar rate may consider themselves 
particularly fortunate, for next month 
we begin pubHcation of Mr. Watson's 
"Life and Times of Andrew Jackson." 
This will be the biggest thing of the 
kind this year, and will run probably 
twelve to fifteen months. Other men 
have written good history, and others 
are writing it today. Other men have 
written the life of Jackson, and others 
are now at work upon it. IBut without 
any attempt to disparage the work of 
others, I feel free to say there is only 
one Tom Watson in the historical field. 
It is the peculiar charm of his style 
which makes Watson's history read- 
able and read. His method is in har- 
mony with modern ideas — that history 
is not a mere tale of the sayings and 
doings of a king or prince or hero, but 
that it must show the habits, manners 
and customs of the people, how they 
Hved, how they made their living, how 
they worshiped God (or Mammon), 
how they married, how they died — not, 
it is true, written like a mere catalogue, 
but with a grasp big enough to com- 
prehend the whole civilization written 

SociaHsts may claim that Mr. Wat- 
son writes from the standpoint of their 
" materiahstic conception of history " — 
and in a way he doubtless does; but he 
denies that they have any claim to 
copyright on the "conception," because 
it was not original with Marx and 
Engels, and he can go back to the same 
sources from which they received their 
inspiration. Of course, he takes no 
stock in the "historic mission of the 
proletariat," and, hence, does not in- 
fringe upon what belongs exclusively 
to the Socialists. 

"The Life and Times of Andrew 
Jackson" is biography and history 
combined. Jackson's life alone makes 
interesting reading; but it cannot be 
segregated from the times he lived in 
without marring the picture. The 
administrative head of our nation at 
one of the critical periods of its exist- 
ence, Jackson stands towering in the 
line of Presidents. He had stanch 
supporters and the bitterest of enemies. 
He may have been indiscreet at times, 
but none could doubt his indomitable 
will power. He hved at a time — was 
President — when the people, after 
years of apathy and inaction, were 
compelled to arouse themselves and 
act. They were in the clutches of the 
Money Power. How they rallied to 
the Man of Action and temporarily 
freed themselves is one of the most 
interesting chapters in American his- 
tory. It has been told many times — 
but never in that intensely charming 
style in which Mr. Watson will tell it. 
It will be as thrilling as the so-called 
"historical novels" so much in vogue 
a few years since, yet with all the 
accuracy of the most formal record. 

Those who did not enroll at the dol- 
lar rate, of course, lost an opportunity 
which will not come again; but they 
can have the satisfaction of taking 
advantage of our liberal combination 
offers. All who subscribe now at $1.50 
— if they request it — can have their 
subscriptions begin at once with the 
current number, but dated to expire a 
year from July, 1906. For $3.25 we 
will send the magazine a year and a 
cloth-bound copy of Mr. Watson's 
" Life and Times of Thomas Jefferson." 
And we have made arrangements with 
another fountain pen manufacturer to 
supply us with a pen very much better 
than the Celtric we sent out last year — 
the magazine a year and the pen for 
$2.00. The fair retail price of this pen 
is $1.00, although it has been sold for 
more in places. 

I had expected to print in this de- 
partment this month the call for a con- 
ference at St. Louis, June 27, but there 



has been some hitch regarding the date. 
It will be printed in the advertising 
pages if the matter is settled not later 
than May 9. All over the country, 
men are agitating for conferences and 
meetings with the object of getting the 
reform forces together — Jay W. For- 
rest, 236 First street, Albany, N. Y.; 
H. L. Bentley, Abilene, Texas; A. J. 
Jones, Parlier,Cal.; Charles P. Fox, 1520 
Nineteenth street, Bakersfield, Cal. ; T. 
L. Thomas, Forestville, Conn.; and 
many others. Hon. Wharton Barker, 
in the Philadelphia North American 
of March 8, has a ringing letter on the 
formation of a new party to meet great 
problems. And, generally, oiir corre- 
spondence denotes great desire to DO 
something effective in the way of 
organization. I believe a conference 
would clear the atmosphere and secure 
some concert of action. 

The letter following, from Charles 
F. M. Leonard, 4595 North Market 
street, St. Louis, Mo., is typical: 

St. Louis, Mo., April 9, 1906. 
Watson^ s Magazine: 

The best thing that ever happened the 
People's Party was the nomination of Tom 
E. Watson for President in 1904. It gave us 
a leader (such a leader as the party has 
never had before), and he has given us 
Watson's Magazine as a weapon with 
which to fight Plutocracy. 

Now, Populists, are you going to sit down 
and fold your hands, hoping Watson will do 
it all, do nothing yourself , wait until 1908, 
when now is the time to act, for vigorous 
action on our part ? 

Many say Watson for President in 1908. 
I say something must be done and done 
right now if we expect to gain anything from 
the present eflforts of Thomas E. Watson. 

Take care of the present and the future 
will take care of itself. 

I here submit a few suggestions of what I 
think should be done. 

I. — Call a conference of the national 
committee and loyal Popiilists_to nieet in 
St. Louis. 

2. — Said conference to issue a procla- 
mation to t^ie people, a call to action. 

3. — Act yourself, organize your county, 
city or state. 

4. — Don't let an opportunity pass to 
place a ticket in the field. If the Populists 
would not wait, but go ahead and nominate 
candidates, it would keep the cause before 
the public. And a ticket in the field forces 
an organization. 

With a good working organization behind 
our candidates in 1908, we can expect some- 
thing to happen. 

A. J. Jones says, in the April issue, that 
there will be a People's Party state ticket 
in the field in California. That's what I would 
like to hear of other states. 

Coal City, lU., has nominated a ticket. 
Wake up brothers! Let's get together also. 

If the PopuHsts of St. Louis will corre- 
spond with me, I'll help get up a ticket for 
St. Louis. 

Why not, Brother Hillis, call a state con- 
vention to nominate a state ticket? 

Let's get busy, brothers! Htistle for the 
grandest cause since the days of ouf fore- 

Yours sincerely, 

Charles F. M. Leonard, 
4595 North Market St., St. Louis, Mo. 




Lincoln did it — and that, too, with a few text books which he had to walk miles 
to borrow and which he had to read by the flare of a pine-torch. 

If results like his were possible under such adverse conditions, what can you 
not do with the advantages of having in your own home, a set of 

The New International 

a library of information on every subject Oi mterest to 
men. Perfect either as a work of reference or as a 
universal text book. 

To make this latter use still more easy and practical, 


with each set of The New Inter- 
national Encyclopaedia bought, 

A Volume of Special Courses 
Arranged for Reading and Study 

This volume, in connection with the set, practically 
affords the advantages of a college course at home. 
Lectures, text books and a complete working library 
are there. 

With the companion volume to guide you, you can take 
any subject, science, art, literature, religion, etc., and fol- 
low it from the beginning to the end in logical order, 
thereby gaining a thorough, well-rounded knowledge of 
the whole subject, either in its larger or general aspect 
or carried down to the minutest details. .*'" 

Encyclopaedia is q^' .^•• 

The New International 
ideally suited for such general reading and text book use, q- 
because, unlike any other reference work, it is written in ^^ ^'^[ 
a simple, clear, interesting style that makes it fascinating reading. <>'^-»'^""^I*'^e^ 

Besides, it is the most comprehensive, most reliable work of ^ v4®"^\^*'V't^ 
reference published to-day. It comprises 20 volumes, contain- ^'^•.«>^^<?^o<f*'^"'*V^' 

ing 16,728 pages, 700 full-page illustrations and over 7,000 ji,^ .s?" ^<'^*^;\'>^<r*'' 
illustrations in text. <^ ^<>'^\.'t.'t<^\'^' ..•" 

To any one interested and who will fill out the attached coupon, 
we will eladly send a handsomely illustrated book descriptive of ^^ ^ ^ >> c?- 
The New International Encyclopaedia, containing specimen pages ^j^-' c*^^'^^-'^ <«'^^ 
and colored plates, telling how the great work was produced, ^> ■<i^ J,"^ 
its editors and contributors. This book also describes the ^'5?^ cv^ ?>■• 

kX ^ 




easy payment plan by which this great work can be se- 
cured without a large initial expenditure. 

^"^ C0\c<0^ 




372 Fifth Avenue. New York 





Letters and Addresses 

of Thomas Jefferson 

Do you know what the first great 
radical thought and said about: 

National Finance, Agriculture and Trade, Specula- 
tion and Luxury, Slavery, State's Rights, Education, 
The Simple Life, Entangling Alliances, Imperialism, 
The French Revolution? 

Do you know his opinion of his 

George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, John 
Adams, John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, James 
Monroe, Lafayette, Aaron Burr, George III, Louis 
XVI, Thomas Paine ? 

Letters and Addresses of Thomas Jefferson 

Bound in green crash cloth, stamped in gold. Plain 
readable type on good paper. INCLUDING YEAR'S 
(One Dollar and Sixty Cents). ^ Write to-day. 

WATSON'S MAGAZINE, No. 121 West 42nd Street, New York 


% OFF % OFF % OFF 




In taking inventory, we find a few sets of the "International Shakespeare," 13 library volumes, 
which have become slightly nibbed from handling in our stock room; not enough to impair their 
real value, but sufficiently to prevent their shipment as perfect stock at the regular subscription price, 
$30 a set. Rather than rebind such a small lot, we have decided to close them out for 50 cents 
down and Sr.oo a month for 12 months. This price, S12.50, represents but little more than actual 
cost of the sheets; and the sets are practically as good as new; in fact some of them have never been 
removed from the boxes. This is a rare opportunity for those who desire a beautifal and serviceable 
edition of Shakespeare's works. 


This edition of Shakespeare's works is the newest and by far the most satisfactory now before 
the American public It is complete in 13 volumes, library siz^-r'.^xsJ^ inches, containing over 
7,000 pages, with 400 illustrations, many of which are beautiful full-page plates in colors. We com- 
mend it to all who desire a good library edition at a moderate price. It contains the following unique 
and exclusive features, which are absolutely essential to a proper understanding of Shakespeare's plays: 

Topical Index: By means of which the reader can find 
any desired passage in the plays and poems. 

Critical Comments explaining the plays and characters; 
selected from the writings of eminent Shakespearian scholars. 

Glossaries following each Play, so that you do not 
have to turn to a separate volume to find the meaning of 
every obscure word 

Two Sets of Notes: Explanatory notes for the general 
reader and critical notes for the student or scholar. 

SENT FREE— For Examination 

On receipt of the accompanying coupon, we will forward a complete 
set for examination, express cliarges prepaid by us. If it is not sat- 
isfactory simply return it at our expense. No advance payment required. 
Terms 50 cents on acceptance and $1.00 a month thereafter for 12 
months Regular subscription price $39. Mail the accompanying cou- 
pon to-day without fail. This adv. will not aopear again. 

78 Fifth Ave., New York. 

Armaments, giving a full story of each play in inter- 
esting, readable prose. 

Study Methods, consisting of study questions and sug- 
gestions, — a complete college course of Shakespearian study. 

Life •f ShaKespeare by Dr. Israel GoIIancz, t^th 
critical essays by Bagehot, Stephen and other disUnguished 
Shakespearian scholars and critics. 


The University Society, Inc. .t. wat.,6.06) 

78 Fifth Ave., New York 

You may send me, express prepaid, for examination, 
a slightly damaged set of the Iniernalional Shakes- 
peare, 13 volumes, cloth binding, for which I agree 
to pav vou TO cents on acceptance and Si .00 a month 
thereafter for twelve months, IF IT IS S.ATISFAC- 
TORY; otherwise I will return it at vour expense. 
(T. \V.,G-r6.> 

Name ;-; r^ i-v .^ .— ^ .-; r: v-;« ••»« 






HENRY LAURENS, an eminent political economist, has just published 
the fir^ three of a series of six proposed pamphlets bearing upon the 
issues of the day. Those on " The Money Supply," " The Land Quezon," 
and " The True Social Doctrine " are not yet out of press. Those-'"at hand and 
ready for di^ribution are : 

quiry into the Concentration of Wealth; showing its Multiplication 
pracftically 99 times in Fifty Years; the Effecfts of Wealth Concentra- 
tion in the Impoverishment of Indu^al Society, Enslavement of 
Labor, and Corruption of Politics; as also its Origin in the Monopoly 
of Induftry, of the Public Highw^ays, and of the Money Supply by the 
Corporation, and of Land by Speculative Ownership. 

No. 2. " THE TRUST SITUATION.' —An Examination into the 
Monopoly of Indu^ry by the Corporation; the Effecfts of this Mon- 
opoly in Contributing toward the Concentration of Wealth and Con- 
sequent Impoverishment of Indu^al Society; the Causes which 
have brought about Tru^ Formation, in our Corporation Laws; and 
the Remedy for this Monopoly, in making the Corporation, together 
with the Tru^, Public and Co-operative. 

No. 3. "THE PUBLIC HIGHWAYS."— An Examination into 
the Monopoly of the Public Highways by the Public Service Corpo- 
ration; the Effecfts of this Monopoly in Contributing toward the Con- 
centration of Wealth, and Impoverishment of Induilrial Society; the 
Causes which have led to Private Ownership, in the Corruption of 
our Politics; the Chara<fter and Danger of Private Ownership; and 
the Remedy therefor in immediate Public Ownership. 

These are uniform in size, each 32 pages, with paper covers; price 
10 cents each. To our readers, postage paid, 5 cents each. The three 
with the magazine a year, $ 1 .60. The three bound in cloth, one volume, 
and the magazine a year, $1.80. 


Book Dept. 121 West 42d St. New York 


This "1900" Gravity Washer 
Must Pay for Itself 


MAX tried to sill me a horse, once. He said it was a 

fine horse and had nothing the matter with it. I 

wanted a fine horse. Hut I didn't know anything 

about horses, much. And. I didn't know the man 

very well either. ~ 

So I told him I wanted to try the horse for a month. He 

said "all right, but pay me first, and I'll give back your 

money if the horse isn't all 1 ighl." 

Well I didn't like that. I was afraid the horse wasn't "all 
right" and that I might have to whistle for my money if I 
once parted with it. So I didn't buy the horse although I 
wanted it badly. Now this set me thinking. 

-the -'1900" Gravity 

You see I make washing machines- 

And, I said to myself, lots of people may think about my 
Washing Machines as I thought about the horse, and about 
the man who owned it. 

But rd never know, because they wouldn't write and tell 
me. You see I sell all my Washing Machines by mail. (I 
sold upwards of 500,000 that way already — nearly five million 
dollars worth.) 

So, thought I, it's only fair enough to let people try my 
Washing Machines for a month, before th^v paj' for them, 
just as I wanted to try the horse. 

Now. our ''IBOO" Gravity Washer is a new invention, and 
I know what it will do. I know it will wash clothes without 

wearing them, in less than half the time they can be washed 
by hand, or by any ordinary machine. 

When I say half the time I mean half — not a little quicker, 
but twice as quick. 

I know it will wash a tub full of very dirty clothes in Si.K 
minutes. I know no Washer made by any other concern can 
do that, in less than 12 minutes, without wearing out the 

I'm in the Washing Machine business for Keeps. 
That's why I know these thmgs so surely. Because 
I have to know them, and there isn't a Washing 
Machine made that I haven't seen and studied. 

Surelv that's fair 

Oiir "1900" Gravity Washer does the work so easy 
that a child can run it almost as well as a strong 
woman. And it don't wear the clothes, nor fray 
edges, nor break buttons, the way all other washing 
macbiies do. 

iL just drives soapy water clear through the 
threads of the clothes like a Force Pump might. 

If people only knew how much hard work the 
"1900" Gravity Washer .'^aves every week, for 10 years, 
and how much longer their clothes would wear, they 
would fall over each other trying to buy it. 

So, said I to myself, I'll just do with my "1900" 
Gravity Washer what I wanted the man to do with 
the horse. - Only, I won't wait for people to ask me. 
I'll offer to do it first, and 111 "make good" the offer 
every time. That's how I sold nearly half a million 

I will send any reliable person a '*1900" Gravity 
Washer on a full month's free trial! I'll pay the freight 
out of my own pocket. And if you don't want the 
machine after you've used it a month I'll take it back 

and pay the freight that way, too. 
enough, isn't it. 

Doesn't i t prove that the "1900" Gravity Washer 
must be all that I say it is? How could I make any- 
thing out of such a deal as that, if I hadn't the finest 
thing that ever happened for Washing Clothes— the 
quickest, easiest and handiest Washer on Earth ? It 
will save its whole cost in a few months in Wear and 
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to 75 cents a week over that in washerwoman's wages. 
If you keep the machine after a month's trial, I'll let 
you pay for it out of what it saves you. If it saves 
you 6oc a week send me 50c a week, 'till paid for. 

I'll take that cheerfully and I'll wait for my money 
until the machine itself earns the balance. 

Now, don't be suspicious. I'm making you a 
simple, straightforward offer, tha t you can't risk any- 
thing on anyhow. I'm willing to do all the risking 
myself! Drop me a line today and let me send you 
a book about the 1900 "Gravity" Washer, that washes 
Clothes in 6 minutes. Or, I'll send the machine on 
to you, a reliable person, if you saj so, and take all 
the risk myself. Address me this way— R. P. Bieber, 
Gen. Mgr. "1900 Washer Co.," .5986 Henry St., Bing- 
hamton, N. Y., or 355 Yonge St., Toronto, Canada. 
Don't delay, write me a post card now, while you 
think of it. 



Across Lake Erie 



The D. & B. Line Steamers leave Detroit weekdays 
at 5:00 p. m.,Sun(laysHt 4:00 p. m. (central time) and 
from Buffalodaiiy at 5.30 p. m. (eastiTii time> reacu- 
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nections witli early morninGT trains. Superior service 
and lowest rates between eastern and western states. 

Rail Tickets AvailabCe on Steamers 

All classes of tickets sold reading via Michigan 
Central. Wabash and Grand Trunk railways be- 
tween Detroit and Buflfalo in either direction will be 
accepted for transportation on D. & B. Line 

Send two cent stamp for illustrated pamphlpt. 
Address, A. A. Schantz, G. S. & P T. M., Detroit, Mich. 


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[AGENTS "!s^'r!g°jr^ 

The Allen Mfg. Co., No.28Sta. F, Toledo, 0. 


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We will send the American Vibrator, prepaid, 
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A Real King. 

Donahcy, in Cleveland Plain Dealer 




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1432 Athenaeum Building, Chicago. 
1432 Evans Building, Washington, D. C. 

Not Necessary 

Eyeslf;ht Can be !Stren»;lli<>neil, und Most VorniN ol' ■> 
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If you will send your name and address to the New York 
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valuable book — Professor Wilson's Treatise on Disease. 

A Future E.xpeit Collector 

/)ona/iey, i>: CUveland Plain Dernier 





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Write immediately for 84-page catalogue of mantels and ornamental 
grilles. You need it if you intend to buy. 

McCLAHROCH HANTEL CO., Dept. G. 44 Broad St., Greensboro, N. C. 



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J. N. BATEriAN, Southern Representative, 



Main Office, Cli:vel.\xi), Ohio. 

THE Peck-Williamson Underfeed Furnace will save you the money wasted and lost in 
the smoke and gases which escape up and out your chimney from that old Overfeed furnace. , 
It will extract more heat from a ton of the cheapest grade coal than you have ever obtained from 
a ton of the highest grade. Satisfied users from all sections give voluntary testimony that the 

Peck-Williamson Underfeed Furnace 

Saves i-2 to 2-5 on Coal Bills 

Several months ago we published a letter from Mr. Howard Shordon, Fort 
Wayne. Ind., telling his experience. A gentleman from Virginia recently wrote 
Mr. Shordon, asking further information. Extracts from his reply, follow: 

"In reply would state that I am pleased with the Peck-Williamson Under- 
feed Furnace and consider i t the most economical furnace on the market. Prices 
of coal in this city are as follows: Anthracite §8 00, Soft Lump ?.5 50. and West 
Virginia Slack §3.2.5 per ton. I used less than ten tons of the West Virginia 
Slack to heat my eight-room house last Winter— heating my kitchen with the 
furnace and using gasoline for cooking purposes, makingmy entire fuel bill for 
the Winter §22 50 for coal and S.5.00 for gasoline. 

"Last year we used a base-burner stove and burned wood in the kitchen, 
and our fuel bill was §32.00 for coal and ?15.00 for wood, making ^7.00 for fuel 
and only heating three rooms." 

Note the saving. In many cities, slack coal is much cheaper than it is in 
Mr. Shordon's home, and of course in such cases, the saving would be much 
greater. We've literally hundreds of such letters. 

Let us send you an illustrated tinder/efd booklet, giving full description of furnace 
and crowded with fac-simlle testimonials of satisfied users. Heating plans and services 
of our Engineering Department are at your command — absolutely FREEL Write to-day 
and please give name of local dealer with whom you prefer to deal. 

I^THE PECK-WILLIAMSON CO.. 367 W. Fifth Si., Cincinnati. 0. 

Dealers are invited io write for our very attractive proposition. 


A Grand Premium Offer 





































Vj^TE have Deen successful in closing a new contract whereby, 
for a short time, we can supply a guaranteed 

Gold Fountain Pen 

''The Diamond Point No. 14'' 

and a year's Subscription to Watson's Magazine 
for $2,00. This is a much better pen than we supplied last 
year. It retails usually at |i.oo It is made of the best quality 
of hard rubber, in four parts, and fitted with a guaranteed 
iridium-pointed 14-k. Gold Pen.. The "fountain" is through- 
out of the simplest construction and cannot get out of order, 
overflow or fail to supply ink to the nib. 

"A Fountain Pen is a Necessity of the Twentieth Century.'''' 

The Egyptians used a split reed; our grandfathers a goosequil!, 
our fathers a steel or ordinary gold pen. But to-day we want 

A Fountain Pen 

that dispenses with the inconvenient inkstand, that does not cor- 
rode, and that is always re;idy for use. It it does not prove 
satisfactory in every way we will exchange it tor another, or 
return the fifty cents additional on return ot the pen. 

This is an unusual opportunity to secure, at a very 
low price, an article of superior quality that is conning 
to be essential to the comfort a^nd convenience of 
everyone who w^rites 

Remember that the Offer is for Ninety Days Only 

Tom WATSON'S Magazine 

121 West 42d Street, New York 


The Man Who Looks Ahead is the Man Who Gets Ahead. 

Y^ • 1 ^^ -i. '^^e New Suburb of 

Pll\eKUrSt Atla^ntic City 

1 1 minutes from the Boardwalk on the flaln Line of The Penna. Railroad. 
Offers the Greatest Chance of a Lifetime to Lay the Foundation of a Fortune. 


Itt: nearness to Atlantic City makes a rapid 
and steady increase of its real estate values 

Its high elevation and surrounding pines 
make it an ideal home site, summer and 

Its railroad and trolley facilities ensure ac- 
cessibility both to Philadelphia and Atlantic 

Its liberal plan of development affords equal 
advantages to all purchasers, while the building 
restrictions guarantee a high class of residents. 

Its ta.\ rate is low and there are no extra 
charges for deeds or improvements. 

Us present valuation and prices of lots are 
bound to double or treble in the near future. 

^efnarKable Grotayih. 

There have been few records of suburban 
development to compare with that of Pinehurst 
in the past month. 

The increasing demand and extensive im- 
provements planned in this new town site, 
traversed, as it is, by the main avenues of 
approach to Atlantic City, has resulted in a 
decided advance in the price of lots. This is 
only history repeating itself. 

Atlantic City real estate values have increased 
more than 8oo per cent, in the past 12 years 
and are still rising. Property along the Board- 
walk is now held at prohibitive figures— rents 
for $250 to $400 a foot and sells at $1000 a 
foot. A lot 50 X 100 that cost $700 sold for 
$50,000. A property bought 5 years ago for 
$6,000 was sold recently for $150,000. A small 
plot taken for a debt for $800 is now worth 
half a million These facts can be verified 
from the records and are only a few of the 
many instances that could be cited. 

Nebtf Trolley "DeHJelopment 

The Pennsylvania Railroad is spending large 
sums to improve its service to Atlantic City 
by electrifying its system, which is to be in 
operation by July ist. 

The Reading Railroad has also announced 
the expenditure of $5,000,000 for the same pur- 
pose. Competing lines are active and must 
go through Pinehurst because it lies adjacent to 
and directly tn the line of approach to Atlantic 

A 5 cent fare from Pinehurst to Atlantic 
City is now practically assured, and with this 
must come another jump in prices. 

Our Easjr Tlan 

of partial payirents enables all investors to 
secure lots on equal terms. The lots, 25 x 125 
feet, are $30 to $55, according to location, but 
subject to early advance on account of exist- 
ing conditions. Prompt action is necessary to 
take advantage of present prices. Such an op 
portunity for safe and profitable investment 
may never occur again. Follow the advice of 
those who have made the chief fortunes in this 
country. " Buy real estate near a great city," 
where the city must grow out to and absorb it. 
Atlan*-ic City has outgrown the island (three- 
quarters of a mile wide), on which it is located. 
It must grow toward Pinehurst, its natural 

fl XOill Start ^ou. 

You may reserve (subject to investigation) from 1 to 
slots by a first payment of onlvSi. ^mi. if entirely ^^atis 
fied, complete the purchase by small monthly amounts 
Title is insured by the Integrity Title Insurance and 
Trust Co of Philadelphia — we charge no interest— no taxes 
until 1Q07 — free deed to your heirs if you die before 
lots are paid for — free building plans — specril i 
ducements to builders — .ill improvements free 
Write at once for illustrated descriptive mattei 
nnd map. or if you want to make sure of 
the present first prices fill out the attached y 
coupon and mail to us to-day j^^' 

Atlantic City Estate Co 


Main Office 

1048 Drexel BIdg., 



937 Boardwalk 




1048 Drexel Building, 


1 enclose $1. Please re 

serve . . . lots in 

Pinehurst with the understand- 
ing you will refund my dollar if 
not satisfied after further Investi- 




The Railways, the Trusts 

^ a n d t h e "P e o p t e ^ 

An up-to-date book on the Railway Problem has 
long been needed. Poor and the Interstate Commerce 
Commission give us statistics; Wellington discusses con- 
struction and operation from the engineering and economic 
side; Hadley's treatise deals with rates and management 
from the railway standpoint ; and Larrabee, Hudson, Lewis, 
Cowles and others have written from the people's point of 
view. But — 

Prof. Fra^rvk Pa..rsonLs' 

book (just out) brings together the facts that show the broad 
effects of public and private railways and various methods 
of management upon moral and intellectual development, 
political, industrial and social conditions, and the progress 
of civilization. It is published as one of 

Dr. C. F. Taylor's "Equity Series" 

in paper covers, uniform with " Politics in New Zealand " 
and others. Part I, the first volume, treats of the relations 
of the railways to the public — 262 pages jammed and 
crammed full of information bearing upon this all-absorbing 
topic, the railways. Regular price, 25 cents. To our 
readers^ 15 cents. With the Magazine one year^ $1.55. 

WoctsoTY's MecgOczirve 

"Book Tyepartfnent 



North St. at Delaware Ave. 


Modern Highest Grade. Absolutely Fireproof. 



exclusively for Patrons from about Jurve First 

Wire reser-Vation 
at our Expense. 


'How to Remember*' 

Sent Free to Beaders ol tbii Fublicatioo. 

Stop Forgetting 



Yon are no greater intellectually than 

'your memory. II y course iaBimple.iuexpensive. 
'^Inrroiea business capacity, locial «tftnding; gives an 
•lert ready memory for nainei laces, business details. Develops will, 
conversation, speaking. et'-. Mv Bookl-^. "'Bowto Remember, "eontfree. 


Keen Ei-lije Strops are guaranteed to sharpen dull razors and ke 

:p th..T 

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Used by memhers ol oui ed'torlil s'afT with most satisfactory results 
.%Ianufactured aad sold by a true Ancrican and our readers can rest assured 
Ihat unless strops do tne work, their money will be refunded 

Retrular goods are 50c, and 75c Seconds, fuliy guaranteed and but slightly 
imperfect, are 25c and 35c Sent, postage prepaid, upon receipt of price. 



Its Care 
and Treat- 


By C. HEXRI LEON.XRn. \ M. M. D. 
A Professor in the Detroit Collesre of Medioine.. 
Octavo, 320 pages, limp sides. S | .00 postpaid 

Bound in neat cloth, gilt sule title, S I .50 postpaid. 

Has over JOO engravines, and gives self-treatment for tne 
diseases of the Hair, Beard and .Scalp. 200 prescriptions m 
English given. 

If your hair is falling ont it tells you how to stop it. 

If turning gray, how to prevent it. 

If growing slowly, how to hasten its gro\vth. 

If it is all out, and hair bulbs arc not dead, how to make it 
prrow again. 

If growing in unsightly places, how to remove it. 

It tells you how to bleach it, or dye it black, brown, red or 
ot a blonde color Circular free Address 



Cor. lltK Street a^nd University Plaice 

(One Block from Bi-oadway Cars.) 

inf m 



A Modern FIREPROOF Hotel-a dining room that is famous for 
its excellent food and moderate prices. Special Club Breakfasts. 
soe, 35«, 50«— Lunches, lOc : and otir Famous Course Dinners, 75o. 

ROOMS, $1.00 


Quiet and Comfort! Within easy walking distance of the lireat 
Department Stores. Wanamakev's, two minutes : Sicgel Cooper's 
eight minutes, et(\ Easv access to all points of interest. Also close 

The Best Hotel Value in 
New York City 

Guid^ Book of Wew Vork City sent FRKE on request. 



You can get from ,?.),0(IU to ,?5,000 a year in the Keal Estate 
Business without investing any money. Our co-operative 
inetluxls insure larger and steadier profits than ever before. 
We will teach you the Heal Kstate, General Brokerage anil 
Insurance Business by mail, appoint you special reiire.senta- 
live of the largest international brokerage rompany, send 
you lists of clioice salable real estate and investrnent.s and 
co-operate with and help you make a laige steady income. 

Every business man should have our Commercial Law 
course which is given free to every real estate student. Our 
Free Book is valuable and interesting, and tells how .you 
can succeed. Address, 

H, W. CROSS, Pres't, The Cross Compaijj, 

121 Reaper Bloct, Chicago. 



Our stylish and easy Forms give the legs 
perfect shape.. The trousers hang straight 
and trim. Put on or oft in a moment, im- 
possible to delect ; inexpensive, durable, 
give style, finish and comfort. We send 
them on trial. Write for photo-illus- 
trated book and proofs, mailed free and 

ALISON CO., rept.F7, Buffalo, N.Y . 



Bookkeeping and Shorthand taught thoroughly. 

Alain line Railroail wires enter this College. 

Our graduates cover the South, positions guaranteed or no tuition 

charged. Write for Catalogue. 


$1.00 a Tear. Single copy 10 cents. 

Contains articles on Oriental Philosophy by Swami 
Abhedananda and other Swamis of India. 

^etif "BooK-t by S'tefamt .Abhedananda 

Clcth Jl.OO. Po:tage 7 cents. Portrait cf author, frontispiecs. 


(Lectures delivered before the Brooklyn Institute 
of Arts and Sciences.) 

Cloth $1.00. Postage 7 cents. Portrait of author, frontispiece. 


The Vedanta Society, 

62 West 7l8t Street, New York, 


Tlje Hocus Pocus t\omy Book 

New light on the monev^ question, viewed from the 
point of " deposit banking " ; by Albert Griffin, of Topeka. 
Mr. Griffin's thorough analysis of deposit banking, show- 
ing enormous inflation of the circulation by means of 
"bank credits" — or "hocus pocus" dollars — will astonish 
many an old Greenbacker, who thinks he has learned all 
there is to know about the science of money. Contrary 
to the accepted "quantitative theory" — that the level of 
prices is determined by the number of coined dollars in 
circulation, whether gold, silver, copper or paper — Mr. 
Griffin maintains that deposit banks create out of nothing, 
except bank ledgers and ink, millions of intangible or "hocus pocus" dollars, 
which do all the work of money until a crash comes, when they disappear like 
mist. Bound in paper; 200 pages. Regular price, 25 cents; our price to sub- 
scribers and buyers, 15 cents; with the Magazine one year, $1.55. 

WATSON'S MAGAZINE, Book Dept., (21 W.42d St., New York 

Politics in New Zealand 

One of Dr. Tavlor's " Equity Series." Adapted from 
''The Story of New Zealand" — a large $3.00 book, too 
expensive for popular circulation. The smaller volume 
gives all the political facts about the most progressive 
country in the world. 

The following are some of the chapters which will 
prove of especial interest to American reformers: The 
Torrens System of Title Registration ; Public Tele- 
graphs and Telephones; Postal Savings Banks; Direct 
Nominations; Questioning Candidates and Voting by 
Mail; A New Land Policy; Government Loans at Low 
Interest to Farmers, Traders and Workingmen; The 
v-^ Labor Department; The State Farm; The Factory 

Laws; The Eight-Hour Day; Industrial Arbitration; Co-operation, etc., etc. 
We wish everv reader of Watson's Magazine had a copy of 
" Politics in New Zealand." We would like to place ten thousand copies 
in the hands of new subscribers. The Magazine a year and " Politics in 
New Zealand" sent postpaid for only $1.55. Regular price of book, 
25 cents; to present subscribers and news-stand buyers, 15 cents. 

WATSON'S MAGAZINE, Book Dept.,121 W.42d St.NcwYork 

! Politics in New Zealand 



Nearly 103 years ago Thomas Jefferson, while 
** overwhelmed with other business/^ cut such pas- 
sages from the Evangelists as he believed would 
best present the ethical teachings of Jesus, and 
** arranged them on the pages of a blank book in 
a certain order of time or subject*'^ This book he 
called ^'The Philosophy of Jesus of Nazareth/* 
Before the original was turned over to the State 
Department, an accurate copy of the English text 
was made while in the possession of Col. Thomas 
Jefferson Randolph, Mr. Jefferson^s oldest grandson* From this copy was 
printed the edition now offered to our subscribers. Bound in green cloth, 
stamped in gold ; 168 pages and frontispiece. Book retails at 50 to 60 cents 
usually, but will be sent postpaid to subscribers and news-stand buyers for 35 
cents; with the Magazine \ year, special price for ninety days, $1*40. 

WATSON S MAGAZINE, Book Dept., 1 2 1 West 42cl St., New York 


A critical study of the financial history 
of the American Colonies and the United 
States down to the Civil War, by Percy 
Kinnaird, of the Nashville bar. Especially 
valuable to those who have studied the 
money question somewhat and wish to delve 
further into its history and science. Chapters 
of the ^^Bank of Venice/^ *'Bank of North 
America/^ ^^ Dartmouth College Case/' con- 
tain much information that is difficult to 
procixfe elsewhere. Bound in gray cloth; 338 pages. Book 
retails usually at LOO, but will be sent postpaid to subscribers 
and newsstand buyers for 55 cents; with the Magazine I year, 
special price for ninety days, $1.75. 

WATSON'S MAGAZINE, 121 W. 42d St, New York 


Will you let us send 
you this two-horn 


Phonograph on 
trial p 





You can save $70.15 by buying 
the Duplex Phonograph direct 
from our factory, and get an in- 
strument of sweeter tone and 
greater volume than any other 
phonograph in the world. 

A New Principle in Phonographs 

THE Duplex Phonograph has 
— two vibrating diaphragms to reproduce the sound ; 
— two horns to amplify and multiply the sound from both 
tides of both diaphragms ; 

— no tension spring and no swinp arm to cause harsh, discor- 
dant, mechanical sounds. 

Consequently, it produces a sweeter tone and a greater volume 
ol sound than any other phonograph. It is absolutely free from all 
mechanical sounds-, and we sell it direct to you at factory prices — 
on tried. 

Double Volume of Sound 

IT'S just this way : 
Wh^n you bit a tin pan with a stick, which 
aide of the tin pan gives forth the noise ( 
Why, both sides, of course. 

If you collect the waves from only one side 
of the vibrating pan, you get only half the noise. 

All right. The same thing holds uue of the dia- 
phragm of a phonograph. 

In every talking machine or phonograph made 
heretofore, one-half of the sound waves were vrasted. 
You got just one-half the sound that the diaphragm made 
— the rest was lost. 

The obvious thing to do was to collect the vibrations and get 
the sound from both sides of the diaphragm. 

The Duplex is the first and the only phonograph to do this. 

The reproducer or sound box of the Duplex has two vibrating 
diaphragms and two horm to amplify the sound from both sides 
of both diaphragms. 

With it you get all the mnsic produced — with any other you 
lose one-half. 

Compare the volume of sound produced by it with the volume 
of any other — no matter what its price — and hear for jroniself. 

Purer, Sweeter Tone 

BUT that Is only the start. 
The Duplex not only produces more tna«ie — s greater 
volume — but the tone is clearer, sweeter, purer and more 
Dearly like the original than is produced by any other mechanical 
means ever dreamed of. 

By using two diaphragms in the Duplex ""e are able to dis- 
pense entirely with all springs in the reproducer. 

The tension spring used in the old style reproducers to jerk the 
diaphragm back into position each time it vibrates, by its jerking 
pall roughens the fine wave groove in the record, and that causes 
the squeaking, squaking, harsh, metallic sound that sets yout 
teeth on edge when you hear the old style phonograph. 

In the Duplex the wave grooves of the record remain perfectly 
smooth — there is nothing to roughen them — and the 
result is an exact reproduction of the original sound. 
And the Duplex is ihe only phonograph or " talking 
machine " of any kind that does this. 
A greater volume — a sweeter tone — an exact re- 
production of the original — and that's what yoa 
want in a phonograph. 

Sold Direct From the 

WE ask the privilege of proving to you that the Duplex 
gives a double volume of music, of purer, tweeter 
tone, than any other phonograph ever made. 

We want to prove it at our expense. We ask you to let us 
send you one at our expense — under an anangement mutually 
satisfactory — -for use in your home one week. 

Invite your neighbors and musical friends to hear it. and if 
they and you do not pronounce it one hundred per cent better — in 
volume and in tone — than the best phonograph of the old style, 
return it at once at our expense. That's a fair offer, but it isn't all. 

We save you in the price exactly $70.15 — because we save 
you all the jobbers', middlemen's and dealers' profits. We sell it 
to you at actual factory price. 

Sold through dealers the Duplex 
would cost you at least $100 — and it 
would be a bargain at that. Bought di- 
rect from out factory it costs you only 

Besides, you get a seven days' trial in your own home — and 
are under no obligation to keep the Duplex if you are not satisfied 
with it. You run no risk, for you know thij advertisement could 
not appear in this magazine if we did not cany ou' every promise 
we make. 


\(^«^f A f rk.#1air ff\^ ^»f»}e\tnit» ""' *"" Pa«'culars ol our FREE trial oiTer. 
»» nie lO-Uay ror CaiOlOJ^Ue ^m i,e interested and convinced. Please a 



The Duplex Phonograph Co., l24lolt"Sokte.°'"'' 


was the radical of his day. Many of the views expressed in his letters and 
speeches would stnke a "good Republican" of today as extremely radical. 


^ith the greaU:ommoner*s views on poKtical and religious liberty, on alien immi- 
gration, on the relation of labor and capital, on the 
colonization of negroes, on free labor, on lynch law, 
on the doctrine that all men are created equal, on 
the importance of young men in politics, on popular 
sovereignty, on woman suffrage? 

All of his views are to be found in this edi- 
DRESSES," the first complete collection to be pub- 
lished in a single volume. Bound in an artistic green 
crash cloth, stamped in gold. Printed in a plain, 
readable type, on an opaque featherweight paper. 

For $1.65, sent direct to this office, we will en- 
a/A^A^-l?IfT^'"^'''"P^°'* *° WATSON'S 
F rx^^DlT^f x?^^ '"^^ ^ ^°Py °f LINCOLN'S 
paid. This handsome book and Watson's 
Magazine— both for only $1.65. Send to-day. 
Do It now. 


21 West 42cl St., New York City 






For MEN 


Fractional Sizes 
Factory Price. 


Patent Tolt 


$ delivered 

\Ve fit you perfectly and save you the 
jobber's atid retailer's profits. 'I'lie 
sole of a Reliance shoe is made of oak 
bark-tanned leather, tough and dur- 
able, and costs as much as the sole of 
any 5 6.00 shoe. Every piece of leather 
in every Reliance shoe is up to the 
same high standard. The workman- 
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on custom lasts and handsomely hn- 
ished. In wear and shape-reiainintr 
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at $3 50 equal to any if6.oo shiie made The graceful curve 
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shank properly supports the weight and gives the foot 
absolute comfort. If you'll investigate Reliance shoes, you 11 
wear no other inaki. Be fair to yourself and do it now. We 
fully satisfy you in every way or return your money. 

Write for our free stylehook and measurement blank. 
Delivered, express prepaid, 93.75. 

Reliance Shoe Company 

40 Main St., Friendship, N. Y. 


is the one historian througfh whom we get 
the point of view of the laborer, the 
mechanic, the plain man, in a style that 
is bold, strong: and unconventional. There 
is no other who traces so vividly the life 
of a people from the time they were sav- 
ages until they became the most polite 
and cultured of European nations, as he 
does in 


In two handsome volumes, dark red cloth, 
gilt tops, price $5.00. 

" It is well called a story, for it reads like a 
fascinating romance." — Plaindealer, Cleve- 

'■ A most brilliant, ^?igo^ous. human-hearted 
story this ; so broad in its sympathies, so vig- 
orous in its presentations, so vital, so piquant, 
lively and interesting. It will be read wher- 
ever the history of France interests men, 
which is everywhere." — New York limes'' 
Saturday Review. 

These books make history as readable 
as a novel of the best sort. The author 
tells the truth with fire and life, nnt only 
of events and causes, but of ihci: i,;onse- 
quences to and their influence on the 
great mass of people at large. They are 
epoch-making books which every Ameri- 
can should read and own. 


TOM WATSON'S MAGAZINE. 121 West 42d St.,. New York City. 




c is 

The Name is 
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y loop — 

The ^ ^^^ 




Sample pair. Silk .y)e., Cotton 2fic. 
Mailed on receipt of price. 

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